DeVry University Pre fabricated Modular Steel Buildings Ecodomika Case Study look at the attached document (Study on Pre-fabricated Modular and Steel) and

DeVry University Pre fabricated Modular Steel Buildings Ecodomika Case Study look at the attached document (Study on Pre-fabricated Modular and Steel) and familiarize yourself with the general concept of Pre-fabricated modular steel buildings.

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Based on these preliminary steps and your own research into the concept of Pre-fabricated modular steel buildings, compose a case study about the subject.

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750-1000 Words SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering ( SSRG – IJCE ) – Volume 3 Issue 5 – May 2016
Study on Pre-fabricated Modular and Steel
Structures
Prajjwal Paudel#1, Sagar Dulal#2, Madan Bhandari#3, Amit Kumar Tomar *4
#
B. tech, Civil engineering,*Assistant Professor,
Invertis University
Bareilly, U.P., India 243123
Abstract
Recent devastating earthquakes of 7.8
magnitudes in Nepal on 24-04-2015 had destroyed
many houses and took many lives. These many losses
are due to poor building techniques and heavy
building materials. In the developed countries like
Japan, China, etc. the earthquakes do not affect the
lives and destroy the houses. This is because they use
the pre-fabrication building techniques and steel or
aluminum frame structures rather than heavy concrete
building structures.
The prefabricated house is constructed by
light steel frame to sandwich panels for the building
envelope materials, as a standard module for space
series combination of components, the bolt
connection, and the new concept of environmental
protection economic activities in prefabricated house.
The prefabricated components are brought to the site
and erected using building block type construction.
Work is never delayed by curing time or missing
materials and can be completed for 30 to 45 working
days. Further study shows that it can also lower the
total cost of the project by 12 percent as compare to
the traditionally build house using traditional
materials such as CHB (Concrete Hollow Blocks).
This paper includes the study on steel
structures and pre-fabricated structures. In a general
survey, many people were asked about the types of
houses they prefer; one common reply was
earthquake resistant and economical houses. This
paper also includes analysis and research on the
quality, strength, environment friendly, costing and
the comparison between the traditional buildings and
pre-fabricated buildings. The study aims to introduce
and to provide more knowledge about modular house
to educate the market and to address the concern of
every sector of the society especially the depressed
areas of the society for a beautiful, stable and
affordable shelter.
.
Keywords: pre-fabrication, aluminum frame
structures,
earthquake
resistant
structures,
economical houses, environment friendly, CHB,
affordable shelter
I. INTRODUCTION
The terminology of ?Prefab? is used as a
short for ?prefabricated buildings?; Prefab is a broad
ISSN: 2348 – 8352
term that encompasses several different types of
buildings. Technically, any home that has sections of
the structure built in a factory and then assembled on
site can fall under the ?prefab? designation. The
prefabricated house is constructed by light steel frame
to sandwich panels for the building envelope
materials, as a standard module for space series
combination of components, the bolt connection, and
the new concept of environmental protection
economic activities in prefabricated house. In this
competitive world, no countries want to be backward
and less developed than any other. Nowadays, the
developed countries are in the front of development
of sciences and technologies such that they are
looking for the probability of lives in another planet.
The world became so advanced that they even don’t
have time to look after the housing and constructional
works. But there are also some countries in this globe
which even are not providing the shelter for their
people. People of some countries like Nepal, India,
Bangladesh, etc. don’t have a roof to hide themselves
from heat and cold. Moreover, the recent earthquake
of 7.8 magnitudes in Nepal destroyed many houses.
The research from many agencies and expertise
shows that the most of the destroyed buildings were
traditionally built and the materials used were not
tested or certified.
As we all know, in building the conventional
and traditional buildings, it takes much more time and
the costing is also very high. Also, there will be more
wastes and environment will be polluted; labours are
also not safe while construction traditional buildings.
