University of Nairobi Chinese Government and Korean Culture Journals There’s two journals who each of them need one page. Please follow the format of the i

University of Nairobi Chinese Government and Korean Culture Journals There’s two journals who each of them need one page. Please follow the format of the instruction.The first journal is due on next Tuesday, so please give the first journal to me before April 21st 2pm. And the second journal should be finished by 28th.My topic is how the Korean entertainment industry has grown and how the growth has influced other field and communication of Korean products in the international market. For the first paragraph of two journals: journal 1 – chapter 6&8, journal 2 – chapter 9(I only could download some subsections of this chapter, so you could just summarize these parts), you don’t need to read them in such detail, because it only need one paragraph.For paragraph 2 & 3, you could use these article:…… Weekly Journal Instruction
General Requirement: For most classes, students will be required to submit via
blackboard a journal entry (double-spaced). Late journals will be given zero points.
Journals will comprise no more than three paragraphs:
Paragraph one will summarize the class readings as laid down in the class
Paragraph two will summarize an article chosen by the student that relates to the
student’s topic for their research paper.
Paragraph three will explain in a single sentence the opinion angle taken by the
article that was summarized for paragraph two. The web links to the relevant
article(s) should be included at the end of each journal, allowing retrieval of the
(Read the journal rubric at the end of this document for more information)
Journal 1 is an exception: This journal does not follow the regular structure. For this
journal, we complete a 3-2-1 assignment. In six sentences, write about 3 things that you
have learned from the reading, 2 questions you have about the syllabus, and 1 thing that
you would like to explore in more details.
Format: Each entry will be no more than one double-spaced page in length (No
paragraph space).
The top of the journal entry should read:
Your Name (No paragraph space)
Journal No. (No paragraph space)
For the body of the journal, students should use a standard serif typeface in 12pt. with
one-inch margins.
Submission: via blackboard under the tab “Assignments” before the deadline laid down
in the class schedule, which can be seen in this syllabus, or the revised deadline given in
Points possible for each journal: 20 points
Rubric for Weekly Journal:
(15 pts.)
Article (5
Poor or needs work
(10 pts.)
Identifies accurately what
the main idea of the
reading is and makes a
strong argument and
connection to broader
issues. (9-10 pts.)
Identifies the main idea,
but may not focus on it
and argument is not
strong. (6-8 pts.)
Fail to identify the main
idea. (0-5 pts.)
(5 pts.)
Writing is strong and
engaging. Contains a
strong opening (a thesis
statement), and uses
examples from the reading
to back up its argument;
make no grammatical
mistake (4-5 pts.)
Writing is generally
good, though it may
lack specifics or strong
(2 to 3 pts.)
Writing is weak. Beating
around the bush. Entry
generally summarizes
the week’s material
without tying in broader
ideas or connecting
ideas, or leaves out
important materials. (0
to 1 pts.)
(3 points)
Makes clear connections
among the week’s
materials and to the
research topic (3 pts.)
Makes some
connections although
unclear to student’s
research topic. (2 pts.)
Identify the article but
make no connection. (0-1
(2 points)
Clear and concise
sentences; make no
grammatical mistake;
provide links. (2 pts.)
Paragraph is not well
structured. Write
unnecessarily lengthy
sentences. (1 pt.)
Contain grammatical
mistakes. Sentences are
not well-structured.
Provide no link (0 pts.)
Copyright © 2015. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Brazil: Latin America’s
Communication Leader
As the only Portuguese-speaking country in Latin America and one of the
ten top world economies, Brazil has risen above many challenges since its
independence from Portugal almost 200 years ago. With a hectic political
trajectory that has alternated populist charismatic elected presidents with
military/civil dictators, the country entered the twenty-first century as a 200
million-population promising developing democracy. All in all, it has had
more gains than losses despite its colossal social problems and inequalities.
