CRIM 1208 KPU Mental Health and Poverty in the Criminal Justice System Paper Write the introduction (part1) According to the draft by followed instructions

CRIM 1208 KPU Mental Health and Poverty in the Criminal Justice System Paper Write the introduction (part1) According to the draft by followed instructions. I need part 1 completely from youAnd add up on the draft (part2)Complete part 2 i have attached the requirements for the assignment and the part 2 that i have done myself and that need to be completed and modified according to the outline Running head: Mental Health and Poverty
Mental Health and Poverty in the Criminal Justice System
Kwantlen Polytechnic University
Literature Review
Submitted by: Kunal Khera
Student number- 100371502
Mental Health and Poverty
Research Question: How does Criminal Justice System deal with homeless and
mentally ill people?
Interaction with police
Percentage of arrested people who are mentally ill
Have you ever prescribed medication for mental illness?
This literature review examines the highly debated subject of the relationships
between the poor, mentally ill, and the youth with the criminal justice system. It has
been found, that people with mental illness are more prone to aggression or violent
behavior which is associated with criminal behavior (Michalski, 2017). Mentally ill people
have a greater risk of criminal justice system involvement compared with general
population (Roy, Crocker, Nicholls & Isaak, 2016). Problems such as unemployment are
prominent factors of criminality like physical or sexual abuse and homelessness are
common among people with mental illness (Draine, Salzer, Culhane & Hadley, 2002).
Additionally, deficiencies in the child and youth mental wellness are seems to be
responsible for bringing many youths with mental disorders into juvenile justice system
(Anakwenze & Zuberi, 2013).
Poverty is the serious risk factor for mental illness. Additionally, Zuberi and
Anakwenze discussed that, poverty and mental health have bidirectional relationship
that means poverty often leading to mental illness and mental illness reinforcing the
poverty. The criminal justice system represents this relationship that, most of mentally
sick are arrested, and this sustains poverty for those within that population.
Furthermore, imprisonment reduces the potential future employment for them which
Mental Health and Poverty
results in the poverty and involvement in the criminal activities (Anakwenze & Zuberi,
Contact of Mentally Ill with Criminal Justice System
“However, mental illness had an indirect connection with higher mortality that is
mediated through criminal justice involvement” (McCandless, Stewart, Rempel, Venners
& Somers, 2014, p. 462). Large number of mentally ill offenders are vastly overrepresented in the prison population around the world. And these people are more
vulnerable to arrest and they experience repeated encounters with the criminal justice
system (McCandless et. al., 2014). In Canada, more than 1 in 10 males and 3 in 10
females imprisoned in Canada have presented with mental illness upon their admission
in federal custody (Michalski, 2017). Beside this, prison inmates are far more overrepresented in the violence categories, such as assaults and sexual crimes as opposed
to other wrongdoings. Subsequently, the criminalization of the mentally ill has been
perceived as problematic (Michalski, 2017). “Local mental health services have been
insufficient and underfunded in wake of deinstitutionalization policies, contributed to
excessive visibility of persons with mental illness in the community” (Michalski, 2017, p.
6). That visibility expands their interactions with the police and the probability of being
included with the criminal justice system. Furthermore, Michalski found that police used
more force with the mentally unstable in part because of more violent behavior during
the encounters (Michalski, 2017). The number of police interactions is double with
mentally retarded people which result in a nervousness or arrest than police
involvements with non-mentally ill citizens (Jones, Nicholls, Crocker, Roy & Somers,
Mental Health and Poverty
Additionally, homelessness and mental illness subsequently presents
autonomous and co-occurring challenge for criminal justice system. Serious mental
sickness is pervasive among homeless. Also, co-occurring homelessness and mental
illness is related with higher rates of criminality and criminal justice contact than for
people experiencing these difficulties (Jones et. al., 2017). Moreover, mentally retarded
and homeless people are involved in forensic services across jurisdictions. Police and
corrections have high rate of contact among homeless and mentally ill adults across
lseveral jurisdictions which include Canada as well as United States (Jones et. al.,
2017). A study suggests that “Canadian legislation and police, court, and other legal
practices lead to repeated criminalization of homeless adults who live with mentalillness and those who subsistence behaviors are under constant scrutiny because it
occurs in public places and/or who commit minor, non-violent offences” (Roy, Crocker,
Nicholls, Latimer & Isaak, 2016, p. 79).
