NRS 433V Grand Canyon University Evaluating Qualitative Research Discussion Discussion response 150-200 words and no reference required.
1 – Qualitative research creates Mountains of Words. No matter how large or small the project, the qualitative methodology depends primarily upon eliciting self-reports from subjects or observations made in the field that are transcribed into field notes. Even a small qualitative project easily generates thousands of words. Major ethnographic projects easily generate millions of words. Fortunately, recent advances in computer technology and software have made it possible to manage these mountains of words more efficiently. At every step of conducting research using qualitative methods, researchers and research teams face daunting problems of how to organize, collect, manage, store, retrieve, analyze, and give meaning to the information obtained during qualitative research. Qualitative research produces a variety of data, from a variety of sources. Data sources may be personal interviews (written or recorded), surveys, questionnaires, official documents, or observation notes. To complicate matters, more often than not, there are numerous respondents, or participants and multiple researchers. To extricate and code data from multiple data sources can be difficult but made much easier if the data is organized appropriately. There are some strategies to organize qualitative research. Review the entire data set so that themes or patterns and assign letters, numbers, or symbols to designate categories. Like responses on a particular topic can be grouped together, thereby making item analysis easier. Create a code table so that code can be consistent and readily accessible for multiple researchers. When conducting qualitative research, it is preferable to use multiple researchers so that a variety of perspectives are considered in data analysis. Separate the data into the groups, themes, patterns, or other categories. Once the data set has been coded the data can be grouped according to the code. This will also make data analysis and discussion easier. The discussion and analysis can then focus on independent themes that are noted in the data. Organize survey data by question, respondent, or sub-topic. It is important to organize survey data so that it can be easily analyzed. One method of organization is to separate the data according to the question, respondent category, or sub-topic. It may be desirable to group all responses for question one together, question twos together, and so on. On the other hand, it may be more efficient to group data by topic. Grouping data may facilitate the emergence of developing themes or patterns in the data set. Using the graphical method or chart method, this can help them to separate each task and categorize them in a chart as a barcode or as a graphical curvature representing the entire study of the data in a comprised form.
2 – A way to manage the data is to develop a data dictionary file that includes dates, locations, defining individual or group characteristics, interviewer characteristics, and other defining features. This method individualizes the data yet groups it together. The data you have collected can be easily accessed by searching using one of the categories listed. This allows for easy access and the ability to locate data quickly.
Another way to manage data is by condensing it. This is the process of selecting, focusing, simplifying, and abstracting the data at the time of the original observation, then condensing the data into a data set that can be analyzed. When the decision is made to condense data, there must be clear rules established and supervision to maintain the integrity of the research. It is especially important to have qualified individuals analyzing and recording the data collected. If they are not professionally trained it can cause disorganization and missed data.
3- Qualitative data has been described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher. Discuss two strategies that would help a researcher manage and organize the data.
Qualitative research produces a variety of data from various sources. Data sources may be derived from interviews (written or recorded), surveys, questionnaires, official documents and observation notes. Organization is the key strategy for qualitative data. Organization is very important to research study. Qualitative research can be a long-form written questionnaire that explore the subjects experience of certain social situations or psychology response to stimuli. These long-form instructed responses can give deeper insight into any emotional response from subjects adding a deeper depth to the academic research(Trint,2020).
Two strategies that can be used for qualitative data:
1.Organization: Create a code table or choose a clear file naming system for the data. Data can be organized by separating the data into subtopics like questions, respondent category, follow a clear filing name.
2.Code transcribe data: Researchers often use data that is transcribed by recording or written recorded notes. Coding the data is important due to the source of data is labeled for readily and easily access of the data and details the source of the data (Bradley, n.d.).
4 – The volume of data to support qualitative research has become almost unmanageable. Green and Johnson outlined the meta analysis technique of organizing data within a qualitative study. As the name of the process implies, this is a larger grouping and collection of large amounts of data (Green, & Johnson, 2018). Taking this process further, the PRISMA technique can be used to further refine what was identified in the meta analysis. PRISMA stands for, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (Vrabal, 2015). This process has a 27 item checklist to outline what needs to take place during the process. The PRISMA process is conducted to improve the accuracy of reports produced from meta-analyses by describing steps taken to minimize bias while looking at the abstract data and the analyzing interventions effects during a study (Vrabal, 2015).
Another technique to managing the data in a qualitative study is designing a data dictionary. When this technique is used, files are generated by date, locations, group characteristics, interviewing characteristics or another method that the author feels is necessary (Wolff, Mahoney, Lohiniva, & Corkum, 2020). If recordings of any type are included, the fidelity of the analyses needs to be conducted and if data analysis software is used the versions of the software need to be maintained (Wolff, Mahoney, Lohiniva, & Corkum, 2020). There are several different methods of organizing data from qualitative studies, but it is imperative to document the technique that is used, in the event that it needs to be evaluated by other parties.