Brazil is a member of the BRICS (an acronym coined in 2001 for Brazil,
Russia, India, China and South Africa as the next group of countries predicted to turn into dominant economies by mid-century), which represents
almost 3 billion people in five countries. Brazil aspires to become a global
power by obtaining a permanent seat at the UN Security Council, the body
charged with maintaining international peace and security. Currently, two
BRICS members (China and Russia) have permanent seats at the Security
Council, along with the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. In
Latin America, Brazil leads the region’s economy and, particularly, the communication industry along with Mexico.
Internet Use
Brazil has been a fast adopter of media technology. Its Internet has grown
unlike any other sector in the last decade, with an increase of almost
145 percent since 2005.1 By 2014 some 53 percent of the almost 200 million
The World News Prism: Digital, Social and Interactive, Ninth Edition.
William A. Hachten and James F. Scotton.
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Hachten, William A., and James F. Scotton. The World News Prism : Digital, Social and Interactive, John Wiley & Sons,
Incorporated, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from ku on 2020-04-14 18:50:22.
Copyright © 2015. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Brazil: Latin America’s Communication Leader
Brazilians were using the Internet, behind only China, the United States,
India, and Japan in total number of users. Brazil’s Internet access is higher
than Mexico’s (41 percent of its 124 million people), but smaller than
Argentina’s (about 60 percent of its population of 41.8 million) or Chile’s
(65.7 percent of 17.7 million people).2 In fact, in some South American
countries such as Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile, a larger percentage of the
people own computers than in Brazil because of their higher level of literacy and smaller populations. In addition, some of these countries have special programs for digital development, which have no parallel in Brazil. In
Uruguay, for example, the government gives laptops to all students enrolled
in public schools. Uruguay, with a population of just over 3 million people,
is considered the “Switzerland of South America” for its long democratic
tradition, sophisticated banking system, high literacy, and strong middle
class. It was the third South American country to legalize same-sex marriage
in 2013, and it legalized the use and production of marijuana in the same
year. Overall, Central America generally has much lower levels of Internet
use than the countries of South America, with fewer people living in more
developed urban areas.
In spite of advances in technology, within every Latin American country
there are huge disparities in online access. In Brazil, the Internet penetration
is only 10 percent in rural areas and only 6 percent among the people with
the lowest income and lowest level of education, due partly to the high cost
of computers and poor Internet connections.3 While 54 percent of the 63.6
million households surveyed between 2012 and 2013 by Cetic (the Brazilian
Center of Studies on Information and Communication Technologies) had
a computer, mostly a desktop, only 40 percent of them had Internet connected by DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) or cable. As in other developing
nations, the statistics are much better regarding mobile phones, which by
2013 were present in 90 percent of households in Brazil. Mobile Internet
access is booming in the region with 3G technology, yet the more advanced
4G services reach only thirty-two Brazilian cities, and consumers complain
the system is inefficient. Brazil has the largest mobile phone market in Latin
America, and in 2013 it was moving to become the fifth-largest smartphone
market in the world.4
In the same year, the country had 65 million Facebook users, second only
to the United States, and became the second-biggest user of Twitter as well,
with 41.2 million users. It was also the largest market for YouTube outside
the United States, with 60 percent of its users under 34 years old. Moreover,
Latin Americans have been among the most active users of Twitter, since the
Hachten, William A., and James F. Scotton. The World News Prism : Digital, Social and Interactive, John Wiley & Sons,
Incorporated, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from ku on 2020-04-14 18:50:22.
Copyright © 2015. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Brazil: Latin America’s Communication Leader
company launched a Spanish version in 2009. Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico
are home to the world’s top Twitter users after Indonesia and India, with
the United States being the number one user of this social media platform.
Latin Americans, known for enjoying endless informal conversations with
friends and acquaintances at coffee shops and bars in their free time, found
the perfect niche to continue chatting on social media. They spend over ten
hours a month on social media – twice the global average. Furthermore,
the youth (15–24) spend an average of 32.5 hours per month online – 6.3
more hours than the estimated global average of 26.2 hours.5 Even LinkedIn
found a home among Brazilians, who make up the second fastest-growing
market for this popular, business-oriented social networking service, with
over 11 million users by 2013 after only two years of operation. Yet Facebook
tops every other social media platform, followed by Twitter.
