Belhaven University Unit 8 Ethics and Public Service Paper Write a 3-page (minimum 750 words) response to questions 1, 3, and 4 (Thinking It Over) at the e

Belhaven University Unit 8 Ethics and Public Service Paper Write a 3-page (minimum 750 words) response to questions 1, 3, and 4 (Thinking It Over) at the end of chapter 10 (Building an Ethical Agency), (The ETHICS Challenge in Public Service textbook by Lewis and Gilman). State each question and then answer respectively. Integrate the assigned biblical principles and discuss their application to the assignment.*See attachment for Book that is referenced below. Lewis, Carol W., and Stuart C.Gilman.The ETHICS Challenge in Public Service, 3rd edition. (2012)San Francisco: J. Wiley. ISBN 978-1118109861 More Praise for the Third Edition of The Ethics
Challenge in Public Service
‘‘Ethics in public service is attracting increasing interest among the public
and the media. This guide empowers practitioners facing the ethics challenge
who want to avoid media headlines.’’
—Ja?nos Berto?k, Head of Integrity Unit, OECD
‘‘The book brings a practical bent to the study and practice of ethics in the
public sector. It is comprehensive, which makes it a good reference, and it
provides practical tools, which makes it accessible.’’
—Sanjay Pradhan, vice president, World Bank Institute
‘‘This innovative study remains the authoritative source for anyone when it
comes to understanding the ethics challenge in contemporary democracy.
Lewis and Gilman’s thought-provoking book is not just extraordinarily timely
but is also absolutely essential reading.’’
—Elaine Byrne, journalist, political analyst, adjunct professor at Dublin’s
Trinity College, and former consultant on anti-corruption to the United
Nations and the World Bank
‘‘Lewis and Gilman have done it again—written a fresh and wise update of
their highly respected book.’’
—Peggy Kerns, director, Center for Ethics in Government, National
Conference of State Legislatures
The Instructor’s Guide for the third edition of The Ethics Challenge in Public Service
contains chapter-specific teaching materials, including presentations, discussion
materials, example documents, a test bank, and related teaching tools. The
Instructor’s Guide is available free online. If you would like to download
the Guide, please visit: www.wiley.com/college/lewis.
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Y
THE ETHICS CHALLENGE
IN PUBLIC SERVICE
A Problem-Solving Guide
THIRD EDITION
Carol W. Lewis
Stuart C. Gilman
Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Published by Jossey-Bass
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Lewis, Carol W. (Carol Weiss), 1946–
The ethics challenge in public service : a problem-solving guide / Carol W. Lewis, Stuart C.
Gilman.—Third edition.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-118-10986-1 (hardcover)
ISBN 978-1-118-22415-1 (ebk.)
ISBN 978-1-118-22876-0 (ebk.)
ISBN 978-1-118-22880-7 (ebk.)
