Dalhousie University Multimedia Slideshow Speech Delivery Discussion 1 How is the 6×6 rule applied in preparing bulleted points in a multimedia slideshow?2

Dalhousie University Multimedia Slideshow Speech Delivery Discussion 1 How is the 6×6 rule applied in preparing bulleted points in a multimedia slideshow?2 Why should speakers deliver the first sentence from memory?3 What are the advantages of speaking extemporaneously during your presentation? Refer to page 242 – 8.4 for your question related to Chapter 8 – Positive Messages Neutral and Positive Messages
Channels for
positive messages
The writing
Direct messages
Direct claims and
voice complaints
Adjustment messages
Goodwill messages
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Neutral and Positive Messages—
The Writing Process: Phase 1
Identify your purpose.
Visualize the receiver.
Predict the receiver’s reaction.
Consider ways to adapt
your message to achieve your
goal and save the reader time.
• Consider the channel
to use.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Positive Messages and
the Writing Process: Phase 2
• Collect information.
• Choose the most effective
pattern of organization.
• Compose the first draft.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Positive Messages and
the Writing Process: Phase 3
• Revise for clarity and
• Proofread for correctness.
• Decide whether this
message will provide
feedback and achieve its
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Understanding Business Letters
Business letters
• Go to suppliers, government agencies,
other businesses, and customers
• Are given high priority messages that
encourage product feedback, project
favourable image, and create
opportunities for future business
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Understanding Business Letters
Business letters
• Provide a permanent record
• Deliver contracts, explain terms, exchange ideas,
negotiate agreements, answer vendor questions,
and maintain customer relations
• Are confidential and provide a sense of formality
not possible with e-mail
• Can persuade people to change their actions,
adopt new beliefs, make donations, contribute
their time, and try new products
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Correct Business Letter Format
• Appearance and format reflect a writer’s
carefulness and experience.
• Block style is the most commonly used. The
components include the dateline, inside
address, body, and complimentary close—
all of which are set flush left on the page.
• The letter is centred on the page and
framed by white space, using ragged-right
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Direct Letter: Block Style
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Writing Requests
• Start with the main idea; the most emphatic
positions in a message are the opening and the
• Ask a question or issue a polite command: Will
you please answer the following questions.
• Avoid long explanations before the main idea.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Writing Request
• Explain your purpose and provide necessary detail.
• Frame your questions logically.
• Focus on reader benefits.
• Express questions in parallel form. Number or bullet
• To elicit the most information, use open questions
(What training programs do you recommend?) rather
than closed questions, which require a yes-or-no
answer (Are training programs available?).
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Writing Request
• State specifically, but courteously, what action is
to be taken.
• Set an end date, if one is significant. Explain.
• Avoid trite and presumptuous endings (Thank you
in advance for …). Show appreciation, but use a
fresh expression.
• Make it easy for the receiver to comply with your
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Applying Writing Process to Direct
Request E-mail
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Writing Direct Requests and Responses
Requesting Information or Action
• Open by stating the main idea.
• Explain and justify the request.
• Request action in the closing.
Responding to Requests
• Open directly.
• Supply additional information.
• Conclude with a cordial statement.
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Responding to Requests
Subject line
• Consider including a subject line to identify
the topic and any previous correspondence.
• Use an abbreviated style, omitting articles
(a, an, the).
• Deliver the information the reader wants.
• When announcing good news, do so promptly.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Responding to Requests
• Supply explanations and additional information.
• Check facts and figures carefully.
• Use lists, tables, headings, boldface, italics, or
other graphic devices to improve readability.
• Try to promote your products and your
• Remember to use the “you” view.
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Responding to Requests
• Refer to the information provided or to its
• Help the reader with specifics, if further
action is required.
• Avoid cliché endings: If you have any other
questions, don’t hesitate to call.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Reacting to Customer Comments Online
Businesses must
• Listen to social media comments and, if
necessary, respond
• Respond in a way that benefits customers,
prevents problems from snowballing, and
reflects positively on the organization
• Embrace customer comments for opportunities
to improve products and services
• Gain real-time feedback
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Social Media Response Flowchart
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Responding to Customers Online
• Be positive.
– Respond in a friendly, professional tone.
– Correct mistakes politely.
– Do not argue, insult, or blame others.
• Be transparent.
– State your name and position.
– Personalize your business.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Responding to Customers Online
• Be honest.
– Own up to problems and mistakes.
– Inform customers about when and how you will
improve the situation.
• Be helpful.
– Point users to valuable information.
– Follow up with users when new information is
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Composing Instruction Messages
• Describe how to complete a task.
• Use a straightforward, direct approach.
• Practise the instruction yourself to understand
it completely.