If these many problems are there in following the
conventional trend, why should not we look for the
easier and best way for constructional work? Yes. We
have to follow the new techniques i.e. Pre-fabricated
Modular and steel structures. This method of building
structures will minimize the constructional cost, time
and wastes. But it increases the quality of the building,
efficiency of the work, and the beauty of the
buildings. Both Modular and Panel Built fall under
the umbrella term of prefab. Modular house is the
culmination of one type of building system. The
building process starts with efficient modern factory
assembly line techniques. The prefabricated
components are brought to the site and erected using
building block type construction. According to
McGraw-Hill construction’s report, 76% of
respondents indicate that prefabrication/modular
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SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering ( SSRG – IJCE ) – Volume 3 Issue 5 – May 2016
construction reduces site waste—with 44% indicating
that it reduced site waste by 5% or more. In addition,
62% of respondents believe that these processes
reduce the amount of materials used—with 27%
indicating prefabrication/modularization reduced
materials used by 5% or more.
The objectives and scope of prefabricated buildings
are as jotted below:1. To reduce the construction time and it’s cost.
2. To minimize the wastes and make it
environment friendly.
3. To replace the traditional or conventional way
of construction with modern tools and
technique.
4. To build light weight building and make
earthquake resistant and resistant to adverse
climate.
5. To minimize the in-site construction.
6. To minimize the use of aggregates, bricks,
rebars, cement, aggregates and excessive
water.
A. Concept of Modular Structure
Cellular structures, cellular modules and modular
buildings
Modular construction as a concept is not a
new idea. The motivation behind this movement is in
the promise to gain advantages related to standard
procedures. Different approaches of modularity can
be identified. Main possible approaches are: i)
manufacturing
of
identical
modules
(no
customization), ii) mass-customization of modules
according to the needs of project in question, iii)
manufacturing of free-form unique modules.
Architectural possibilities are naturally increasing
when going towards higher variability of modules.
However, all approaches share the production
philosophy where industrialized and standardized
production is targeted.
A cellular structure is defined as a structural
component targeting the minimization of the amount
of used material to reach minimal weight and
minimal material cost. A honeycomb shaped structure
is an example of such cellular structure. Modular
construction represents a new kind of skeletal
structure (compare Hong et al. 2011). The basic idea
is that the modules can bear the load of the other
modules, and thus separate supporting structures are
not required. Modular construction is also a special
case of modular construction where even multi-storey
buildings can be made from volumetric modules, the
size of which can comprise a whole dwelling unit.
Fig: Concepts Modular Structure
B. Classification
The Prefabrication is classified as follow
from the view of degree of Pre-cast construction.
? Large-panel systems
? Frame systems
? Slab-column systems with walls
? Mixed systems
C. Necessity to Adopt Prefabrication Method
The science and technologies in developed
countries are moving very fast. They have no time to
look behind. In such time, there are still some
countries which follow conventional way of building
and waste their crucial time and money. Also, by the
strong earthquake in Nepal many buildings and
structures were destroyed and the country is pushed
many years back. Therefore, to develop the nation in
minimum time, minimum cost without disturbing the
environment, Prefabrication Methods are very much
necessary.
D. Characteristics are to be Considered
? Easy availability.
? Light weight for easy handling and
transport, and to economies on sections and
sizes of foundation.
? Thermal insulation property.
? Easy workability.
? Durability in all weather conditions.
? Non-combustibility.
? Economy in cost, and
? Sound insulation.
E. Advantages
The main advantages of prefabricated
structures are assembly of finished elements on site,
self load bearing and quick execution, which have
favoured their use above all in industry.
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SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering ( SSRG – IJCE ) – Volume 3 Issue 5 – May 2016
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Self-supporting ready-made components are used,
so the need for formwork, shuttering and
scaffolding is greatly reduced.
Prefabricated components speed up
construction time, resulting in lower labor
costs.
There are less wasted materials than in sitebuilt construction.
Construction time is reduced and buildings
are completed sooner, allowing an earlier
return of the capital invested.
The mechanization used in prefabricated
construction ensures precise conformity to
building code standards and greater quality
assurance.
On-site construction and congestion of site is
minimized.
Better quality control can be achieved in a
factory assembly line setting than at the
construction site.
Quality control and factory sealing and
design can ensure high energy efficiency.
Prefabrication site can be located where
skilled labor is more readily available and
the costs of labor, power, materials, space
and overheads are reduced.
Time spent due to bad weather or hazardous
environments at the construction site is
minimized.
Prefabrication allows for year-round
construction, work is not affected by
weather delays (related to excessive cold,
heat, rain, snow, etc.).
