ENSC 1420 UOIW CH5 Calculating the Diversity using Shannons Index Lab 7 complete each attachment. Please Complete chapter 5 before midnight. If you have an

ENSC 1420 UOIW CH5 Calculating the Diversity using Shannons Index Lab 7 complete each attachment. Please Complete chapter 5 before midnight. If you have any question, feel free to contact me Ch.13.1-.4 Assignment
Instructions: Answer each question completely using the task verb. Make sure you give the
correct number of answers, numbering them helps me spot them. Highlight or use a different
color for you answers.
Ch.13.1 Section Review Questions:
1. Define:
a. restoration (strict and broad sense)
b. rehabilitation
c. intervention
d. reallocation
e. remediation
f. reclamation
g. re-creation
h. mitigation
2. Describe five common components of restoration projects.
3. What species was the main restoration focus on Nonsuch Island in Bermuda?
Ch.13.2 Section Review Questions:
1. What is a prescribed fire?
2a. what are oak savannas?
2b. Why are they difficult to restore?
3. Why are giant sequoias now threatened by fire?
Ch.13.3 Section Review Questions:
1. Why are fires essential for prairies?
2. Where did prairies exist in North America before European settlement?
3. Why are bison beneficial for prairies?
Ch.13.4 Section Review Questions:
1. Why is wetland restoration important?
2. What is wetland mitigation?
3. What is bioremediation?
Ch.15.1-.3 Assignment
Instructions: Answer each question completely using the task verb. Make sure you give the
correct number of answers, numbering them helps me spot them. Highlight or use a different
color for you answers.
Ch.15.1 Section Review Questions:
1a. Describe the troposphere.
1b. Describe the stratosphere.
2a. What is albedo?
2b. Why is it important?
3a. Explain the idea of a greenhouse gas.
3b. List four greenhouse gases.
4. What is latent heat?
Ch.15.2 Section Review Questions:
1. Why does it rain?
2a. What is the Coriolis effect?
2b. How might it cause trade winds?
3a. Describe a monsoon.
3b. Describe a cold front.
3c. Describe a warm front.
4. What is a cyclonic storm?
Ch.15.3 Section Review Questions:
1. What are three Milankovitch cycles?
2. How might past climate be reconstructed from ice cores?
3. How do ocean and atmosphere interact in El Nino cycles?
Name ___________________________________________
Class: 9am/12pm
ENSC 1420 Lab 7A Calculating the Diversity using Shannon’s Index
Overview: Shannon’s index is often used by environmental scientists to compare diversity of ecosystems and quantify species
evenness and species richness. To calculate this index, we must know the total number of species in a community (n) and the
proportion of individuals within each species (pi). Shannon’s index is represented by H. the higher the H value, the higher the diversity
of the community. Shannon’s index is represented in the equation below.
Other Shannon measurements include “S” which is the number of species present (species richness) in the sample, and E which is the
species evenness. If the E value is 1, the species are equally present in the habitat. The formula to find E is: E = H ÷ ln(S).
Materials:
2 Dixie Cups of snack mix (mix should be made up of at least 5 components)
Plates or paper towels
Calculator
Procedure:
1. Obtain two cups of trail mix.
2. Label one cup “community A” and the second cup “community B”.
3. Assume each component of the snack mix is a different species. Identify and record the types (name them) and numbers of
each species in your data table. It is up to you whether to count all M&Ms as one species or separate by color.(same with
Chex squares)
4. Complete your counts for each community.
5. Using the data tables as a guide, complete the calculations to determine the H values for each community. Math is at the
top of the column.
You may use my pictures or do your own sampling.
.
Community A
Community B
On your cell phone, if you go to calculator
and then turn it sideways you will see this.
Notice the button ln, this is what you use on
the 3rd column calculation and also for the
analysis section.
Community A
Species
Number of
species in
sample (i)
Total Number of
organisms
(n)=___
Pi
Pi = i÷n
(Number of specific
species ÷ total number
of species)
ln (Pi )
Should add up to 1.0
Pi × ln (Pi )
H = _____
(add this column
and remove the -)
Community B
Species
Number of that
species in
sample (i)
Total Number of
organisms
(n)=_____
Pi
Pi = i÷n
(Number of specific
species ÷ total number
of species)
Should add up to 1.0
ln (Pi )
Pi × ln (Pi )
H = _____
(add this column
and remove the -)
Analysis:
1.
