PNGE 470 Colorado State University Accuracy of Positive Displacement Meters Lab Report Hi there I attached the instructions for the lab and 2 samples work, I have one more sample also if u want PNGE 470

EXPERIMENT 2

SONIC NOZZLE FLOW PROVER

INTRODUCTION

The sonic nozzle flow prover is a portable meter proving device which can be

used to test positive displacement meters. It is operable at a pressure of 5

psig or more by passing gas or air through the meter and the flow prover and

discharging it into the atmosphere. The minimum test pressure is governed

by the fact that sufficient pressure must exist across the nozzle to insure sonic

velocity at the nozzle throat. This requirement is met when the nozzle

discharge absolute pressure is less than 85% of the absolute nozzle upstream

pressure (80% for nozzle sizes A and B). Approximate critical flow rates of

sonic flow nozzles are given in table 1 below. Table 1 can be used to

determine the nozzle sizes which should be used for the tests.

TABLE 1

Size Code

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

J

Throat Size

Inch

0.094

0.125

0.183

0.250

0.312

0.375

0.438

0.500

0.625

Time for One ft3 of Air

Seconds

36.00

18.450

8.00

4.598

2.88

2.0355

1.47

1.1404

7.290

PNGE 470

EXPERIMENT 2

TEST PROCEDURE

SONIC NOZZLE FLOW PROVER

1. Attach the Prover close to the outlet of the meter (See Figure 1).

2. Pass air through the meter and the prover. The air must be passed

through the prover until the temperature on the thermometer become

constant. The pressure should be maintained throughout the test.

3. Use a stop watch to record the time (in seconds) required for a specific

number of cubic meter to register on the meter.

4. It is recommended to conduct the test at three flow rates

(Approximately 20%, 50%, and 80% of the meter capacity). Do not

exceed the maximum capacity of the meter.

5. The test time should not be less than 100 seconds, preferably 150 to

200 seconds.

6. Calculate the Proof of the meter using:

? t ?? 1 ?? F T P F ?

%Proof = ? ?? ?? a m n R ?

? ts ?? Vt ?? Tn Pm ?

t = Test Time, seconds

ts = Standard Time, seconds ( Stamped on the Nozzle )

Vt = Test Volume, cu.ft.

Fa = Factor for Air, Table 2

Tm = Meter Temperature, oR

Tn = Nozzle Temperature, oR

Pm = Meter Pressure, psia

Tn = Nozzle Pressure, psia

FR = Reynold’s Number Factor, Table 3

When %Proof is more than 100%, the meter is slow.

PNGE 470

EXPERIMENT 2

SONIC NOZZLE FLOW PROVER

FIGURE 1. PROVER ASSEMBLY

PRECAUTIONS

1. Noise level will be high and earplugs must be used.

2. The nozzles should be handled carefully.

3. Errors are introduced if pressure and temperature are not constant

during the test.

TABLE 2

TABLE 3.FR Factor

6/30/2020

PNGE 470

Lab 2

mohammed Alfaqeer, Raeed Alzyadi

Objective:

The main goal of the experiment is to show the accuracy of the gas meter by comparing a known

volume of air with the gas register and calculating the percentage proof of the meter.

Equipment:

1- Different sizes for the sonic flow nozzle prover.

2- Valve to control the flow.

3- Pressure tap.

4- Thermometer.

5- Stop watch.

Theory:

The sonic nozzle flow prover dates back to over 25 years and has been under constant

improvement over the years and became very important with the gas production. It is a portable

meter device that is used to test the positive displacement and is operable at pressures of 5 psig

or higher. Where the gas would flow through the meter and the prover then discharged into the

atmosphere.

Moreover, enough pressure must exit across the nozzle to achieve the sonic velocity at

the nozzle throat. This requirement is achieved when the discharge pressure is less than 85% of

the upstream pressure, or 80% for nozzles A and B.

The percentage of proof is used to determine if the meter is considered slow or fast.

%?????????? =

?? 1 ???? ? ???? ? ???? ? ????

? ?

???? ????