Less wastage of construction material.
Advanced materials such as sandwichstructured composite etc. can be easily used,
improving thermal and sound insulation and
air tightness.
Independence of climatic condition.
Worker safety and comfort level are higher
than in site-built construction.
Computerization of the production process
permits a high degree of customization, at an
affordable cost.
F. Disadvantages
Despite these benefits, node discontinuity is
the most critical factor in the event of an earthquake,
since the risk of losing the support of the horizontal
prefabricated structures under seismic activity is what
experience has indicated as being the most frequent.
Creating this continuity can also mean losing the
advantages of the prefabricated structure. In seismic
zones load bearing elements are not allowed where
the transmission of horizontal seismic activity is only
by friction due to the weight of components.
There are other disadvantages too. They are as
follows:?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Leaks can form at joints in prefabricated
components.
Transportation costs may be higher for
voluminous prefabricated sections.
The requirement to transport manufactured
homes or modules to their intended site can
mean that prefabrication potential may be
limited for infill projects in inner city areas.
Increased production volume is required to
ensure affordability through prefabrication.
Higher initial construction cost.
Lack of background research information.
Time consuming in the initial design
development.
Large prefabricated sections require heavyduty cranes and precision measurement from
handling to place in position.
Larger groups of buildings from the same type
of prefabricated elements tend to look drab and
monotonous.
Local jobs may be lost, if the work done to
fabricate the components being located in a
place far away from the place of construction.
Prefab structure means that there is less local
working on any construction project at any
time.
Design and construction of modular buildings,
require high levels of collaboration among
project parties, especially architect, structural
engineer and manufacturer.
Prefabricated buildings typically depreciate
more quickly than traditional site-built housing
because of its shorter economic life.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
The study has successfully established the
fact that proportion of prefab content has a significant
relationship with the cost performance and time
performance of the project. The study has quantified
the benefits of employing prefab technology in light
to medium commercial building projects by
concluding that 77% prefab content in light to
medium commercial buildings can result in 100% or
more cost performance and similarly 74% prefab
content can result in 100% or more time performance.
Findings of this study are likely to encourage the
uptake of prefab technology in construction process.
However, factors other than prefab content might be
responsible for the cost and time performance such as
quality of project management, site characteristics,
procurement strategies etc. are recommended for
further investigations (Shahzad, W.M, Mbachu, J.
and Domingo, N. (2014).
Conventional wisdom would lead one to
believe that the production of prefabricated housing
ISSN: 2348 – 8352
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SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering ( SSRG – IJCE ) – Volume 3 Issue 5 – May 2016
under controlled conditions using mass production
technology and employing a generally semi skilled
workforce would result in a product less expensive or
at least competitively priced to that of conventionally
built homes. Indications were appeared to support the
contentions made so often by the prefabrication
industry that their product is more cost effective than
conventional construction (Stefan J. Weidemann,
1990).
Recycled-content and reused materials are
being used in modular and prefab products to increase
its sustainability; challenges include off-gassing and
ensuring materials are nontoxic. (BC Housing
Manufactured Housing Association of BC Real Estate
Institute of BC, 2014).
According to WHE reports, no major efforts
have been reported regarding seismic strengthening
of precast concrete buildings. However, seismic
strengthening of precast frame buildings was done in
Uzbekistan (WHE Report 66). The techniques used
include the installation of steel straps at the column
locations and reinforcing the joints with steel plates to
provide additional lateral confinement of the columns,
(Svetlana Brzev).
According to McGraw-Hill construction’s
report, 76% of respondents indicate that
prefabrication/modular construction reduces site
waste—with 44% indicating that it reduced site waste
by 5% or more. In addition, 62% of respondents
believe that these processes reduce the amount of
materials
used—with
27%
indicating
prefabrication/modularization reduced materials used
by 5% or more.
