The University of Oklahoma Emancipation Proclamation American History Paper Write a 750-word response to the following prompt: The idea of “freedom” was c

The University of Oklahoma Emancipation Proclamation American History Paper Write a 750-word response to the following prompt:

The idea of “freedom” was central to the culture, politics, economics, and society of the United States between 1865 and 1918. Throughout this period, however, the meaning of freedom was constantly debated, contested, and negotiated.

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Choose three different individuals/groups that we have discussed in the first third of this course (modules 1-4). Explain how each of them defined, explained, and used the concept of freedom. You should also be compare these contrasting views of freedom. What were the points of agreement and disagreement? Could these multiple definitions of freedom coexist, or were they mutually exclusive? What did “freedom” mean for these people? Did freedom for some groups necessarily mean a lack of freedom for others? Why?

Be sure to define the term “freedom” in your answer.

Instructions:
Your answer must quote and cite at least three different documents from the required reading for Modules 1 through 4.
Be as specific as possible, and be sure to use the assigned readings to defend your answer.
Answers that are too short or too long (more than 50 words in either direction) will lose points.
Your answer will be checked for plagiarism using Turn-It-In.
Your answer should be based on material covered in class lectures and in the assigned reading for this course. DO NOT CONSULT OTHER SOURCES. I do not want to know what Google tells you about this topic. All the information you need to answer this question can be found in the assigned reading and in your class notes.
Some tips on formatting and length:
750 words is not much! It’s about three double spaced pages (1” margins, 12 point font).
Be brief, especially in your introductory paragraph. Get right to your argument, don’t waste words describing everything we’ve covered in the course. There’s no need to make sweeping statements like “Since the beginning of U.S. history….”
The prompt asks several different (but closely related) questions. You do not need to answer each and every one of them, but you should try to address most of them (at least in passing) in your essay.
Suggested format:
75 words: Introductory paragraph that ends with a clear thesis statement (that is, your argument and your answer to the question asked in the prompt).
200 words: body paragraph 1, which should contain your first example and a quotation from your first document.
200 words: body paragraph 2, which should contain your second example and a quotation from your second document. A transition paragraph between paragraphs should address the similarities/differences between your first and second example.
200 words: body paragraph 3, which should contain your third example and a quotation from your third document. A transition paragraph between paragraphs should address the similarities/differences between this example and your first two examples.
75 words: a concluding paragraph that compares your three examples and reiterates (not word-for-word!) your thesis from the introduction.
You MUST introduce and contextualize your quotes. We’ve read dozens of documents this term. You must tell your reader what document you’re quoting.
GOOD: Southern African Americans had their own definition of freedom. “We claim freedom as our natural right,” black residents of Nashville stated in a petition, “and ask that in harmony and co-operation with the nation at large, you should cut up the roots the system of slavery.” As these petitioners noted, the work of freedom remained incomplete, even after emancipation.
BAD: Southern African Americans had their own definition of freedom. “We claim freedom as our natural right, and ask that in harmony and co-operation with the nation at large, you should cut up the roots the system of slavery.”
The second example is extraordinarily confusing for your reader. Who are you quoting? Are these your words? Introduce your quotes, and then explain them in your own words.
You should also try to avoid extended quotations. In almost all circumstances, you shouldn’t be quoting more than one or two sentences at a time. When you’re trying to quote a longer passage, intersperse your own words as necessary. When I see paragraph-length citations I start to worry that you’re just trying to fill up space…

Historians use Chicago Manual of Style, Humanities format. Use footnotes, not parenthetical/in-text citations.

Cite the documents from Eric Foner’s Voices of Freedom as follows:

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, “Home Life,” in Eric Foner, ed. Voices of Freedom, Vol. 2, 6th Edition (New York: W.W. Norton, 2020), 14-17.