In Canada, there has been a purposeful exertion to reframe mental well-being
issues in restorative system as falling under the authoritative requirements of Canada
Health Act. Correctional Service Canada has the responsibility to provide essential
health care to every inmate and access to non-essential mental health care that will add
to inmate’s restoration and successful reintegration into the community (Michalski,
Mental Health and Poverty
Anakwenze, U., & Zuberi, D. (2013). Mental health and poverty in the inner
city. Health & Social Work, 38(3), 147–157. Retrieved from
Draine, J., Salzer, M. S., Culhane, D. P., & Hadley, T. R. (2002). Role of social
disadvantage in crime, joblessness, and homelessness among persons with serious
mental illness. Psychiatric Services, Retrieved from. 10.1176/
Roy, L., Crocker, A. G., Nicholls, T. L., Latimer, E., & Isaak, C. A. (2016).
Predictors of criminal justice system trajectories of homeless adults living with mental
illness. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 49(Pt A), 75-83. Retrieved from
Michalski, J. H. (2017). Mental health issues and the canadian criminal justice
system. Contemporary Justice Review, 20(1), 2-25.
McCandless, L. C., Stewart, L. C., Rempel, E. S., Venners, S. A., & Somers, J.
M. (2015). Criminal justice system contact and mortality among offenders with mental
illness in british columbia: An assessment of mediation. Journal of Epidemiology and
Community Health, 69(5), 460.
Nijdam-Jones, A., Nicholls, T. L., Crocker, A. G., Roy, L., & Somers, J. M. (2017).
History of forensic mental health service use among homeless adults with mental
illness. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 16(1), 69-82.
Summer 2020
Kwantlen Polytechnic University
Instructor: Christopher Giles
I do not expect that everyone will do the same proposal in the same way, and that is OK. There
is more than one way to do a “good” proposal, just as there is more than one way to do a poor
one. I will respond to your questions and give you advice, but you are the one who has to decide
how you want to meet the course requirement. In making your choice, keep in mind that the chief
purpose of the proposal is to show what you have learned about research methods.
Your proposal will be structured much like a primary research journal article, and should follow
that basic format, except that you are not required to (and must not) carry out the study. This
means that you will not be including Results/Findings, Conclusions or Discussions sections. The
one slightly different twist is to remind you that this proposal is part of a methods course, so
remember that my interest is more focused on the methodological issues and terminology, and
the research choices you made (and why) that are applicable to your proposed research. We will
be discussing these components throughout the course. When thinking about your research
proposal, consider that all research consists of a series of decisions made by the researcher;
sometimes these decisions are dictated by practical factors while other decisions belong solely to
the researcher.
This document provides a summary of the following:
The general criteria used for grading Part I and Part II of your research proposal.
Detailed instructions regarding referencing in your written assignments.
A checklist of things to look out for when writing up your proposal and putting the final
product together.
General Criteria for Grading Proposals
Understanding and incorporation of course material;
Appropriate use of outside material;
Meets instructions of the Proposal Guidelines provided below;
Grammar, syntax, spelling, organization;
Proper referencing and citations (See Instructions for Referencing in Written
Assignments below)
Some Suggestions for Research Proposals
You should pick a topic in criminology that personally interests you. For example, if you
plan on entering the policing profession, you might propose a research project that
involves police in some way.
The focus of the research proposal should be concise (more on this below). This means
that you would be able to complete the proposed research (if actually undertaken) within
Summer 2020
a semester. For example, randomly sampling all judges in BC to analyse their
perspectives on sentencing is:
o Too broad (the focus of the research)
o Could not be conceivably completed in a semester because the data collection,
analysis and access would take considerably longer than a semester.