In fact, Twitter is Latin American politicians’ favorite platform. Top Twitter executives, thrilled by the company’s success in Latin America, advised
regional politicians to adopt the microblog in a more interactive way instead
of using it as a broadcast platform. Politicians quickly embraced social
media and developed a direct connection to citizens, bypassing the traditional media, which usually campaign against them. The strategy has
been successful. An early adopter of Twitter was President Hugo Chavez of
Venezuela, who combined modern platforms with long, old-school, Cubanstyle speeches on radio and television. By the time he died in March 2013,
he had 4.13 million Twitter followers – the highest number ever for a Latin
American politician. In late 2014, Argentine president Cristina Fernandez
de Kirchner had 3.13 million followers; Mexican president Enrique Pen?a
Nieto had 2.91 million; Brazilian president Dilma Rouseff had 2.74 million;
and Venezuelan president Nicolas Maduro had 2.11 million. Those are significant numbers for Latin America, although they pale when compared to
President Barack Obama’s 45.9 million followers on Twitter.
The data on Internet usage in Latin America indicate a major change in
media habits. The dominant online activity for Latin American middle-class
youth is social; young consumers are mostly digital-oriented with little to no
attachment to legacy media. Also, they are protagonists of media convergence: for example, watching social TV (the union of television and social
media) on Facebook and Twitter, where they share their experiences about
favorite TV shows, is a growing trend. However, one must remember that
social and economic inequalities in Latin America force the less educated
population to stick to traditional television and radio, especially in Central
America and in rural areas of South America. A quick walk in the streets
Hachten, William A., and James F. Scotton. The World News Prism : Digital, Social and Interactive, John Wiley & Sons,
Incorporated, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from ku on 2020-04-14 18:50:22.
Copyright © 2015. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Brazil: Latin America’s Communication Leader
of any major city in Brazil, though, confirms that even those who have little
access to the digital world do know about it, talk about it, and dream about
having their own digital experience.
Brazil’s advance in technology parallels its economic growth in the first
decade of the twenty-first century. This growth came as the country ended
the twentieth century with a government reform that allowed foreign companies to invest in several areas. New government welfare policies and better
jobs quickly improved living standards and created a better-educated workforce. A particular “inclusive growth” measure, a conditional cash transfer
program known as Bolsa Familia (Family Allowance), is credited with helping to lift from poverty over a decade some 40 million people, who joined
an emergent middle class in urban areas. Other Latin American countries have adopted different versions of the “family allowance” including
Mexico (Oportunidades), Colombia (Familias en Accio?n), Peru (Juntos),
Chile (Chile Solidario) and Guatemala (Mi Familia Progresa). In Brazil, the
program has benefited 13.8 million households living in poverty or extreme
A natural consumer boom followed, allowing millions of Brazilians to
buy their first home, car or computer. More easily available credit, for example, made airplane tickets one of the top items purchased by the emergent middle class. By 2013, airports, roads, and malls in major cities were
jam-packed by a population segment that was joining the mainstream consumer class for the first time. This new middle class, identified in Brazilian statistics as the “C class” in a system that divides Brazilian society into
five economic groups from A to E based on income, began to buy computers. They deserted the traditional lan-houses (local area network places)
or Internet centers wedged into favelas – shanty towns – and other poor
communities that charged online users by the hour for computer use and
Internet access. In addition, this middle class of Brazilians bypassed the
print and online mainstream media, which hoped to attract the new consumers. In the blink of an eye, Brazilians joined global trends, becoming new
addicts of social media. By October 2013, Brazilians using the Internet spent
36 percent of their online time on social media. Facebook had by then 46.3
million users, which placed Brazil second to the United States and ahead
of India among Facebook users.7 The 2012 Cetic survey noted that people preferred to spend their time online surfing social media websites (73
percent of respondents); watching films and videos (49 percent), downloading music (46 percent) and playing online games (33 percent). Cetic found
that three-quarters of social media users were in the middle or upper class
Hachten, William A., and James F. Scotton. The World News Prism : Digital, Social and Interactive, John Wiley & Sons,
Incorporated, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from ku on 2020-04-14 18:50:22.
