ISOL 53502 Abcott History of Caesar Cypher and Impact on Cryptography Discussion Part 1: After reading chapter 3, analyze the history of the Caesar Cypher

ISOL 53502 Abcott History of Caesar Cypher and Impact on Cryptography Discussion Part 1: After reading chapter 3, analyze the history of the Caesar Cypher and its impact on cryptography. (350-400 Words)Part 2: You are also required to post a response to a minimum of two other student in the class by the end of the week. (100-120 Words per response)Please make sure that the Discussion is APA formatted, citations and references, as well (You must use at least one scholarly resource) By submitting this discussion, you agree for Plagiarism check with all the existing internal student papers and outside external references. CRYPTOGRAPHY AND
NETWORK SECURITY
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
SEVENTH EDITION
GLOBAL EDITION
William Stallings
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CONTENTS
Notation 10
Preface 12
About the Author 18
PART ONE: BACKGROUND 19
Chapter 1 Computer and Network Security Concepts 19
1.1
Computer Security Concepts 21
1.2
The OSI Security Architecture 26
1.3
Security Attacks 27
1.4
Security Services 29
1.5
Security Mechanisms 32
1.6
Fundamental Security Design Principles 34
1.7
Attack Surfaces and Attack Trees 37
1.8
A Model for Network Security 41
1.9
Standards 43
1.10
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 44
Chapter 2 Introduction to Number Theory 46
2.1
Divisibility and the Division Algorithm 47
2.2
The Euclidean Algorithm 49
2.3
Modular Arithmetic 53
2.4
Prime Numbers 61
2.5
Fermat’s and Euler’s Theorems 64
2.6
Testing for Primality 68
2.7
The Chinese Remainder Theorem 71
2.8
Discrete Logarithms 73
2.9
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 78
Appendix 2A The Meaning of Mod 82
PART TWO: SYMMETRIC CIPHERS 85
Chapter 3 Classical Encryption Techniques 85
3.1
Symmetric Cipher Model 86
3.2
Substitution Techniques 92
3.3
Transposition Techniques 107
3.4
Rotor Machines 108
3.5
Steganography 110
3.6
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 112
Chapter 4 Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard 118
4.1
Traditional Block Cipher Structure 119
4.2
The Data Encryption Standard 129
4.3
A DES Example 131
4.4
The Strength of DES 134
3
4
CONTENTS
4.5
Block Cipher Design Principles 135
4.6
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 137
Chapter 5 Finite Fields 141
5.1
Groups 143
5.2
Rings 145
5.3
Fields 146
5.4
Finite Fields of the Form GF(p) 147
5.5
Polynomial Arithmetic 151
5.6
Finite Fields of the Form GF(2n) 157
5.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 169
Chapter 6 Advanced Encryption Standard 171
6.1
Finite Field Arithmetic 172
6.2
AES Structure 174
6.3
AES Transformation Functions 179
6.4
AES Key Expansion 190
6.5
An AES Example 193
6.6
AES Implementation 197
6.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 202
Appendix 6A Polynomials with Coefficients in GF(28) 203
Chapter 7 Block Cipher Operation 207
7.1
Multiple Encryption and Triple DES 208
7.2
Electronic Codebook 213
7.3
Cipher Block Chaining Mode 216
7.4
Cipher Feedback Mode 218
7.5
Output Feedback Mode 220
7.6
Counter Mode 222
7.7
XTS-AES Mode for Block-Oriented Storage Devices 224
7.8
Format-Preserving Encryption 231
7.9
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 245
Chapter 8 Random Bit Generation and Stream Ciphers 250
8.1
Principles of Pseudorandom Number Generation 252
8.2
Pseudorandom Number Generators 258
8.3
Pseudorandom Number Generation Using a Block Cipher 261
8.4
Stream Ciphers 267
8.5
RC4 269
8.6
True Random Number Generators 271
8.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 280
PART THREE: ASYMMETRIC CIPHERS 283
Chapter 9 Public-Key Cryptography and RSA 283
9.1
Principles of Public-Key Cryptosystems 285
9.2
The RSA Algorithm 294
9.3
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 308
CONTENTS
Chapter 10 Other Public-Key Cryptosystems 313
10.1
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange 314
10.2
Elgamal Cryptographic System 318
10.3
Elliptic Curve Arithmetic 321
10.4
Elliptic Curve Cryptography 330
10.5
Pseudorandom Number Generation Based on an Asymmetric Cipher 334
10.6
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 336
PART FOUR: CRYPTOGRAPHIC DATA INTEGRITY ALGORITHMS 339
Chapter 11 Cryptographic Hash Functions 339
11.1
