CHEM 163 Bellevue Community College Combined Gas Laws Lab 2 Report please answer the lab questions. you can find the data in the excel screenshot and the questions the pdf.thank you. Online lab 2: Individual and combined gas laws
Ideal gases are those that obey the postulates of kinetic molecular theory (KMT). These postulates are:
1. Gas is composed of particles.
2. Gas particles do not take up space, instead the volume of a gas is mainly empty space.
3. Gas particles are in constant, random motion.
4. Gas particle collisions are elastic.
Most gases behave as ideal gases except at very high pressures and very low temperatures. In addition,
gases can be described by four main parameters, pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T) and number
of particles (n). The gas laws describe the various relationships between these parameters for any ideal
gas. For example, Boyles law describes the inverse relationship between P and V while Charless law
describes the direct relationship between T and V. John Dalton used the relationship between P and n
to develop his atomic theory in 1803.
In the mid-19th century, following the formulation of the atomic theory, Maxwell and Boltzmann
developed KMT. According to KMT, collisions between molecules cause changes in their velocities.
When colliding with the walls of a container, collisions exert pressure against the container walls. The
frequency of collisions and the speed distribution of these molecules depend on the temperature and
volume of the container. Hence, the pressure of a gas is affected by changes in temperature and
The relationships between pressure, volume, temperature, and number of gas molecules may seem
intuitive, based on your ability to visualize molecular motion and a basic understanding of the kinetic
theory. The simple experiments that follow will allow you the opportunity to confirm these relationships
empirically, in a qualitative and quantitative manner. In essence, you will play the role of a 17th century
scientist (with some 21st century tools!) and discover the laws for yourselflaws and constants that are
still in use today.
In this experiment, you will:
Determine the relationship between the volume of a gas and its pressure (Part 1).
Determine the relationship between the temperature of a gas and its pressure (Part 2).
IMPORTANT NOTE: For parts I and II, use the gas property simulator from the University of Texas
found here: https://ch301.cm.utexas.edu/simulations/js/idealgaslaw/
Practice with the Volume arrow. Notice how you can increase or decrease the volume to within a certain
range then hold at that volume by pressing the up or down arrow a second time. Try the Heat/Cool
buttons to learn how adjust the gas temperature to within a certain range and hold at that temperature
by pressing Off.
Part 1: Pressure-Volume Relationship of Gases
Your goal in Part 1 is to prove that pressure and volume of a gas are inversely
related at constant n and T. You will also observe how the kinetic energy of gas
particles are related to P and V.
Adjust the volume to create 6 different volume points. Make sure the maximum
and minimum volumes used differ by at least 600 L. Also try to evenly space out
your points. At each volume record the pressure, temperature and kinetic energy
of the particles. Notice, if you are changing the volume the temperature will
remain constant. For this part of the lab, make sure the temperature does not
Plot your data using excel. Remember, your independent variable will always be
on the x-axis and your dependent variable will be on the y-axis. In this case, the
volume is the independent variable because this is the parameter that you are
changing. The pressure is dependent on the volume and thus will be plotted on
Part 2: Temperature-Pressure Relationship of Gases
Your goal in Part 2 is to prove that pressure and temperature of a gas are directly
related at constant n and V. You will also observe how the kinetic energy of gas
particles are related to P and T.
Adjust the temperature to create 6 different temperature points. Make sure the
maximum and minimum temperature used differ by at least 300K. Also try to
evenly space out your points. At each temperature record the pressure, volume
and kinetic energy of the particles. For this part of the lab, make sure the volume
does not vary.
Plot your data using excel. Remember, your independent variable will always be
on the x-axis and your dependent variable will be on the y-axis.
Part 3: Deriving the ideal Gas Constant.
1. Weigh out approximately 0.07 g of Mg (Do not use more than 0.08g). Record the actual
mass of Mg used.
IMPORTANT NOTE: For the remainder of the procedure for part III use the video link Chemistry
Lab Skills: Ideal Gas Law by UTSC DPES to answer the procedural questions that follow.
2. At around the 1:30 mark, the technician inverts the buret into a beaker of containing
water. What force is holding the water from running out of the inverted buret?
