EL 118 Arab Open University Local Exchange Systems & Sustainability Exam With complete answer Take Home Exam for Final Assignment 2019-2020/Summer EL118: R

EL 118 Arab Open University Local Exchange Systems & Sustainability Exam With complete answer Take Home Exam for Final Assignment 2019-2020/Summer
EL118: Reading Comprehension
Cut-Off Date : 20th July , 2020
Cut off Time :22nd July, 2020
Total Marks
Duration
: 50
:
Contents:
Warnings and Declaration…………………………………………………………….……………………………………………… 1
Question1
………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………..…. 2
Question2
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Question3
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Plagiarism Warning:
As per AOU rules and regulations, all students are required to submit their own THE-Final work and avoid
plagiarism. The AOU has implemented sophisticated techniques for plagiarism detection. You will be penalized for
any act of plagiarism as per the AOU’s rules and regulations.
Declaration of No Plagiarism by Student (to be signed and submitted by student with THE-Final work):
I hereby declare that this submitted THE-Final work is a result of my own efforts and I have not
plagiarized any other person’s work.
Name of Student
:
…………………………………………………..
Signature
:
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Date
:
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EL118
2019-2020/Summer
Page 1 of 12
Instructions:
There are THREE sections in this exam paper:
You are required to answer ALL the sections.
1. In section 1, read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow by applying the learned
skills for reading compression.
2. Section 2, Write a reflection essay (400 words). Start with an introduction, develop well-written body
paragraphs, and end with a conclusion. After you finish writing your essay, edit and proofread it paying
attention to grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
3. In section 3, use the given five words in any form of their derivations as presented in the given tables to write a
paragraph (50 words) on a topic of your choice.
Question Number
Section I: Reading Comprehension
Section II: Reflection Essay
Section III: Vocabulary
Total in Figures
Total in Letters
Mark
allocated (per
question)
15
20
15
50
Fifty Marks
Earned
Mark
Marker’s Initials &
Signature
Tutor’s remarks on language and content:
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Section
1
Reading Comprehension
15 POINTS
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it:
We are told that economy is growing and that such growth benefits all of us. However,
what you see is not what you always get. Most people are experiencing declining economic
security in response to the problems of the global system. Thus, many communities have turned
to Local Exchange Systems (LESs) to help regain some control over their economic situations.
Local exchange systems (LESs) come in many forms. They often involve the creation of
a local currency, or a system of bartering labour, or trading of agricultural products as a means of
supporting the region in which they are traded. Such a system helps preserve the viability of
local economies. Local currencies allow communities to diversify their economies, reinvest
resources back into their region and reduce dependence on the highly concentrated and unstable
global economy. Each local currency system serves as an exchange bank for skills and resources
that individuals in the community are willing to trade. Whether in the form of paper money,
service credits, or other units, a local currency facilitates the exchange of services and resources
among the members of a community.
By providing incentives for local trade, communities help their small businesses and
reduce under-employment by providing the jobs within the community. In addition, the local
exchange of food and seeds promotes environmental conservation and community food security.
Local food production reduces wasteful transportation and promotes self-reliance and genetic
diversity. Each transaction within a local exchange system strengthens the community fabric as
neighbours interact and meet one another.
There are over 1,000 local exchange programs worldwide more than 30 local paper
currencies in North America and at least 800 Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS)
throughout Europe. New Zealand and Australia Local Exchange Systems vary and evolve in
accordance with the needs and circumstances of the local area. This diversity is critical to the
success of the local currencies. For instance, a bank in rural Massachusetts refused to lend a
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2019-2020/Summer
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farmer the money needed to make it through the winter. In response, the farmer decided to print
his own money Berkshire Farm Preserve Notes. In winter, customers buy the notes for $9 and
they may redeem them in the summer for $10 worth of vegetables. The system enabled the
community to help a farm family after being abandoned by the centralised monetary system. As
small family farms continue to disappear at an alarming rate, local currencies provide tools for
communities to bind together, support their local food growers and maintain their local food
suppliers.
Local Exchange Systems are not limited to developed countries. Rural areas of Asia,
Latin America and Africa have offered some of the most effective and important programs, by
adopting agriculture-based systems of exchange rather than monetary ones in order to preserve
genetic diversity, economic security and independence.
Industrial seed and chemical companies have a similar role. Many villages have
developed seed saving exchange banks. For example, women in Ladakh village have begun to
collect and exchange rare seeds selected for their ability to grow in a harsh mountain climate.
This exchange system protects agriculture diversity while promoting self-reliance.