You do not need to cite my video lectures. Consider these to be common knowledge shared by the class.
Submit your document as a Microsoft Word file – or a similar word processing file. Do not convert the file to a PDF.
Late papers will lose 1/3 of a letter grade per 24 hours (i.e. A- becomes B+, C+ becomes C).
Please include a word count on your paper. 5E
VOICES OF FREEDOM
“““““““”H““““““““
A DOCUMENTARY HISTORY
VOLUME
2
ERIC FONER
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V OICES OF
F REEDOM
A Documentary History
Fifth Edition
Vo l u m e 2
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V OICES OF
F REEDOM
A Documentary History
Fifth Edition
EDITED BY
E R I C
F O N E R

Vo l u m e 2
n
W. W. N O R T O N & C O M PA N Y . N E W Y O R K . L O N D O N
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W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when
William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton ?rst published lectures delivered
at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper
Union. The ?rm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books
by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By midcentury, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were ?rmly
established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its
employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of
trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company
stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005 by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Manufacturing by Maple Press
Book design by Antonina Krass
Composition by Westchester Book Group
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Foner, Eric, 1943– editor.
Title: Voices of freedom: a documentary history / edited by Eric Foner.
Description: Fifth edition. | New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2016. |
Includes bibliographical references.
Identi?ers: LCCN 2016045203 | ISBN 9780393614497 (pbk., v. 1) |
ISBN 9780393614503 (pbk., v. 2)
Subjects: LCSH: United States—History—Sources. | United States—Politics
and government—Sources.
Classi?cation: LCC E173 .V645 2016 | DDC 973—dc23 LC record available at
https://lccn.loc.gov/2016045203
ISBN: 978-0-393-61450-3 (pbk.)
W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110
wwnorton .com
W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
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ERIC FONER is DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia
University, where he earned his B.A. and Ph.D. In his teaching and
scholarship, he focuses on the Civil War and Reconstruction, slavery,
and nineteenth- century America. Professor Foner’s publications
include Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican
Party Before the Civil War; Tom Paine and Revolutionary America; Politics
and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War; Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy; Reconstruction: American’s Un?nished Revolution,
1863–1877; Freedom’s Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Of?ceholders
During Reconstruction; The Story of American Freedom; Who Owns History? Rethinking the Past in a Changing World; and Forever Free: The
Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. His history of Reconstruction won the Los Angeles Times Book Award for History, the Bancroft
Prize, and the Parkman Prize. He served as president of the Organization of American Historians, the American Historical Association, and the Society of American Historians. His most recent trade
publications include The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American
Slavery, which won numerous awards including the Lincoln Prize,
the Bancroft Prize, and the Pulitzer Prize, and Gateway to Freedom:
The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad.
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Contents
Preface
xv
15
“What Is Freedom?”: Reconstruction, 1865– 1877
95. Petition of Black Residents of Nashville (1865)
1
96. Petition of Committee on Behalf of the Freedmen to
Andrew Johnson (1865)
4
97. The Mississippi Black Code (1865)
7
98. A Sharecropping Contract (1866)
11
99. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, “Home Life” (ca. 1875)
14
100. Frederick Douglass, “The Composite Nation” (1869)
18
101. Robert B. Elliott on Civil Rights (1874)
24
16
America’s Gilded Age, 1870– 1890
102. Jorgen and Otto Jorgensen, Homesteading in Montana (1908)
28
103. Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth (1889)
32
104. William Graham Sumner on Social Darwinism (ca. 1880)
35
vii
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Contents
viii
105. A Second Declaration of Independence (1879)
40
106. Henry George, Progress and Poverty (1879)
42
107. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward (1888)