Applications of Cryptographic Hash Functions 341
11.2
Two Simple Hash Functions 346
11.3
Requirements and Security 348
11.4
Hash Functions Based on Cipher Block Chaining 354
11.5
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) 355
11.6
SHA-3 365
11.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 377
Chapter 12 Message Authentication Codes 381
12.1
Message Authentication Requirements 382
12.2
Message Authentication Functions 383
12.3
Requirements for Message Authentication Codes 391
12.4
Security of MACs 393
12.5
MACs Based on Hash Functions: HMAC 394
12.6
MACs Based on Block Ciphers: DAA and CMAC 399
12.7
Authenticated Encryption: CCM and GCM 402
12.8
Key Wrapping 408
12.9
Pseudorandom Number Generation Using Hash Functions and MACs 413
12.10
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 416
Chapter 13 Digital Signatures 419
13.1
Digital Signatures 421
13.2
Elgamal Digital Signature Scheme 424
13.3
Schnorr Digital Signature Scheme 425
13.4
NIST Digital Signature Algorithm 426
13.5
Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm 430
13.6
RSA-PSS Digital Signature Algorithm 433
13.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 438
PART FIVE: MUTUAL TRUST 441
Chapter 14 Key Management and Distribution 441
14.1
Symmetric Key Distribution Using Symmetric Encryption 442
14.2
Symmetric Key Distribution Using Asymmetric Encryption 451
Distribution of Public Keys 454
14.3
14.4
X.509 Certificates 459
5
6
CONTENTS
14.5
Public-Key Infrastructure 467
14.6
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 469
Chapter 15 User Authentication 473
15.1
Remote User-Authentication Principles 474
15.2
Remote User-Authentication Using Symmetric Encryption 478
15.3
Kerberos 482
15.4
Remote User-Authentication Using Asymmetric Encryption 500
15.5
Federated Identity Management 502
15.6
Personal Identity Verification 508
15.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 515
PART SIX: NETWORK AND INTERNET SECURITY 519
Chapter 16 Network Access Control and Cloud Security 519
16.1
Network Access Control 520
16.2
Extensible Authentication Protocol 523
16.3
IEEE 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control 527
16.4
Cloud Computing 529
16.5
Cloud Security Risks and Countermeasures 535
16.6
Data Protection in the Cloud 537
16.7
Cloud Security as a Service 541
16.8
Addressing Cloud Computing Security Concerns 544
16.9
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 545
Chapter 17 Transport-Level Security 546
17.1
Web Security Considerations 547
17.2
Transport Layer Security 549
17.3
HTTPS 566
17.4
Secure Shell (SSH) 567
17.5
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 579
Chapter 18 Wireless Network Security 581
18.1
Wireless Security 582
18.2
Mobile Device Security 585
18.3
IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Overview 589
18.4
IEEE 802.11i Wireless LAN Security 595
18.5
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 610
Chapter 19 Electronic Mail Security 612
19.1
Internet Mail Architecture 613
19.2
Email Formats 617
19.3
Email Threats and Comprehensive Email Security 625
19.4
S/MIME 627
19.5
Pretty Good Privacy 638
19.6
DNSSEC 639
19.7
DNS-Based Authentication of Named Entities 643
19.8
Sender Policy Framework 645
19.9
DomainKeys Identified Mail 648
CONTENTS
19.10
19.11
Chapter 20
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
Domain-Based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance 654
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 659
IP Security 661
IP Security Overview 662
IP Security Policy 668
Encapsulating Security Payload 673
Combining Security Associations 681
Internet Key Exchange 684
Cryptographic Suites 692
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 694
APPENDICES 696
Appendix A Projects for Teaching Cryptography and Network Security 696
A.1
Sage Computer Algebra Projects 697
A.2
Hacking Project 698
A.3
Block Cipher Projects 699
A.4
Laboratory Exercises 699
A.5
Research Projects 699
A.6
Programming Projects 700
A.7
Practical Security Assessments 700
A.8
Firewall Projects 701
A.9
Case Studies 701
A.10
Writing Assignments 701
A.11
Reading/Report Assignments 702
A.12
Discussion Topics 702
Appendix B Sage Examples 703
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5
B.6
B.7
B.8
B.9
B.10
B.11
References
Credits 753
Index 754
Linear Algebra and Matrix Functionality 704
Chapter 2: Number Theory 705