After determining the H value for each community, which one is most diverse?
2.
Determine the species richness and species evenness for each community.
Species Richness (S)
Number of different species found
in your community
Species Evenness (E)
Using your calculator,
calculate the ln(S) first .
Then take H / ln(S).
E = H ÷ ln(S)
Community A
Community B
3.
Considering all three Shannon measurements (H, S, and E). Which community is most diverse? Explain your reasoning.
4.
What are two advantages to using the Shannon Index rather than simply using an overall population count?
5. What are two disadvantages of using the Shannon Index?
ENSC1410 Lab 7B Oh, What a Tangled Web We Weave
Background:
Plants use light energy of the sun to make food. The food is stored in the cells of the plant. Plants are called producers because they
make food. Some of the stored energy in the food plants make is passed on to the animals that eat the plants. Plant-eating animals
are called primary consumers. Animals that eat other animals are called secondary consumers.
The pathway that food takes through an ecosystem is called a food chain. A food chain also shows the movement of energy from
plants to plant eaters and then to animal eaters. An example of a food chain can be written:
seeds ? sparrow ? hawk
Some of the food energy in the seeds moves to the sparrow that eats them. Some of the food energy then moves to the hawk that eats
the sparrow. Normally, only about 10% of the energy produced by the “food” moves to the consumer. Most of the other energy is used
to keep the organism alive and allow it to reproduce.
Because a hawk eats animals other than sparrows, you could make a food chain for each animal the hawk eats. If all the food chains
were connected, the result is a food web. A food web is a group of connected food chains. A food web shows many energy
relationships.
Materials:
?
?
Colored pencils (red, blue, green, and yellow)
Set of “organisms”
Procedure:
Part A. Examining Food Chains
1. Study the food chains listed below and at the top of the next page.
2. Complete the table on the next page. Checkmark or “X” all the things that each animal listed on the left side eats.
plant parts ? rabbit ? hawk
plant parts ? cricket ? robin ? fox
plant parts ? sparrow ? hawk
plant parts ? earthworm ? snake ? hawk ? fox
plant parts ? rabbit ? fox
plant parts ? small insects ? mouse ? owl
plant parts ? mouse ? fox
plant parts ? rabbit ? owl ? fox
plant parts ? earthworm ? robin ? snake
plant parts ? cricket ? mouse ? hawk
plant parts ? raccoon ? fox
plant parts ? mouse ? snake ? owl
plant parts ? rabbit ? snake
Food in an Ecosystem
Animals in a
Forest
Ecosystem
Living Things, the Forest Animals Eat
C
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c
k
e
t
E
a
r
t
h
w
o
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H
a
w
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l
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a
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R
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B
b
i
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n
S
n
a
k
e
S
p
a
r
r
o
w
Cricket
Earthworm
Fox
Hawk
Insects
(small)
Land snail
Mouse
Owl
Rabbit
Raccoon
Robin
Snake
Sparrow
Part B: Making a Food Web
3. Use the information in the food chains given to complete the diagram on the next page. All living organisms
can only be added once, but many arrows can point to the organism or come from the organism. Draw an
arrow from each living thing below to each thing that eats it. The first arrow in any food chain (between
producer and primary consumer) should be green, the second (between primary consumer and secondary
consumer) should be blue, the third (between secondary and tertiary consumer) should be red, and the
fourth should be yellow. Also, draw your lines so they bend around the animal names. This will make your
food web easier to read when you finish.
4. Once you have designed your food web. Using your notes app scan the food web and email it to yourself.
Copy the picture onto the lab page labeled Food Web.
Food Web
Analysis Questions:
1. In how many food chains do the following animals appear?
hawk _____
earthworm _____
owl _____
snake _____
fox _____
small insects _____
2. In how many food chains do plants (parts) appear?
3. List the names of the living things in this forest ecosystem that are producers.
4. List those things that are only primary consumers.
5. What is another name for an animal that is only a primary consumer?
6. List those things that are only secondary consumers.
7. What is another name for an animal that is only a secondary consumer?
8. List the consumers that eat both plants and animals.
9. What is another name for an animal that eats both plants and animals?
10. What would happen to the food web if all the plants were removed? Explain your answer.
11. Describe how 3 animals might be affected if owls were removed from the food chain.
12. Draw three food chains showing producers and consumers that you might see in your backyard or on your
way to school. (You may use words or drawings.)