1. Civil service ethics—United States. I. Gilman, Stuart. II. Title.
JK468.E7L49 2012
172 .20973—dc23
2012003200
Printed in the United States of America
THIRD EDITION
HB Printing
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
CONTENTS
Exhibits, Tables, and Figures vii
Preface
ix
Acknowledgments
The Authors
xix
xxi
Introduction: Ethics in Public Service
1
PART ONE: ETHICAL DUTIES OF PUBLIC MANAGERS
1 What Is Important in Public Service?
19
2 Obeying and Implementing the Law
46
3 Serving the Public Interest
17
63
4 Taking Individual Responsibility 90
v
vi
Contents
PART TWO: TOOLS FOR INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING 113
5 Finding Solid Ground
115
6 Resolving Ethical Dilemmas
141
7 Understanding Who and What Matters
164
PART THREE: ETHICS AND THE ORGANIZATION
8 Designing and Implementing Codes
9 Broadening the Horizon
191
225
10 Building an Ethical Agency
Afterword: The Job Ahead
189
247
277
Resource A: Glossary 285
Resource B: Rules of Thumb—A Summary of Arguments
and Recommendations 295
References
299
Name Index 323
Subject Index
327
EXHIBITS, TABLES, AND FIGURES
EXHIBITS
I.1
1.1
2.1
2.2
3.1
3.2
3.3
4.1
4.2
5.1
5.2
5.3
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
Would I? Should I? 6
D + P + E = Iii 39
Always Ready 48
Using the Go/No-Go Decision Model 60
Pursue the Public Interest 66
Tenet 7 of the International City/County Management Association’s
Code of Ethics in Action 76
Audit Decisions Against Four Standards 85
Lessons from Abu Ghraib 92
Getting the Facts 102
How Do I Make Ethical Choices? 117
Tough Call 119
Ethical Traditions 123
Decision-Making Checklist 145
Doing Public Service 151
Rank Responsibilities 152
Use Threshold Test 153
Ethics Responsibility Statement 159
vii
viii
Exhibits, Tables, and Figures
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
8.1
8.2
8.3
9.1
9.2
10.1
10.2
Stakeholder Diagnostic 169
Creatively Lead 176
Drawing the Line 178
Before You Blow the Whistle 184
No Code Violation, But Is It Ethical? 199
Workable and Effective Standards of Conduct 202
Ethics, Duty, and Freedom of Speech 210
Great Britain’s Seven Principles of Public Life 232
OECD’s Ethics Checklist 235
Arrogance in the Public Interest 249
Techniques for Integrating Ethics into Agency Operations 259
TABLES
5.1
5.2
Touching Six Bases 128
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development 132
FIGURES
P.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.1
4.1
5.1
5.2
6.1
6.2
6.3
7.1
7.2
7.3
8.1
9.1
9.2
10.1
Organization of the Ethics Challenge in Public Service xiv
Public Trust in Government, 1958–2010 22
Core Values and Action Principles 29
Ethics Imposed 31
Role Diagnosis 35
Go/No-Go Decision Model 59
No Evading Individual Responsibility 99
Ethics GPS 118
Storyboard for ‘‘A Matter of Convenience’’ 139
Abbreviated Decision-Making Model 145
Influences on Moral Judgment 147
Ethics Positioning Map 148
Seek Inclusion 166
Sidelined 170
Connect the Dots 175
A Code Should Be Understandable 193
Drivers Toward Integrity and Corruption 233
Increase in the Use of Financial Disclosure in OECD Countries
Process for an Ethics Impact Statement 264
238
PREFACE
W
e wrote this third edition of The Ethics Challenge in Public Service with
optimism and confidence. We are optimistic that the fires in the United
States and abroad that rage today against the public sector and its many millions
of public servants will subside. We are optimistic as well that the insistent
ideological and partisan claims that fan the flames will calm. Our confidence
stems from our profound appreciation for public servants’ contributions to our
society and our democracy. We hope that you, the reader, will understand and
even come to share these feelings with us.
As we wrote, we found ourselves captivated by the many remarkable
incidents and changes in public service since the previous edition in 2005. The
litany includes the rise of social media and e-government; the intense pressures
of a deep recession; the fissures of a divided and insistent electorate and their
uncompromising elected leaders; demographic changes; natural catastrophes;
ill-considered risk assessments biased by greed on a grand scale; the widespread
recognition of pressing needs for collaboration; and the global availability
of information (and disinformation) through the Internet. These and other
developments challenge our increasingly complex, interdependent, and fragile
public life. Research findings in the cognitive sciences, neuroscience, genetics,
and economics challenge several of our long-held but wrong-headed beliefs about
human motivation, human morality, and even what being human means.
ix
x
Preface
In his ‘‘Metamorphoses,’’ Ovid tells us, ‘‘Omnia mutantu’’ (everything changes).