5.2 – Ethnography is a method aimed at examination of cultural behaviors. Researchers using ethnography seek to understand cultural behaviors and the reasons behind them on a deeper level. The researcher may deeply immerse themselves in the culture being observed. Data is often collected through participant observations and key informant interviews (Polit & Beck, 2017). Phenomenology provides an approach that allows researchers to better understand a persons lived experiences. Through this method, researchers attempt to gain a deeper understanding of significant phenomena in life. Data is usually collected through extensive interviews and conversations with study subjects. Sample sizes are generally small when this methodology is used (Polit & Beck, 2017). Grounded theory is an approach that allows for researchers to consider phenomena of significance to nursing. The aim is to understand actions taken in an area by those who are involved in performing the actions. This methodology has led to the development of many middle-range, or narrower, practice-related nursing theories (Polit & Beck, 2017).. Phenomenology research and grounded theory research are presented together because one is an extension of the other, and they use very similar data collection methods. The difference is that phenomenology begins with a research question, and grounded theory is conducted to discover a research question for testing. Phenomenology is a philosophical perspective as well as an approach to qualitative methodology. It is concerned with human experience and perception. It wants to know how individuals understand the world. It does not intend 1) explanation, 2) generalization, and 3) theorization. As it considers every individual experiences the similar phenomena uniquely and knowledge of an experience remains with the person who goes through it. Therefore, to know contents or essences of experience, one who has gone through, the researcher has 4) to bracket with the first person by shunning his own knowledge and experience. Grounded Theory intends 1) to develop theory about phenomena of interest. Theory is not abstract it has to be grounded in qualitative data and 2) observations as third person. It involves Coding for both categorizing qualitative data and for describing the implications and details of these categories. Initially one does open coding, considering the data in minute detail while developing some initial categories. Later, one moves to more selective coding where one systematically codes with respect to a core concept. It emphasise 3) memoingis a process for recording the thoughts and ideas of the researcher as they evolve throughout the study. They might be concept maps or directed graphs or even simple cartoons that can act as summarizing devices. This integrative work is best done in group sessions where different members of the research team are able to interact and share ideas to increase insight. An example of phenomenology is studying the green flash that sometimes happens just after sunset or just before sunrise. This is the example of grounded theory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and potentially modify or expand a previously developed theory: Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH) using a sample of men in nursing. A modified grounded theory approach described by Chen and Boore (2009) and by Amsteus (2014). Twelve men in nursing were recruited. Each was interviewed at least once and their feedback solicited to determine the accuracy of interpretation. Results were compared and contrasted to those obtained from the earlier research with six female nurses and their patients. Both groups viewed intentionality as different from, and greater than, intention. Intentionality reflects the whole person’s values, goals, and experiences. The men emphasized the importance of reflective spiritual practices, developing self-awareness, being aware of the stress experienced by males in a female profession, and the role of action in manifesting intentionality in healing. The theory is substantiated with minor changes in emphases. Further study is warranted to expand the understanding of this basic concept in nursing and healing.
6.2 Qualitative research comprises three types of research, ethnographic, phenomenological and grounded theory. An ethnography investigates the behaviors of a specific culture and the reasons for those behaviors (Green & Johnson, 2018). The data that is gathered is from interviews of cultural members and first-hand observations (Green & Johnson, 2018). To obtain this type of data the researcher needs to deeply immerse themselves into the culture (Green & Johnson, 2018). An example of an ethnography was conducted by Bayuo, where he documented his own reflections on caring for inmates and the complexity of providing care to incarcerated people and the dichotomy of those two actions. Although this is a unique example of an ethnography, he does examine why he did what he did and conducted objective analysis (Bayuo, 2018).
Another form of qualitative research is grounded theory, where researchers investigate phenomena (Green & Johnson, 2018). The purpose of conducting this research is to gain an understanding of why a person took an action within a set of circumstances, but also extends to beyond description to include interpretation, prediction and explanation (Mellion & Tovin, 2002). An example of how grounded theory can be applied was seen in Mellion and Tovins research of clinician (physical therapist) organizational characteristics were used to identify effective outcomes in treatment of lower back pain (Mellion & Tovin, 2002). The researchers designed a theoretical framework that answered research questions about why a physical therapist performed specific treatments (Mellion & Tovin, 2002).
The similarities of these types of qualitative research are that there is an observation of behavior and an attempt to understand why certain things were done by a person or culture. Furthermore, interviews are conducted in both of these methods. In contrast to these similarities, there are differences also. An ethnography attempts to evaluate why certain behaviors are conducted, whereas the grounded theory dives deeper into the explaining, interpreting and even predicts what had or will take place. Another difference between these two are that ethnography focuses on culture whereas grounded theory is less interested in cultures. Similar to any tool that is used for a job, the user has to identify what outcome is desired and choose the correct tool for a job.
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