???? ? ????

t: test time in seconds

ts: standard time (on the nozzle) in seconds

Vt: test volume in ft3

Fa: factor of air from tables

Tm: meter temperature in Rankine

Tn: Nozzle temperature in Rankine

Pm: meter pressure in psia

Pn: Nozzle pressure in psia

FR: Reynolds number factor from tables

Note that when %?????????? > 100%, it is considered slow. If %?????????? < 100%, it is fast.
Procedure & Precaution:
1- Using earplugs since the level of the noise is high.
2- Handling the nozzles carefully for safety reasons.
3- Connecting the prover to the O ring.
4- Connecting the nozzle flow to the meter outlet.
5- Passing the air through the prover until the temperature on the thermometer becomes
constant.
6- Recording the time in seconds for each size.
7- The time is preferred to be between 150 to 200 seconds.
8- Using the proper equations, calculating the proof of the meter.
Results:
B
Test time
Nozzle pressure
nozzle temperature
meter pressure
Meter Temperature
Standard time
t
Pn
Tn
Pm
Tm
ts
177.70
29.73
537.00
30.73
537.00
18.45
sec
psia
F
psia
F
sec
Volume
air factor
Reynold factor
Percentage proof
Percent Accuracy
Vt
Fa
Fr
%Proof
%Accuracy
10.00 ft^3
101.62
1.001
94.78
105.50
Test time
Nozzle pressure
nozzle temperature
meter pressure
Meter Temperature
Standard time
Volume
air factor
Reynold factor
Percentage proof
Percent Accuracy
D
t
Pn
Tn
Pm
Tm
ts
Vt
Fa
Fr
Proof
%Accuracy
180.58
28.23
537.00
29.23
537.00
4.60
40.00
101.62
1.000
96.36
103.78
sec
psia
F
psia
F
sec
ft^3
199.48
26.73
537.00
27.73
537.00
2.04
100.00
101.62
1.000
96.00
104.17
sec
psia
F
psia
F
sec
ft^3
F
Test time
Nozzle pressure
nozzle temperature
meter pressure
Meter Temperature
Standard time
Volume
air factor
Reynold factor
Percentage proof
Percent Accuracy
t
Pn
Tn
Pm
Tm
ts
Vt
Fa
Fr
Proof
%Accuracy
Discussion of results:
From the tables above, we can see that the highest percentage of proof was for size code
D while the lowest percentage of proof was for the size code B. Moreover, since size codes B, D
and F all show a percentage of proof less than 100%, they are all considered to be fast.
In addition, it can be noted that whenever the throat size increases, the time it takes for
the air volume to be registered by the meter increases. So it can be established that there is a
relationship between them.
Furthermore, the upstream pressure decreases as the throat size increases. Indicating an
inversely proportional relationship between them.
Conclusion:
Appendix:
Sample calculation for Size case B:
???? = 15 + 14.73 = 29.73 ????????
???? = 29.73 + 1 = 30.73 ????????
???? = 77 + 460 = 537 ?? = ????
For finding Fa and Fr, interpolation is used:
????:
78 ? 76
78 ? 77
=
, ?????????????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? = 101.62
101.71 ? 101.52 101.71 ? ????
???? :
20 ? 10
20 ? 15
=
, ?????????????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? = 1.001
1.002 ? 1.000 1.002 ? ????
%?????????? =
177.7 1 101.62 ? 537 ? 29.73 ? 1.001
?
?
= 94.78%
18.45 10
537 ? 30.73
Summer 2020
PNGE470
PNGE 470
Lab#2
7/1/2020
Objective:
Summer 2020
PNGE470
The main goal for this experiment is to conduct an experiment using the sonic nozzle
flow prover device. This device is used to test positive displacement meters over a certain time.
Also, it is operable at 5 psig or more and its main component is passing fluid through the meter
and the flow prover orifice and discharging it into the atmosphere. For this experiment, the sonic
nozzle is to be tested at the required pressure. Three different runs for this data with three
different flow rates. Another aspect for this experiment is to ensure that sufficient pressure exist
through the nozzle. Also, when the nozzle is discharged the absolute pressure is less than 85% of
the absolute nozzle. Table1 can show the approximate critical flow and the time taken for
different types of nozzles.
Summer 2020
PNGE470
Equipments:
Thermometer
Pressure
tap
Flow
Sonic flow
Used to measure Temprature
Used to isolate pressure
Flow in (downstream)
nozzle
Flow out (Upstream) = atmosphere
Three different types of sonic flow nozzles is to be used in this experiment.
Theory:
A prover is a device used to measure the accuracy of a gas meter and checks weather it
meets the standard conditions. There are many types of nozzles prover. However, the sonic
nozzle prover was used to conduct this experiment. Sonic nozzle prover is a device that is used to
test positive displacement meters over a certain time. Positive displacement meters measure the
volume of gas and or liquid that passes through and to attain the flow rate.
The sonic nozzle prover runs at pressure of 5 psig or more. Also, sufficient amount of
pressure must exist through the nozzle in order to maintain constant velocity. This experiment
can be done by passing certain amount of cubic meters of a fluid through the orifice of the sonic