Copyright © 2015. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Brazil: Latin America’s Communication Leader
economically and had at least a high-school education. As in other Latin
American countries, most Brazilians with access to the Internet lived in
urban areas. The Cetic study examined almost 17,000 Brazilian households
in 350 cities and found that Internet access was especially high in the wealthy
urban centers in the south and southeast regions of Brazil (about 50 percent of the homes) compared to the less developed regions of the north and
northeast, where only about a quarter of the people had Internet access.8
Overall, Latin America’s effort to bridge the digital gap still lags behind,
even though the number of Internet users is going up and access has become
more affordable. National Internet access is very uneven in the region, and
Latin America overall lags behind in Internet development. The World Economic Forum found that the region displays a poor innovation environment, and a weak educational system, especially in math and science, which
restricts Latin American opportunities to develop a knowledge-based economy. In 2014 Internet World Statistics reported that 85 percent of people in
North America had Internet access, compared to only 38 percent in Latin
America. Even long-time leaders in traditional communications like Brazil
and Mexico are well behind Canada and the United States in developing
their Internet capabilities and far behind in social media such as Facebook,
where the percentage of users in United States (43 percent) is more than
twice as high as in Brazil’s loquacious population (18 percent). As the world
embraces big data production and transmission along with mass adoption
of connected digital services by consumers, businesses, and governments,
Latin America will need to multiply its efforts to fight the shortage of data
scientists, and solve problems with poor-quality data and dilemmas with
data privacy.
Internet-Enabled Protests and Civil Engagement
Given the context, which combined economic growth and access to technology, it was not a huge surprise that the mass demonstrations that took over
the streets in major cities throughout Brazil in June 2013 were organized
through Facebook and Twitter just as in the Arab Spring. Tired of spending hours stuck in traffic inside overcrowded commuter buses, citizens of
all ages protested, initially in major urban areas, against an increase in bus
fares. Soon, the protests gained further public support and a new agenda
that attacked almost every national flaw, including the country’s endemic
political corruption and lack of accountability, government overspending
Hachten, William A., and James F. Scotton. The World News Prism : Digital, Social and Interactive, John Wiley & Sons,
Incorporated, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from ku on 2020-04-14 18:50:22.
Copyright © 2015. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Brazil: Latin America’s Communication Leader
on soccer stadiums for the 2014 World Cup, high taxes, violent crime, and
lack of investment in infrastructure. Demonstrators complained that the
government had built First World soccer stadiums, but offered Third World
schools and hospitals.
Brazilian protesters embraced social media as a tool for civil engagement and recruitment during the protests as Facebook pages calling
society to take action multiplied. As the rallies grew, several left- and
right-oriented groups tagged along, including the Brazilian anarchists, an
anti-globalization local version of the Black Blocs, formed by individuals
who wear black clothing, dark glasses, hoods, scarves, and masks to avoid
identification. Acting mostly in large urban centers such as Rio de Janeiro
and Sa?o Paulo, where they are known for destroying property, several
Brazilian Black Bloc groups have had a marked decentralized Facebook
presence, alternately expanding and shrinking as they are driven by
casual, sometimes one-time followers known as slacktivists rather than
followers committed to long-term action. Mainstream journalists have
defined the Black Blocs as a loose, mixed association between well-off
college students and low-income residents of peripheral urban areas
and, occasionally, members of the socialist political party Psol, and the
government-supported Landless Workers Movement, a Marxist-inspired
grassroots association that organizes farmland takeovers.
All these groups meet in cyberspace, currently a favorite arena for political participation in Latin American countries with high Internet access. For
example, a study conducted in 2013 by the Igarape Institute, a Brazilianbased think tank, found forty-one Facebook pages claiming to represent
the Black Blocs with a total of 1.45 million likes focused on recruiting
and mobilizing protesters, gathering information on protests, reporting
on the ground through videos, photos, and testimonies, and denouncing
police brutality and infiltration as well as censorship.9 Whether social media
worldwide will make people more likely to participate in politics beyond liking, sharing, and cop…
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