• Explain how to complete a task.
• Use plain language and familiar words to
describe the process.
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Memos Explaining Instructions
• Use a polite subject line.
• Use action verbs (command) with itemized,
numbered steps.
• Use parallel language when creating lists.
• Use a positive tone, explaining changes, giving
reasons, and suggesting benefits.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Composing Instruction Messages
• Explain why the procedure is necessary.
Use familiar words to describe the process.
Divide instructions into steps.
List steps in the order they are to be carried out.
Arrange items vertically with numbers.
Begin each step with an action verb using the imperative
(command) mood rather than the indicative mood.
• Try to tie the instruction to benefits to the organization or
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Memos Explaining Instructions
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Memos Explaining Instructions
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Direct Claims and Complaints
• Use a compliment, a point of agreement, a statement
of the problem, or a clear statement of what you
want done.
• When the remedy is obvious, state it immediately:
Please correct an erroneous double charge of $59 to
my credit card for LapLink migration software. I
accidentally clicked the Submit button twice.
• When the remedy is less obvious, explain your goal:
Please clarify your policy regarding reservations and
late arrivals.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Direct Claims and Complaints
• Explain the problem and justify your claim.
• Provide details objectively and concisely.
• Don’t ramble. Be organized and coherent.
• Avoid becoming angry or trying to fix blame.
• State facts logically, objectively, and
• Include names of individuals, dates of previous
actions, and all pertinent documents.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Direct Claims and Complaints
Concluding a claim with an action request
• End courteously with a tone that promotes
goodwill and summarizes your action request.
• Request specific action, including an end date,
if appropriate.
Note: Act promptly in making claims, and always
keep a copy of your message.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Guidelines for Writing Online
Reviews and Complaints
Establish your credibility.
Check posting rules.
Provide balanced reviews.
Consider the Web’s permanence.
Accept offers of help.
Refuse payment for favourable critiques.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Adjustment Messages
• When approving a customer’s claim,
announce the good news (adjustment)
• Do not begin your letter with a negative
• Avoid sounding grudging or reluctant.
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Adjustment Messages
• Explain how you are complying with the claim.
• Strive to win back the customer’s confidence;
explain what went wrong (if you know) and how it
will be fixed.
• Focus on how the problem occurred and how you
can prevent it in the future.
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Adjustment Messages
• Avoid negative language (trouble, regret, fault).
• Don’t blame the customers—even if they are at
• Don’t blame individuals or departments in your
organization. It sounds unprofessional.
• Don’t make unrealistic promises you can’t keep.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Adjustment Messages
• End positively by expressing confidence in the
solution and product.
• Show appreciation that the customer wrote
to you.
• Express appreciation for the customer’s business.
• Refer to your desire to be of service.
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Deciding Whether to Apologize
• If you feel an apology is appropriate, do it
early and briefly.
• Some Canadian provinces have passed an
Apology Act that makes it easier for people to
say sorry without the worry of having words
used in a civil suit.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Goodwill Messages
Five Ss
of goodwill
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Characteristics of Goodwill Messages
• Selfless: Focus solely on the receiver.
• Specific: Mention specific incidents or
characteristics of the receiver.
• Sincere: Show genuine feelings.
• Spontaneous: Keep the message fresh and
• Short: Try to accomplish your purpose in only a
few sentences.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Saying Thank You
• Open directly with the purpose of the
• Ensure every sentence relates to the
receiver and offers enthusiastic praise.
• Make the letter sound warm and
conversational by using contractions and
the receiver’s name.
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Replying to Goodwill Messages
• Replying helps form professional and personal
• Send a brief note expressing your
• Tell the receiver how good the message made
you feel.
• Accept praise gracefully and use simple words
in conveying your appreciation.
• Write an e-mail message only if you are sure
the message won’t get lost.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Expressing Sympathy
• Refer to death or misfortune sensitively, using
words that convey understanding.
• Praise the deceased in a personal way.
• Offer assistance without going into excessive
• End on a reassuring, forward-looking note.
• Use personal stationery or notepaper to
handwrite a message. It will appear more
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Summary of Learning Objectives
• Understand the channels through which
positive messages travel, and apply the 3x-3 writing process.
• Compose direct messages that make
requests, respond to inquiries online and
offline, and deliver step-by-step
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Summary of Learning Objectives
• Prepare messages that make direct claims
and voice complaints.
• Create adjustment messages that salvage
customers’ trust and promote further
• Write special messages that convey
kindness and goodwill.