45
108. Walter Rauschenbusch and the Social Gospel (1912)
49
17
Freedom’s Boundaries, at Home
and Abroad, 1890– 1900
109. The Populist Platform (1892)
52
110. Booker T. Washington, Address at the Atlanta Cotton
Exposition (1895)
57
111. W. E. B. Du Bois, A Critique of Booker T. Washington (1903)
61
112. Ida B. Wells, Crusade for Justice (ca. 1892)
64
113. Frances E. Willard, Women and Temperance (1883)
70
114. Josiah Strong, Our Country (1885)
72
115. Emilio Aguinaldo on American Imperialism in the
Philippines (1899)
74
18
The Progressive Era, 1900– 1916
116. Manuel Gamio on a Mexican-American Family and
American Freedom (ca. 1926)
77
117. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Women and Economics (1898)
81
118. John A. Ryan, A Living Wage (1912)
84
119. The Industrial Workers of the World and the Free
Speech Fights (1909)
87
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Contents
ix
120. Margaret Sanger on “Free Motherhood,” from Woman
and the New Race (1920)
92
121. Mary Church Terrell, “What It Means to Be Colored
in the Capital of the United States” (1906)
96
122. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom (1912)
100
123. R. G. Ashley, Unions and “The Cause of Liberty” (1910)
103
19
Safe for Democracy: The United States
and World War I, 1916– 1920
124. Woodrow Wilson, A World “Safe for Democracy” (1917)
105
125. Randolph Bourne, “War Is the Health of the State” (1918)
107
126. A Critique of the Versailles Peace Conference (1919)
112
127. Carrie Chapman Catt, Address to Congress on Women’s
Suffrage (1917)
114
128. Eugene V. Debs, Speech to the Jury (1918)
119
129. Rubie Bond, The Great Migration (1917)
123
130. Marcus Garvey on Africa for the Africans (1921)
127
131. John A. Fitch on the Great Steel Strike (1919)
130
20
From Business Culture to Great Depression:
The Twenties, 1920– 1932
132. André Siegfried on the “New Society,” from the
Atlantic Monthly (1928)
136
133. The Fight for Civil Liberties (1921)
140
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x
134. Bartolomeo Vanzetti’s Last Statement in Court (1927)
145
135. Congress Debates Immigration (1921)
147
136. Meyer v. Nebraska and the Meaning of Liberty (1923)
151
137. Alain Locke, The New Negro (1925)
155
138. Elsie Hill and Florence Kelley Debate the Equal Rights
Amendment (1922)
160
21
The New Deal, 1932– 1940
139. Letter to Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins (1937)
163
140. John Steinbeck, The Harvest Gypsies (1936)
166
141. Labor’s Great Upheaval (1937)
168
142. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Speech to the Democratic
National Convention (1936)
172
143. Herbert Hoover on the New Deal and Liberty (1936)
175
144. Norman Cousins, “Will Women Lose Their Jobs?” (1939)
178
145. Frank H. Hill on the Indian New Deal (1935)
183
146. W. E. B. Du Bois, “A Negro Nation within a Nation” (1935)
187
22
Fighting for the Four Freedoms:
World War II, 1941– 1945
147. Franklin D. Roosevelt on the Four Freedoms (1941)
192
148. Will Durant, Freedom of Worship (1943)
194
149. Henry R. Luce, The American Century (1941)
196
150. Henry A. Wallace on “The Century of the Common Man” (1942)
199
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151. F. A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (1944)
202
152. World War II and Mexican-Americans (1945)
205
153. African-Americans and the Four Freedoms (1944)
208
154. Justice Robert A. Jackson, Dissent in Korematsu v.
United States (1944)
210
23
The United States and the Cold War, 1945– 1953
155. Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic
of Vietnam (1945)
215
156. The Truman Doctrine (1947)
218
157. NSC 68 and the Ideological Cold War (1950)
221
158. Walter Lippmann, A Critique of Containment (1947)
225
159. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
228
160. President’s Commission on Civil Rights,
To Secure These Rights (1947)
234
161. Joseph R. McCarthy on the Attack (1950)
239
162. Margaret Chase Smith, Declaration of Conscience (1950)
242
163. Will Herberg, The American Way of Life (1955)
244
24
An Af f luent Society, 1953– 1960
164. Richard M. Nixon, “What Freedom Means to Us” (1959)
248
165. Daniel L. Schorr, “Reconverting Mexican Americans” (1946)
253
166. The Southern Manifesto (1956)
257
167. Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (1962)
259
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Contents
xii
168. C. Wright Mills on “Cheerful Robots” (1959)
262
169. Allen Ginsberg, “Howl” (1955)
265
170. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
267
25
The Sixties, 1960– 1968
171. John F. Kennedy, Speech on Civil Rights (1963)
272
172. Malcolm X, The Ballot or the Bullet (1964)
276
173. Barry Goldwater on “Extremism in the Defense
of Liberty” (1964)
280
174. Lyndon B. Johnson, Commencement Address at Howard