This all-too-human fascination with change is countered by the adage, ‘‘Plus c?a
change, plus c’est la me?me chose’’ (the more things change, the more they stay the
same). Some fundamentals, such as our inborn human nature, surely have not
changed even over several millennia. So we decided to follow the ancient Greeks,
aim at a balanced view, and highlight continuities as well as change.
As in the earlier editions, this book’s subject is managing in—not moralizing about—public service today. It is written for professional managers in
government and nonprofit agencies, where unprecedented demands for ethical
judgment and decisive action resound at increasingly higher decibel levels. It is
also written for those who work with public agencies and for public purposes.
Again we encounter low ethics in high places. Scandals rock boardrooms,
bedrooms, Wall Street, and Main Street. Political leaders are outed for ethical
violations, along with their counterparts in just about every walk of life. A pervasive public disillusionment and loss of confidence touch political, economic, and
even religious leaders and institutions.
Is behavior today better or worse than in the past? Is there more corruption
in government and society generally? Is moral character—that ingrained sense
of right and wrong—a thing of the past? There really is no evidence either
way, except through anecdotes, media images, and public opinion polls. More
important (and the reason these questions are not confronted with evidence
and argument in this book) is that the answers are intellectually interesting but
practically irrelevant to managers in public service. First, we depend on the moral
character of public managers and employees. Whole administrative systems in
the United States and around the globe are built on this foundation. Second,
to work at all, public managers must work with what is here now. Nostalgia
contributes nothing to daily operations; it solves no ethical problems on the job.
We argue that public service attracts a special breed and that the majority
of the many millions of practicing and aspiring public managers and employees
are well intentioned and bring good moral character to public service. It is the
job itself—the ambiguous, complex, pressured world of public service—that
presents special problems for ethical people who want to do the right thing.
We offer some examples to make our point. Ethical issues involve information
in a public setting where public disclosure and transparency vie with concerns
over confidentiality and privacy; expert analysis sometimes slips into outright
advocacy. Assessing and communicating risk were critical in the unfolding
nuclear emergency following the earthquake and tsunami in Japan in 2011 and
the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Social media and global banking reach
across political boundaries and environmental challenges, and natural disasters
respect no barriers at all. A final example is diversity—in the workplace, among
Preface
xi
service recipients, and in the general population. Professional managers need
to overcome cultural and linguistic barriers and appreciate cultural differences
rather than fear them. Practical managers know how to work with and for people
of different backgrounds, and ethical managers know why they should.
Best practices address the public workplace directly by helping to reinforce
moral character and engage adults in a dialogue about ethics where it counts.
And count it does, for supervisors, subordinates, colleagues, citizens, taxpayers,
people around the world, and generations to come.
Our Approach to the Challenge
Given our purpose of promoting ethical practice and assisting ethical managers
in making ethical decisions, we aim at ethical literacy. We provide the ideas
and vocabulary needed to raise and address ethical concerns in a professional
setting in a professional way. This book is meant to be a shortcut through
a maze of information and perspectives. We chose issues according to our
assessment of their current and future managerial impact rather than academic
coinage or strict philosophical import.
Our method is, first, to link good character with the particular ranking of
values and principles that distinguishes public from personal ethics. Respect for
individuals’ feelings and informed judgments pervade our arguments. The same
approach obligates us to provide readers with some explanations of inclusions,
omissions, emphases, and biases. We argue that the dominant values and
guiding principles in public ethics are different from personal ethics: the public’s
expectations are higher, and the burdens are heavier.
Second, we provide practical tools and techniques for resolving workaday
dilemmas at the individual and agency levels. Third, our purpose is to help ethical
managers structure the work environment so that it fosters ethical behavior and
eases the transition of good intentions into meaningful action in the agency.