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
For Review Purposes only
think, especially if a product could be improved. Give your was for Monoi Tiare Tahiti (gardenia) Bar Soap, 4.6 oz., and
ideas for improvement. When you receive a response, share three 4-ounce bottles of coconut oil, Monoi Coco (natu-
it with your class.
ral coconut oil), Monoi Pitate (coconut oil w/ jasmine),
and Monoi Santal (coconut oil w/ sandalwood). Order
8.3 Direct Request: Pamper Palace Spa Worries
#502-8112203-6442608 was for Monoi Tiare Tahiti (coconut
About Duplicate Charges (Obj. 2)
oil w/ gardenia), also 4 ounces. The invoice total accurately
read $58.88; there were no duplicate charges.
When you talk to your technical team, however, you
As an assistant to Donna K. Lilly, the busy proprietor of learn that occasionally customer account statements have
Pamper Palace Spa in Cobourg, Ontario, you have been shown duplicate orders when EasyPay was activated. The
asked to draft an e-mail to Virtual Treasures asking about IT people assure you that the technical malfunction has
an apparent duplicate charge for a small trial order of been fixed. You are glad that, in turn, you can now reassure
massage oils. The Cobourg location of Pamper Palace Spa, the customer.
a professional spa franchise operating nationwide, wanted
Each e-mail you send out for Virtual Treasures contains
to try Virtual Treasures’ exquisite Tahitian Monoi Tiare coco-
two standard links allowing customers to click answers to
nut oils. After reading a French magazine, your boss had the options “Did we solve your problem?” or “If not, we are
ordered a few bottles and a bar of soap for $58.88 to test the very sorry. Please click the link below.” This second option
product, but when Ms. Lilly checked Pamper Palace Spa’s also suggests to the customer to contact Virtual Treasures
business account online, she found what she believed to be by telephone. Soliciting feedback from customers in every
a duplicate order. She wants you to write to Virtual Treasures message serves the purpose to “build the country’s friend-
and ask about the apparent error.
liest company.”
Donna Lilly is suspicious because a few weeks earlier, YOUR TASK Write a direct reply e-mail to Donna K. Lilly.
she had ordered a French press coffee pot for $19 to use in
You may want to list the full order for reference. Ensure
her office and received two pots. Her account was charged conciseness and readability when writing and formatting
$38. She did not take any action, making good use of the
your message.
French press cof pots in her business. For both
orders, Ms. Lilly had used Virtual Treasures’ EasyPay feature, 8.5 Applying Your Skills:VIA Rail (Objs. 1,2)
a one-click convenience tool online. Now she worries that
future orders may lead to costly duplicate shipments and
double charges. The order was divided into two ship-
According to Keith Moulton, director customer group at VIA
ments, each with a different order number: #502-3385779-
Rail Canada, “It’s not simply about getting there; it’s about
9590624 and #502-8112203-6442608. Donna Lilly may offering a travelling experience to our customers.” In
order large quantities of Monoi Tiare oil after trying the addition to its regular routes, VIA partners with the Niagara
pending shipment.
Fallsview Casino and Peller Estates to add a special summer
YOUR TASK Write a direct request by e-mail to Virtual season route from Toronto to Niagara Falls. While onboard,
Treasuresat customer-care@virtualtreasures.com. Inquire about passengers can enjoy wine tasting and gaming lessons.
the possible error stemming from the use of EasyPay. Format
Upon arrival in Niagara Falls, travellers are transferred to the
your e-mail correctly. Include Pamper Palace Spa’s location Fallsview Casino. On its Montreal to Halifax (The Ocean)
and your business e-mail: info@pamperpalacespa.com.
route, Via Rail offers an upgrade to “sleeper touring class,”
which, in addition to the usual amenities, provides travellers
8.4 Direct Response: Virtual Treasures
with information about the culture, history, and cuisine of
the Maritimes.22
Reassures Business Customer (Obj. 2)
Along with the Fallsview and Ocean runs, VIA Rail offers
a variety of experiences to please their customers whether
they are young or old, travelling for business or pleasure, or
Online retailer Virtual Treasures has received the direct travelling alone, as a couple, or as part of a group. VIA Rail’s
request from Donna K. Lilly (see Activity 8.3), who is website features packages for wine lovers, nature lovers,
concerned that her company, Pamper Palace Spa, is being sports enthusiasts, and those wanting to relax at a spa.23
charged twice for the same order whenever she uses the
convenience feature EasyPay. As customer care representa- YOUR TASK As a new staff member, you and your team
tive at Virtual Treasures, you investigate the request and find have been asked to recommend an idea for a new VIA
that Ms. Lilly ordered five items on September 16, which were Rail package, which will include an on board event. In an
divided into two orders. The first, #502-3385779-9590624, e-mail to your supervisor, suggest your idea, highlighting
+ ZOOM –
Communication & Self Management Skills
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