13. Since only 10% of the energy produced by a level in a food chain is passed on to its predator, there have to
be many more “prey” than “predators”. Draw an ecological pyramid of the first food chain listed in Part A.
Remember that there are more producers than primary consumers, more primary consumers, and
secondary consumers, etc.
14. If 2000 kcal of energy are available in grass, how much energy would be available to the cow that eats the
grass? To the human that eats the cow.
15. Which organism in this food web has the greatest influence on the ecosystem? Justify your answer.
ENSC 1410 Lab 6 Virtual Meteorology 101
Complete the following questions. Highlight or use a different color for your answers.
Weather and climate are the two major abiotic (nonliving) factors responsible for determining the major geographic
ecosystems called biomes.
1. Search the web and give a definition of weather:
2. Search the web and give a definition of climate:
Climate is closely associated with the seasons, but do you know what causes the seasons? Log on to the website below.

After watching the video,
3. Describe what causes the earth’s seasons.
4. Give examples of the earth’s position to the sun in December vs. June and compare the northern and
southern hemispheres.
5. For starters, which way does the earth spin? Do you know? Click on the link below to find out.

What is the Coriolis Effect? For general information, log on to the website below. Read the background information, watch
the short video of the merry-go-round at the bottom and then answer the questions below.
Coriolis Part 1 http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/crls.rxml
6. What is the Coriolis Effect?
7. Which way does the Coriolis Effect bend the winds in the Northern Hemisphere?
8. Which way does the Coriolis Effect bend the winds in the Southern Hemisphere?
9. What factors determine how much the winds bend?
Click on the link below and watch the winds bend. Coriolis Part 2
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es1905/es1905page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualiz
ation
10. Which hemisphere is shown, and which way are the winds bending?
Some people say that water goes down the toilet counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the Southern
Hemisphere, and straight down at the equator, due to the Coriolis Effect. Click on the link below to find out if this is true and
answer the questions below.
Coriolis – Snopes http://www.snopes.com/science/coriolis.asp
11. Do winds blow faster or slower in Florida compared to the equator? Explain why.
12. Which way do hurricanes and tornadoes spin in the Northern Hemisphere?
1
13. If you shoot a cannon from the equator pointing toward the North Pole, which way would the cannon ball
appear to be deflected?
14. Does the Coriolis Effect cause water in the toilet to spin in opposite directions in the Northern vs. the
Southern Hemispheres? Explain.
The Rain Shadow Effect also plays a major role in climate formation. Clink on the link below to learn about the Rain
Shadow Effect. Be sure to read the Introduction. Then, click on the Animation and choose “narrated” at the bottom. Then,
read the conclusion and see how you do on the practice quiz. Once you have done that, answer the questions below.
https://youtu.be/2O0D-Rn4Cmw
15. Does North America receive most of its winds from the Northeast Trades, the Southeast Trades, or from the
Westerlies?
16. Which way do these winds blow?
17. What is the definition of a rain shadow?
18. What happens to the temperature of rising air?
19. Does rising air expand or contract?
20. Which holds more water, warm air or cool air?
21. What happens to the water vapor in the air when it cools at high altitudes?
22. What happens to the temperature of falling air?
In the Northern Hemisphere, warm air moves up from the Gulf of Mexico while cold air moves down from the Arctic and
Canada. Because the Coriolis Effect bends the winds from west to east, we, here in Texas, get most of our weather from
the Gulf of Mexico or coming down from the North West through Colorado, down through New Mexico and then to Texas.
Remember that the Rocky Mountains run through New Mexico all the way up to Canada.
When warm and cold air meet, fronts form. Click on the links below to learn about cold fronts and warm fronts. It will tell
you about cold fronts 1st. Be sure to then click on warm fronts to learn about them.
Answer the questions below. http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/af/frnts/cfrnt/def.rxml ;
http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/af/frnts/wfrnt/def.rxml
23. What is a cold front?
24. Which way do cold fronts generally move?
25. How are cold fronts represented on a weather map?
26. What happens to the temperature when a cold front moves through?
27. Will it rain when a cold front moves through?
28. What is a warm front?
2
29. Which way does it move?
30. How are warm fronts represented on a weather map?
31. What happens to the weather when a warm front moves through?
Now, click on the animation below to watch cold and warm fronts moving through. Answer the following questions.