Experiential learning tunes up sensitivity to ethical challenges and polishes
the skills needed to resolve them ethically and practically. This book’s cases
at the ends of the chapters showcase common problems and are test runs
in applied problem solving. They allow readers to practice in private (and at
no public cost) until, following Aristotle, ethics becomes a habit. The cases
exercise the two-step by requiring informed, systematic reasoning, followed by
simulated action. The open-ended questions that follow them encourage analysis,
and more pointed questions force decision making. Some resolutions depend
on empathy and imagination. Cases work best when readers alter decision
premises and circumstances to double-check ethical judgments or reconcile
xii
Preface
different philosophical perspectives. The cases, like the book itself, are driven
by democratic processes, for which accommodation is the vehicle and tolerance
the grease.
Anecdotes and stories help us make sense of things. Throughout human
history, we have relied on stories (parables, allegories, fables, and myths) to
communicate visions of the ideal and our distance from it. These stories often
suggest alternatives to the status quo. These stories arouse feelings, demand
thought, and inspire understanding of ethics in public service.
Winston Churchill, the great British leader who shepherded his besieged
country through the blitzkrieg of World War II, told the world, ‘‘The farther back
you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see.’’ We draw on history for
this purpose. Likewise, we use a comparative framework to stretch beyond our
own political boundaries for best practices and important lessons. Why repeat
mistakes that we can avoid? Why ignore valuable insights just because they need
translation or adaptation? Efficiency is on the list of important values today, but
surely parochialism is not.
A touch of humor here and there helps learning by reducing the tension that
is unavoidable when we confront hard questions and tough choices. Humor need
not trivialize the serious; rather, it helps us face serious issues head-on. Similarly,
popular culture and graphics help us connect to these issues, and we suggest
films, videos, and literature in this spirit. We offer additional resources—cases,
illustrations, photos, explanations, and more—on the book’s Web site. A symbol
(
) tags these Web site resources.
Our multidisciplinary perspective draws on philosophy, genetics, sociology,
political science, economics, public administration, business management, history, cognitive and developmental psychology, and other disciplines. Figure 6.2
lays out the many resources from which we draw. We incorporate normative and
empirical approaches, along with a variety of theories and academic disciplines.
We consider factors that are independent of context and other factors with a
social or situational focus. We shift the unit of analysis among the several possibilities: the individual, the organization, and the community or jurisdiction. We
agree with other scholars (such Frederickson and Ghere, 2005; Menzel, 2005)
that public sector ethics is a vibrant and intellectually rich field.
No book of reasonable length includes everything. We do not deal in any
detail with the very important topics of ethics in public policy, electoral ethics,
legislative ethics, judicial ethics, and some other major topics. Although these are
important to the environment in which professional managers find themselves,
they do not directly show up on their desks or in the inbox.
Preface
xiii
Although this edition, like the earlier ones, is designed for individual reading
as well as for use in training and academic settings, this edition differs from the
previous one in several major ways. First, many cases, figures, and exhibits are
new, and we updated a great deal of the data and many vignettes. We include
recent experiences in the United States and around the rest of the world. Just
one example of where this took us is the more dynamic and thick description of
the public sector as a web rather than as a dichotomy. Many new figures visually
represent textual material, and we hope that the three-dimensional images
and concept maps in particular help readers engage the material. Second, this
edition stresses the nonrational aspects of decision making and recent research in
different disciplines. This research has profoundly influenced our understanding
of moral choice, moral judgment, and moral reasoning. Third, a lot of the
substantive and illustrative content is on the companion Web site; although most
of this is new material, we have retained some of the exhibits and cases from the
previous edition for users who have come to rely on them. Fiction, films, URLs,
classic documents, and suggestions for in-depth reading are listed at the end of
each chapter as ‘‘Additional Resources for Each Chapter.’’ Fourth, we added a
glossary (Resource A) and end-of-chapter questions as learning tools. These can
be adapted as discussion or review questions in training programs or classroom
settings or used to stimulate reflection by individual readers. The instructor’s site
includes PowerPoints and examination or review questions. Fifth, and taking a
cue from our discussion of diversity in Chapter Ten and the far-flung reach of
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