Abiding by the credo that ?the best energy is
saved energy?, the presented concrete wall system
achieved sustainable, healthier environment and
living ambient for occupants, (Milovanovic, Stirmer
& Milicevic
Its peculiarity is that the foam in the core is the best
insulator and its thickness determine the value of
insulation. The foam core forms a continuous energy
barrier, and the smaller number of studs leaves less
opportunity for heat conduction. SIPs are fabricated
to very close (1/8 inch) tolerances, and the edge
connections, which vary by manufacturer, are
designed to fit snugly together. The best thing about
SIPs is their resistance to insects. While the EPS
foam core provides no nutrition to insects, it offers an
easy way for them to tunnel into the structure. Borate
additives can be mixed into the foam during
manufacture, providing some amount of insect
resistance. De-lamination caused by failure of the
adhesive is a major concern because it would affect
the ability of structural SIPs to carry load.
B. Insulating Concrete Panel (ICFs)
Insulating concrete forms (ICFs) are a prefab
construction material which consist of hollow EPS
foam blocks that are stacked and glued together onsite, creating a form that is filled with reinforcing bars
and concrete. The unique property of ICFs is that the
foam blocks are not removed after the concrete
hardens; instead, they help insulate the building,
while the concrete provides structural integrity.
Although ICFs are really a hybrid prefab material,
they offer many of the cost and environmental
benefits of pure prefab. In comparison with
traditional concrete construction, it is faster to stack
ICF foam blocks than to build a wood form, and since
the foam blocks are not removed, there is much less
wastes. It can be also used as sound proof. The
concrete must be fluid enough to fill the foam blocks
without leaving air voids, which would severely
detract from the structural integrity of the finished
wall, yet must be solid enough not to exert too much
horizontal pressure on the foam, which can cause the
forms to fail. Insect can attack this structure so,
insect-resistant additives can be mixed into the
polystyrene foam.
III. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
A number of new construction materials are
starting to be used as components in prefab housing.
Here are two of them:
i.
Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)
ii.
Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs).
A. Structural Insulated Panel (SIP)
A structural insulated panel (SIP, also called a
sandwich panel) consists of a pair of oriented strand
board (OSB) or plywood panels with a core of
extruded polystyrene (EPS) foam in between,
attached with an adhesive. Panels are available in a
variety of thicknesses. They are usually produced in
8-ft-tall panels, but they can be customized as per the
requirement.
ISSN: 2348 – 8352
Figure: SIPs
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SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering ( SSRG – IJCE ) – Volume 3 Issue 5 – May 2016
(AZ 150 – 55% Al-Zn alloy coating of 150 g/m2
minimum).
Figure: ICFs
C. Prefab Materials in Marke
? Zincalume Steel
? Colorbond Steel
? Aerocon Panels
? FRP Corrugated Sheets
? Color Coated Galvalume Sheets
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
EPS Corrugated Panel
CGI sheets
UPVC roof
Asphalt shingles
PUF Sandwich Panel
EPS Sandwich Panel
Solid Cement wall Panel
Dry Wall System using cement boards
Different claddings/siding materials
1) Color Coated Galvalume Sheets
These sheets are preferred material for
roofing and wall cladding. They combine the strength
of steel and corrosion protection of zinc or
zinc/aluminum alloy coatings. These are available in
various colors, have appealing aesthetics, long life,
durability and easy installation. Color coated
Galvalume sheets of AZ150 class (aluminum zinc
coating of 150 grams per sq. meter) with coated alloy
of 55% Aluminum, 43.5% Zinc and 1.5% Silicon and
of approved color with top surface coated with 20-25
microns of polyester coating and bottom service coat
with 5-10 microns over and above epoxy primer,
basic steel conforming to IS -513, ASTM A 792 M /
AS 1397 – GALVALUME COATING, ASTM A 924
for mechanical properties and ASTM 755 for paint
coating. Overall width of 1120 mm and laid width of
1060 mm, with six crests of 25 mm, spaced at 206
mm center to center, and with a stiffening rib (28mm)
of 3mm height at the centre of each valley of the
sheet, with two anti–capillary grooves with long
return leg on either side of each crest.
2) Zincalume Steel
This product is high corrosion resistant and
thermal efficient hot dipped zinc-aluminium alloy
(55% Al – Zn) coated steel with spangled surface
conforming to AS 1397 available in Grade 300 & 550.
Thickness of coating conforms to AZ 150 / AZ 200
ISSN: 2348 – 8352
3) Colorbond Steel
The Colorbond steel is comprising of
Zincalumer steel substrate as base material and
coatings of Zn-Al alloy Coating, Conversion Coating ,
Universal Corro…
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