3. What was the approximate volume of water in the inverted buret (1:50)?
4. What would happen to your data if you did not sand off all of the oxides from the surface
of the Mg ribbon (2:10)?
5. Why does the analyst record the temperature every 2 minutes (3:55)? What is the
analyst looking for in these measurements?
6. Barometric pressure: ______________________
7. How are you able to tell that the reaction is complete?
8. Consider the following 3 sources of error. Identify each as random error, systematic error
or a mistake. Explain your choice.
a. Upon inversion, the liquid level in the buret is not within the graduated portion of
the buret. (random error, systematic error or a mistake). Explain.
b. Unreacted magnesium sinks to the bottom of the buret. (random error, systematic
error or a mistake). Explain.
c. Unreacted magnesium remains in the buret after the reaction has completed.
(random error, systematic error or a mistake) Explain.
1. Create organized data tables for part 1 and part 2. Dont forget to include units and consider
significant figures. Paste your tables below.
2. Using excel, prepare linear plots for data collected in Parts 1 and 2. Determine if each plot more
closely approximates a linear relationship (x vs. y) or an inverse relationship (x vs. 1/y). Perform the
appropriate regression analysis to obtain a slope, intercept and correlation coefficient for each set
of data. Number all your graphs (Graph 1, 2, etc ) and include an appropriate title for each one.
Make sure axes labels include units and be sure that the linear equation and correlation coefficient
is shown. Paste your charts below, be sure to display the linear regression equation and correlation
Paste charts here
3. For Part III. Use the data given to you in the collaboration spreadsheet on Canvas. Use the following
tutorial to find your group number https://community.canvaslms.com/docs/DOC-106984212225748. Note these groups may be different than those for Online Lab 1. Then navigate to
the Collaborations area of the Canvas page. This collaboration contains an excel spreadsheet with
data. Each group number has been assigned a data set. Find your group number, enter your name
into the corresponding group field. Use the given values to Calculate R and input that value in the
worksheet in the designated column.
Analysis and Discussion
1. Quantitative analysis. Compare your experimentally determined relationships between gas
parameters in part I and part II. Did you validate the expected trends? This is where appropriately
recording significant figures are important since 2 numbers that differ only in an insignificant digit
can be said to be the same number.
2. Statistical validation. Are there any statistical measures that can be used to quantitatively
characterize the certainty in your quantitative analysis? You should present as many appropriate
statistical metrics as possible. If there arent any applicable statistical metrics for your data, you
should explain why this is true.
Error analysis. In scientific investigations we are typically trying to determine whether differences
between experimental and expected values are due to error or real phenomena. To do this we first need
to quantitatively evaluate the error in our measurements. You only need to do error analysis for Part III
of this lab. Some of the questions you should consider in error analysis are:
Which procedural steps would cause the specific error you observed?
Which limitations of your procedure likely caused the observed error?
When you perform this experiment again, how could you reduce the error that you observed?
*Mistakes such as spills and incorrect use of measuring devices are not infomative types of error. If you
spill something, you should observe that and record it in your lab notebook. If you dont know best
practices for using a piece of equipment you should ask your lab partner or your instructor for
instructions before making the measurement. If any portion of the protocol is unclear then you should
ask your lab partner or instructor before performing the procedural step.
PRE-LAB (You dont have to do this again. These questions are left here just for your reference.)
1) List three variables of gases that will be studied in Parts 1 and 2 of this experiment.
2) a – When the temperature of a gas in a container increases, do you expect the pressure to increase or decrease
(assuming the volume of the container and number of gas molecules is constant)? Provide a brief molecular
b – When the volume of a gas increases, do you expect the pressure to increase or decrease (assuming the
temperature and number of gas molecules is constant)? Provide a brief molecular explanation.
3) Label whether the variables most likely exhibit an inversely proportional relationship (one variable goes up
while the other goes down) or directly proportional relationship (both variables increase or decrease at the same
4) Suppose you wish to study the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas by heating a gas in a cylinder and
measuring the resulting changes in volume. What assumptions need to be made in order to study temperature and
5) For the pressure-temperature experiment (part 2), why is it important to use temperatures that are as spread out
Mass of Mg (g)
Volume of H2 collected (mL)
atmospheric pressure (mbar)
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