nozzle prover and will be released into the atmosphere. Different throat sizes have different
Summer 2020
PNGE470
index rates and time for one cubic foot of air to flow. The proof meter stays constant despit the
change in operating pressure. The proof can be calculated as a percentage if the amount of gas or
liquid that passes through the orifice is known using the equation below.
%?????????? =
???????? ????????
? 100
?????????????? ????????
This equation illustrate the relationship between the test time and the correct time both of which
are measured in seconds. Also if the %proof is more that 100%, it means that the meter is slow.
Test time is for the predetermine volume to register in the meter and the correct time is
for the time that is on the nozzles. Correct time might be different for each type of nozzle. Table1
shows the type of nozzle and its associated data for a one cubic foot of air to flow. However, it is
different when dealing with more than one cubic foot of dry gas and a new equation has been
found and this equation is showen below.
?? 1 ????????????????
%?????????? = ( )( )(
)
???? ????
????????
Where:
t = test time, seconds
ts = Standard time, seconds(on the nozzle)
Vt = test volume(cu.ft)
Fa = factor for air
Tm = meter temp
Pn= nozzle pressure
Fr= rynold`s number factor
Tn= nozzle temp
pm= meter pressure
Procedure:
1- Attach the prover close to the outlet to the out let of the meter. A tight connection is
important to avoid pressure drop between the flow meter and the prover.
Summer 2020
PNGE470
2- The valve is opened so the gas can pass through the meter and the prover and the time
should be measured using a stop watch. The gas should keep flowing through the prover
and the meter until the thermometer became constant.
3- The rate of time is being conducted for three different flow rates each rate shold be
measured at an index rate based on the type of nozzle. These index ranges from 10% and
20% to 50%, and from 80% to 100% and are rated for the capacity of the meter.
4- The time for each trial should not be less than 100 seconds, preferably from 150 second
up to 200 seconds.
5- The time stops when the index reading covers a period of one or more revelations from
the prover hand on the index.
6- The nozzles are indicated by a stamps which reads the amount of time required for the
passage for one cubic foot of air at specific temperature and pressure.
7- Knowing the exact amount of air or gas passing through the nozzle at given temperature
and pressure, the accuracy of the meter can be calculated.
Results:
After the experiment concluded, it has been found out that factor for air proving at room
temperature was 101.7 using table 2. Also, Fr has been found using Table 3. Regardless the
nozzle in-place, the air factor did not change much due to very close values. The accuracy of the
diphgram was near 99% which is great. These calculations have many sources of error. One of
which is timing accuracy. Also, calculations might been wrong due to change in the units, etc.
Finally, we assumed if we had our percent proof above 100% the nozzle was slow.
Summer 2020
size code Vt
cu.ft
B
10
D
40
F
100
PNGE470
t
ts
sec
sec
177.7 1.7
180.58 1.3
199.48 1.23
PN
psig
29.7
28.2
26.7
PM
psig
30.7
29.2
27.7
TN
f
537
537
537
TM
f
537
537
537
Fa
Fr
101.7 1.002
101.7 1.001
101.7 1.001
%proof
99.7
99.87
99.54
Disscussion:
In the beginning of the experiment, every nozzle was saturated and caliprated at a given
pressure and temperature a cubic foot of air will pass through the orifice in a given amount of
time. Since we have known amount of fluid passing through the nozzle, the accuracy can be
calculated using the meter. For dry-air, the repeatability of the measurements is constant with
that observed in previous measurements, with typical standard deviation at certain percentage. At
higher humidity levels, the variation is slightly larger, which may be attributed to possible
instability of the humidity level attained in the bell. It is really important to know that the effect
due to the change in the density of the air due to the addition of water vapor are already included
in the sonic nozzle prover equation and it is due to the change in the effective area of the nozzle.
A variety of errors might occur in this experiment such as the nozzle not being
manufactured to a certain specifications or by the ambient temperature being higher or lower
than the calibration temperature. Errors can be also interduced by a faulty stopwatch or to start
and stop the timer at wrong timing. Errors can be limited by limiting the amount of involvement
in the lab.
Summer 2020
Appendix:
Table1
PNGE470
Summer 2020
Table 2
PNGE470
Summer 2020
Table 3
References:
- Notes on ecampus.
PNGE470
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