University (1965)
284
175. The Port Huron Statement (1962)
288
176. Paul Potter on the Antiwar Movement (1965)
294
177. The National Organization for Women (1966)
296
178. César Chavez, “Letter from Delano” (1969)
300
179. The International 1968 (1968)
304
26
The Triumph of Conservatism, 1969– 1988
180. Brochure on the Equal Rights Amendment (1970s)
307
181. Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle (1971)
309
182. The Sagebrush Rebellion (1979)
313
183. Jimmy Carter on Human Rights (1977)
316
184. Jerry Falwell, Listen, America! (1980)
319
185. Phyllis Schla?y, “The Fraud of the Equal Rights
Amendment” (1972)
324
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Contents
xiii
186. James Watt, “Environmentalists: A Threat to the Ecology
of the West” (1978)
327
187. Ronald Reagan, Inaugural Address (1981)
329
27
From Triumph to Tragedy, 1989– 2001
188. Pat Buchanan, Speech to the Republican
National Convention (1992)
332
189. Bill Clinton, Speech on Signing of NAFTA (1993)
334
190. Declaration for Global Democracy (1999)
336
191. The Beijing Declaration on Women (1995)
338
192. Puwat Charukamnoetkanok, “Triple Identity:
My Experience as an Immigrant in America” (1990)
343
28
A New Century and New Crises
193. The National Security Strategy of the United States (2002)
349
194. Robert Byrd on the War in Iraq (2003)
352
195. Second Inaugural Address of George W. Bush (2005)
356
196. Archbishop Roger Mahoney, “Called by God to Help” (2006)
359
197. Anthony Kennedy, Opinion of the Court in
Obergefell v. Hodges (2015)
198. Security, Liberty, and the War on Terror (2008)
362
366
199. Barack Obama, Eulogy at Emanuel African Methodist
Episcopal Church (2015)
368
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Preface
Voices of Freedom is a documentary history of American freedom
from the earliest days of European exploration and settlement of
the Western Hemisphere to the present. I have prepared it as a companion volume to Give Me Liberty!, my survey textbook of the history of the United States centered on the theme of freedom. This
?fth edition of Voices of Freedom is organized in chapters that correspond to those in the ?fth edition of the textbook. But it can also
stand independently as a documentary introduction to the history
of American freedom. The two volumes include more than twenty
documents not available in the third edition.
No idea is more fundamental to Americans’ sense of themselves
as individuals and as a nation than freedom, or liberty, with which
it is almost always used interchangeably. The Declaration of Independence lists liberty among mankind’s inalienable rights; the
Constitution announces as its purpose to secure liberty’s blessings.
“ Every man in the street, white, black, red or yellow,” wrote the
educator and statesman Ralph Bunche in 1940, “knows that this is
‘the land of the free’ . . . ‘the cradle of liberty.’ ”
The very universality of the idea of freedom, however, can be
misleading. Freedom is not a ?xed, timeless category with a single
unchanging de?nition. Rather, the history of the United States is, in
part, a story of debates, disagreements, and struggles over freedom.
Crises such as the American Revolution, the Civil War, and the Cold
xv
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xvi
Preface
War have permanently transformed the idea of freedom. So too
have demands by various groups of Americans for greater freedom
as they understood it.
In choosing the documents for Voices of Freedom, I have attempted
to convey the multifaceted history of this compelling and contested
idea. The documents re?ect how Americans at dif ferent points in
our history have de?ned freedom as an overarching idea, or have
understood some of its many dimensions, including political, religious, economic, and personal freedom. For each chapter, I have
tried to select documents that highlight the speci?c discussions of
freedom that occurred during that time period, and some of the
divergent interpretations of freedom at each point in our history. I
hope that students will gain an appreciation of how the idea of
freedom has expanded over time, and how it has been extended into
more and more areas of Americans’ lives. But at the same time, the
documents suggest how freedom for some Americans has, at various
times in our history, rested on lack of freedom— slavery, indentured servitude, the subordinate position of women—for others.
The documents that follow re?ect the kinds of historical developments that have shaped and reshaped the idea of freedom, including
war, economic change, territorial expansion, social protest movements, and international involvement. The selections try to convey
a sense of the rich cast of characters who have contributed to the