There is no one blueprint for a local exchange system, which is exactly why they are
successful vehicles for localisation and sustainability. They promote local economic diversity
and regional self-reliance while responding to a region’s specific needs. Local exchange systems
play a pivotal role in creating models for sustainable societies. They are an effective educational
too, raising awareness about the global financial system and local economic matters. Local
exchange systems also demonstrate that tangible, creative solutions exist and that communities
can empower themselves to address global problems.
1. Which of the following can be a suitable title for the passage? (1 point)
(a) Reasons LES must rule over the regular currency
(b) Methods to escape global economic issues
(c) Dependence of Asian countries on LES
(d) Role of LES in development of communities
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(e) LES – A Futile Exercise
2. Which of the following is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word
REGAIN as used in the passage? (1 point)
(a) recover
(b) restart
(c) forfeit
(d) revalue
(e) liberate
3. Which of the following is the most appropriate definition of the word VIABILITY
as used in the passage? (1 point)
(a) The act of causing worry and fear.
(b) The ability to continue or be continued for a long time.
(c) The thing that can be clearly seen to exist or can be touched and felt.
(d) The fact that something can be done and can be successful.
(e) The act of withdrawing support or help.
4. Which of the following is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word BIND
as used in the passage? (1 point)
(a) visionless
(b) separate
(c) associate
(d) loosen
(e) reunite
5. As mentioned in the passage, there is no set design to initiate local exchange systems
as ___________. (1 point)
(a) they tend to work well only in select countries
(b) they are region specific
(c) They are too complicated to understand
6. As mentioned in the passage, local currencies can prove to be beneficial for the
community as they ___________. (1 point)
(a) assist in creating job opportunities
(b) indirectly help in conserving the environment.
(c) aid in minimising reliance on global economy.
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(d) all of the above
7. Which of the following is SAME in meaning as the word LIMITED TO as used in
the passage? (1 point)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
restricted to
extending beyond
validated for
adjusted
custodial
8. Which of the following is the most appropriate definition of the word
SUSTAINABILITY as used in the passage? (1 point)
(a) The act of causing worry and fear.
(b) The ability to continue or be continued for a long time.
(c) The thing that can be clearly seen to exist or can be touched and felt.
(d) The fact that something can be done and can be successful.
(e) The act of withdrawing support or help.
9. Which of the following is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word
PIVOTAL as used in the passage? (1 point)
(a) essential
(b) unnourished
(c) healthy
(d) overriding
(e) trivial
10. Decide if each of the following statements is true or false as per the context of the
given article justifying your answer with evidence from the text.
(4 points)
(a) LES work well only in countries whose economies are based primarily on agriculture.
( )
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(b) LES increase unhealthy competition between communities from different regions. ( )
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_____________________________________________________________________
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(c) LESs encourage communities to become self-supporting. ( )
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(d) LESs are restricted to trading with paper money only. ( )
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11. Which of the following is the meaning of the phrase ‘what you see is not what you
always get’ as mentioned in the passage with respect to the present economic
situation? (1 point)
(a) Sharing information without hiding facts.
(b) Being pessimistic while presenting information.
(c) Modifying information after taking consent from every stakeholder.
(d) Waiting to share positive information.
(e) What is presented may not necessarily be true.
12. As mentioned in the passage, the statistics with respect to LES highlight
that__________. (1 point)
(a) very few countries are aware about such programmes
(b) they face more resistance from, developed countries than developing ones.
(c) they are becoming popular among communities across the globe.
(d) they lack support of farmers.
(e) the gap between the rich and the poor is increasing.
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Section
2
Reflection Essay
20 POINTS
The global economy has suffered a significant slowdown amid prolonged trade
disputes and wide-ranging policy uncertainties. In a four-paragraph essay (400
words) describe the current economic situation and discuss some creative solutions
taken by different countries to enhance and prime their economy.
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EL118
2019-2020/Summer
Page 9 of 12
Section
3
Vocabulary
15 POINTS
1. Use the following five words in any form of their derivations to write a paragraph
(50 words) on a topic of your choice.
(7.5 points)
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EL118
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2. Use the following five words in any form of their derivations to write a paragraph
(50 words) on a topic of your choice.
(7.5 points)
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EL118
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Page 11 of 12
EL118 Marking Rubric
• Essay includes an introduction which:
1. Captures the reader’s attention
2. Provides background knowledge
3. Includes a clear thesis statement stating what the body
paragraphs describe
Each body paragraph describes one aspect of the chosen topic and
begins with a topic sentence that develops one main idea.
• Topic sentence is followed by supporting sentences that
give more information about the topic sentenc…
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