Additional Ground Rules for Proposal Topics
1. You must propose a primary research study.
a. This means that you must propose to collect data from participants you want to be
in your study.
b. You cannot propose to undertake a literature review (this is referred to as
secondary research) as the focus of your proposal. However, you will include a
literature review section in Part II of your proposal.
2. Your study must be interactive.
a. This means that you must propose to collect information directly (i.e., interact
through a survey or interview) from people who possess the knowledge of interest.
3. You must choose to do either a qualitative or a quantitative study.
a. The choice will revolve around whether you want “rich detail/understanding of
processes” (qualitative) or whether you want to determine the relationships
between indicators/variables of interest (quantitative).
4. Your study must be proposed in a localized context.
a. Specific area(s) of BC, such as Vancouver, Surrey etc.
5. Your study must be exploratory.
a. This means no longitudinal research is acceptable.
Your Research Proposal is comprised of 2 parts:
1. Part I serves as an introduction to your research proposal and it is due at 4:00 PM
after our Week 5 class.
2. Part II is your final research proposal and it is due at 4:00 PM after our Week 11
Research Proposal Part I – 5% of Final Grade
Due Date: 4:00 PM after our class in Week 5. Assignments are to be uploaded to the assignment
folder in Week 5.
1. It should be approximately 1.5 pages in length.
2. It serves as the introduction to your Final Research Proposal (see below)
As an introduction to your proposal, this part of the assignment outlines the purposes of your
research and the specific research question(s) of interest. These will be clarified in greater detail
in Weeks 2-3.
Summer 2020
An introduction provides an answer to the “So What?” question. This question is critical because
it provides a focus for your reader (me) and helps to link your proposal to the broader academic,
societal and/or policy context. In other words, it justifies the importance of your broader topic
(i.e., intimate partner violence in homosexual relationships) and the elements (reporting practices
and help-seeking behaviour of IPV survivors on campus) of your topic that are the focus of your
research question(s). Also, it indicates that you have spent time examining the literature on your
chosen topic. I expect you to incorporate a minimum of three outside sources into your
introduction. If you are confused about the structure of an introduction, please speak with me
and/or examine a couple of journal articles on your topic of interest. In addition, I expect you to
list 3 additional sources on a separate page that you intend on incorporating into the
literature review section of Part II of your research proposal.
Additional Notes on the Structure of an Introduction:
An introduction begins with a general assessment of the importance of a general research
topic (i.e., child abuse, gangs, intimate partner violence) using academic sources (i.e.,
statistics, etc.).
2. An introduction then moves to justify/discuss the importance of each of the specific focal
areas of the research.
3. Importance is broadly defined as:
a. Academic, societal and/or policy importance.
b. An under-researched phenomenon in a specific context.
Research Proposal Part II – 25% of Final Grade
Due Date: 4:00 PM after our class in Week 11. Assignments are to be uploaded to the
assignment folder in Week 11.
Full Proposal Guidelines
Your final proposal should be approximately 7 to 8 pages in length (title page, original
introduction, TCPS assignment, references and appendices not included). Seven
pages is an absolute minimum because your proposal will not be complete if it is shorter
than 7 pages. Proposals longer than 8 pages are fine, but please check with me about
the page length if it will exceed 10 pages.
Title Page
The title of your paper should convey the subject matter in 15 words or less. Do not call it
anything like “Crim 1208 Project” (this gives no information about content), or “A
Quantitative Analysis” (not specific enough). A title like “Left Out in the Cold: An Analysis
of the Needs of Abused Women in Temporary Shelters in Surrey, BC ” is much better;
right away, the reader can see what it is about. Your name, student number, section
number and class date/time, and my name should appear somewhere on this cover page.
Remember to spell my name correctly – Chris Giles.
In your final proposal you are required to attach Part I of your research proposal with my
comments/feedback. Final proposals will not be graded if this is missing.