history of American freedom. They include presidential proclamations and letters by runaway slaves, famous court cases and obscure
manifestos, ideas dominant in a par ticular era and those of radicals
and dissenters. They range from advertisements in colonial newspapers seeking the return of runaway indentured servants and
slaves to debates in the early twentieth century over the de?nition of
economic freedom, the controversy over the proposed Equal Rights
Amendment for women, and recent Supreme Court decisions dealing with the balance between liberty and security in war time.
I have been particularly attentive to how battles at the boundaries of freedom—the efforts of racial minorities, women, and
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Preface
xvii
others to secure greater freedom—have deepened and transformed
the concept and extended it into new realms. In addition, in this
?fth edition I have included a number of new documents that illustrate how the history of the western United States, and more particularly the borderlands area of the Southwest, have affected the
evolution of the idea of freedom. These include the Texas Declaration of Independence of 1836, a reminiscence about homesteading
in the West in the late nineteenth century, a report on the status
of Mexican-Americans in the aftermath of World War II, and an
explanation of the so-called Sagebrush Rebellion of the 1970s.
All of the documents in this collection are “primary sources”—
that is, they were written or spoken by men and women enmeshed
in the events of the past, rather than by later historians. They therefore offer students the opportunity to encounter ideas about freedom in the actual words of participants in the drama of American
history. Some of the documents are reproduced in their entirety.
Most are excerpts from longer interviews, articles, or books. In editing the documents, I have tried to remain faithful to the original
purpose of the author, while highlighting the portion of the text
that deals directly with one or another aspect of freedom. In most
cases, I have reproduced the wording of the original texts exactly.
But I have modernized the spelling and punctuation of some early
documents to make them more understandable to the modern
reader. Each document is preceded by a brief introduction that
places it in historical context and is followed by two questions that
highlight key elements of the argument and may help to focus
students’ thinking about the issues raised by the author.
A number of these documents were suggested by students in
a U.S. history class at Juniata College in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania,
taught by Professor David Hsiung. I am very grateful to these students, who responded enthusiastically to an assignment by Professor Hsiung that asked them to locate documents that might be
included in this edition of Voices of Freedom and to justify their
choices with historical arguments. Some of the documents are
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Preface
included in the online exhibition, “Preserving American Freedom,”
created by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Taken together, the documents in these volumes suggest the
ways in which American freedom has changed and expanded over
time. But they also remind us that American history is not simply
a narrative of continual progress toward greater and greater freedom.
While freedom can be achieved, it may also be reduced or rescinded.
It can never be taken for granted.
Eric Foner
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V OICES OF
F REEDOM
A Documentary History
Fifth Edition
Vo l u m e 2
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CHAPTER 15
“What Is Freedom?”:
Reconstruction, 1865– 1877
95. Petition of Black Residents of Nashville
(1865)
Source: Newspaper clipping enclosed in Col. R. D. Mussey to Capt.
C. P. Brown, January 23, 1865, Letters Received, ser. 925, Department
of the Cumberland, U.S. Army Continental Commands, National Archives.
At the request of military governor Andrew Johnson, Lincoln exempted
Tennessee from the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 (although many
slaves in the state gained their freedom by serving in the Union army).
In January 1865, a state convention was held to complete the work of
abolition. A group of free blacks of Nashville sent a petition to the delegates, asking for immediate action to end slavery and granting black
men the right to vote (which free blacks had enjoyed in the state until
1835). The document emphasized their loyalty to the Union, their natural right to freedom, and their willingness to take on the responsibilities
of citizenship. The document offers a revealing snapshot of black consciousness at the dawn of Reconstruction.
1
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