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es2002/es2002page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualiz
ation
32. When a cold front meets warm air, does the cold air move over or under the warm air that is already there?
33. What happens to the warm air?
34. What happens to air temperature when it rises?
35. Based on your answer to the question above, will clouds form? _______ Might you get rain? ________
36. From the animation, what type of clouds usually form when a cold front moves through? ______________
37. Will the temperature change be slow or quick when a cold front moves through? _____________________
38. When a warm front meets cold air, does the warm air go over the cooler air, or does it go under? _______
39. What happens to air temperature when it rises? _________________________________________________
40. Based on your answer to the question above, will clouds form when a warm front moves through? ______
41. Based on the animation, what type of clouds form when a warm front moves through? ________________
42. Which holds more water, warm air or cold air? ______________
43. Do you think it usually rains more when a cold front moves through or when a warm front moves through?
________________________________
The diagrams below do a good job of visually summarizing the difference between cold fronts and warm fronts.
3
Cold air is more compressed than warm air and is
therefore denser. Thus, cold air falls down toward the
earth, pressing down on the earth to create zones of high
pressure. High pressure zones are represented by H on
the weather map. Since the air in a high-pressure zone is
falling down toward the earth, it generally warms up and
dries out. Thus, high pressure zones are generally
associated with DRY, but not necessarily hot weather.
Cold fronts are considered to be High Pressure Zones.
Warm air expands and is less dense than cold air. Warm
air also holds more water than cold air. When warm air
rises, it moves away from the earth’s surface, so there is
less pressure pushing on the earth. Low pressure zones
are represented by L on the weather map. Low pressure
zones are usually associated with rainy weather.
Click on the National Weather Map below to see today’s
weather across North America.
http://www.weather.gov/outlook_tab.php
44. Describe your general observations from the weather map today.
4
Ch.5.1-.4 Assignment
Instructions: Answer each question completely using the task verb. Make sure you give the correct number
of answers, numbering them helps me spot them. Highlight or use a different color for you answers.
Ch.5.1 Section Review Questions:
1. A grassland biome occupies much of the center of North America. Why is this, in terms of environmental
factors?
2a. What is taiga?
2b. Where is the taiga found?
2c. Why might taiga be slower to recover from logging than southern forests?
3. Why are tropical moist forests often less suited for agriculture and human occupation than tropical
deciduous forests?
4a. Find out the annual temperature and precipitation conditions where you live (fig.5.2).
4b. Which biome type do you occupy?
Ch.5.2 Section Review Questions:
1. How do physical conditions change with depth in marine environments?
2. Describe four different coastal ecosystems
3. What is coral bleaching?
Ch.5.3 Section Review Questions:
1. Describe four different kinds of wetlands.
2. Why are wetlands sites of high biodiversity and productivity?
Ch.5.4 Section Review Questions:
1a. What percentage of temperate grasslands and forests are disturbed (table 5.1)?
1b. Why?
2. What is one reason for the clearing of tropical coastal mangroves?
3. How have temperate wetlands in the United States been lost?
Ch.4.1-.4 Assignment
Instructions: Answer each question completely using the task verb. Make sure you give the
correct number of answers, numbering them helps me spot them. Highlight or use a different
color for you answers.
Ch.4.1 Section Review Questions:
1. Explain how tolerance limits to environmental factors determine distribution of a highly
specialized species such as the saguaro cactus.
2. Describe how evolution produces species diversity.
3a. Define selective pressure.
3b. Describe how it affects species.
Ch.4.2 Section Review Questions:
1. The most intense interactions often occur between individuals of the same species. What
concept discussed in the chapter can be used to explain this phenomenon?
2. Explain how predators affect the adaptations of their prey.
3. Describe how competition for a limited quantity of resources occurs in ecosystems.
Ch.4.3 Section Review Questions:
1. Which ecosystems have the greatest biological productivity?
2a. What are resilience?
2b. What is stability?
3. What are ecological edge effects?
Ch.4.4 Section Review Questions:
1. Describe the process of succession that occurs after a forest fire destroys an existing
biological community.
2. Discuss the dangers posed to existing community members when new species are
introduced into ecosystems.

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