Summer 2020
Literature Review (25%)
The literature review contextualizes your proposal within the broader literature and is
related to the specific elements your research question(s)/foci. Most importantly, it should
provide a useful framework for the methods section. My advice is to be specific about the
research question(s)/foci you propose to address.
In essence, a literature review
presents past research on the specific components of your research focus/question. It
should be organized thematically and is not a listed summary of past research (which is
called an annotated bibliography). You may include past research from anywhere
(i.e., does not have to be restricted to BC or Canada), as long as it is academic. In
addition, the majority of your sources should be comprised of primary research, not
books or literature reviews.
It should address these types of questions:
What have other researchers said about your specific topic and the elements of
your topic?
o This can include theory that is relevant to your proposed research.
o However, it must be focused on research findings from past research.
Are there consistencies in findings or do past studies disagree?
For the purposes of this course a general guideline is that the literature review should be
approximately 3 pages and it must include 8 to 10 outside sources (you may use 2
secondary sources total). Also, please be aware that you will need to examine more
primary research than the first 8 to 10 sources you find in a search list. Many of the
sources you review may not be directly related to your specific topic. Generally, this
assessment of relevance may be done quickly and we will have a tutorial on this at some
point during the semester.
Method (50%)
This is a primary component of your paper and will be much more detailed than the
methods sections that typically appear in published journal articles. The questions noted
below are not exhaustive and should be used as guidelines. How these sections are
addressed will depend on your approach to the proposed research. You must use source
material, (the class text at a minimum). The key here is to explain your methods well
enough so that it is clear to me what you are proposing to do and why, and the link between
your research question(s) and your methods should be clear. Your method should be
approximately 4 pages in length and should use the sub-headings indicated below.
Research Purpose (5%)
What is the purpose of the proposed research?
What are the specific components of the proposed research and why are they
What are your primary research questions/hypotheses?
Sample selection/site (10%)
Who or what will you study in order to collect the data?
Summer 2020
What are the units of analysis in specific concrete terms?
What are the criteria for inclusion in your sample?
Identify how you will contact/acquire access to this sample? (Sample selection and
o Who are the gatekeepers and how they will be negotiated?
What is your desired sample size?
How will you accomplish the sample selection? (Sampling technique and
Research technique/data collection procedure (15%)
What is the nature of the approach that is being proposed and why is it appropriate?
(i.e., exploratory, qualitative, etc.)
How will the data be collected? (data collection technique and research instrument
How will rapport and credibility be established with participants?
Are the proposed methodology and data collection techniques justified?
How will you collect data from participants? What is the specific process?
o Describe the location/setting.
o How will information be recorded and why is this appropriate? (Video, audio,
hand written, etc.)
What methods will be implemented to ensure reliable and valid data? (quantitative)
What procedures of trustworthiness/validity will be employed to ensure the quality of
the data? (qualitative)
Research Question/Empirical indicators/Key Concepts (10%)
This section will be quite different depending on your research questions and approach
If your study is quantitative/positivist you will need to address:
What are the key variables in the study?
How will the key variables be defined and measured?
Do definitions and measurement methods duplicate or differ from those of previous
research on this topic?
Was the research instrument discussed and explained with reference to the research
questions? (a copy of the instrument may be provided in the appendix)
Is there a clear link between the research questions and the indicators?
If your study is qualitative/constructionist you will need to address:
What are the categories of information to be collected?
How will you ensure that detailed information is collected? (Discussion of probes, prompts
and follow-ups)
Was a discussion of reflexivity given?
Is there a clear link between the research question(s)/foci and the categories of
information to be collected?
Summer 2020
Ethical Implications (10%)
This section addresses:
? What are the potential impacts (harms/benefits) that the research project could have on
those you plan to study?
? How will you ensure that participants/sites are not harmed by the research? (informed
consent forms may be attached in an appendix)
o Did you address Informed consent, voluntary, confidentiality/anonymity?
? Are there specifically considerations because of the unique needs of the participants?
(vulnerable populations)
TCPS 2 (10%) Certificate of Completion
This must be attached to your proposal…
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