Chapter 3: Classical Encryption 710
Chapter 4: Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard 713
Chapter 5: Basic Concepts in Number Theory and Finite Fields 717
Chapter 6: Advanced Encryption Standard 724
Chapter 8: Pseudorandom Number Generation and Stream Ciphers 729
Chapter 9: Public-Key Cryptography and RSA 731
Chapter 10: Other Public-Key Cryptosystems 734
Chapter 11: Cryptographic Hash Functions 739
Chapter 13: Digital Signatures 741
744
7
8
CONTENTS
ONLINE CHAPTERS AND APPENDICES1
PART SEVEN: SYSTEM SECURITY
Chapter 21 Malicious Software
21.1
Types of Malicious Software (Malware)
21.2
Advanced Persistent Threat
21.3
Propagation—Infected Content—Viruses
21.4
Propagation—Vulnerability Exploit—Worms
21.5
Propagation—Social Engineering—Spam E-mail, Trojans
21.6
Payload—System Corruption
21.7
Payload—Attack Agent—Zombie, Bots
21.8
Payload—Information Theft—Keyloggers, Phishing, Spyware
21.9
Payload—Stealthing—Backdoors, Rootkits
21.10
Countermeasures
21.11
Distributed Denial of Service Attacks
21.12
References
21.13
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Chapter 22 Intruders
22.1
Intruders
22.2
Intrusion Detection
22.3
Password Management
22.4
References
22.5
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Chapter 23 Firewalls
23.1
The Need for Firewalls
23.2
Firewall Characteristics and Access Policy
23.3
Types of Firewalls
23.4
Firewall Basing
23.5
Firewall Location and Configurations
23.6
References
23.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
PART EIGHT: LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES
Chapter 24 Legal and Ethical Aspects
24.1
Cybercrime and Computer Crime
24.2
Intellectual Property
24.3
Privacy
24.4
Ethical Issues
24.5
Recommended Reading
24.6
References
24.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
24.A
Information Privacy
1
Online chapters, appendices, and other documents are at the Companion Website, available via the
access card at the front of this book.
CONTENTS
Appendix C
Sage Exercises
Appendix D
Standards and Standard-Setting Organizations
Appendix E
Basic Concepts from Linear Algebra
Appendix F
Measures of Secrecy and Security
Appendix G
Simplified DES
Appendix H
Evaluation Criteria for AES
Appendix I
Simplified AES
Appendix J
The Knapsack Algorithm
Appendix K
Proof of the Digital Signature Algorithm
Appendix L
TCP/IP and OSI
Appendix M
Java Cryptographic APIs
Appendix N
MD5 Hash Function
Appendix O
Data Compression Using ZIP
Appendix P
PGP
Appendix Q
The International Reference Alphabet
Appendix R
Proof of the RSA Algorithm
Appendix S
Data Encryption Standard
Appendix T
Kerberos Encryption Techniques
Appendix U
Mathematical Basis of the Birthday Attack
Appendix V
Evaluation Criteria for SHA-3
Appendix W
The Complexity of Algorithms
Appendix X
Radix-64 Conversion
Appendix Y
The Base Rate Fallacy
Glossary
9
NOTATION
Symbol
Expression
Meaning
D, K
D(K, Y)
Symmetric decryption of ciphertext Y using secret key K
D, PRa
D(PRa, Y)
Asymmetric decryption of ciphertext Y using A’s private key PRa
D, PUa
D(PUa, Y)
Asymmetric decryption of ciphertext Y using A’s public key PUa
E, K
E(K, X)
Symmetric encryption of plaintext X using secret key K
E, PRa
E(PRa, X)
Asymmetric encryption of plaintext X using A’s private key PRa
E, PUa
E(PUa, X)
Asymmetric encryption of plaintext X using A’s public key PUa
K
Secret key
PRa
Private key of user A
PUa
Public key of user A
MAC, K
MAC(K, X)
Message authentication code of message X using secret key K
GF(p)
The finite field of order p, where p is prime.The field is defined as
the set Zp together with the arithmetic operations modulo p.
GF(2n)
The finite field of order 2n
Zn
Set of nonnegative integers less than n
gcd
gcd(i, j)
Greatest common divisor; the largest positive integer that
divides both i and j with no remainder on division.
mod
a mod m
Remainder after division of a by m
mod, K
a K b (mod m)
a mod m = b mod m
mod, [
a [ b (mod m)
a mod m ? b mod m
dlog
dlog a,p(b)
Discrete logarithm of the number b for the base a (mod p)
w
f(n)
The number of positive integers less than n and relatively
prime to n.
This is Euler’s totient function.
?
?
n
a ai
a1 + a2 + g + an
i=1
n
q ai
a1 * a2 * g * an
i=1

i j
i divides j, which means that there is no remainder when j is
divided by i
,
a
Absolute value of a
10
Hiva-Network.Com
NOTATION
Symbol
Expression
Meaning
}
x}y
x concatenated with y
?
x ? y
x is approximately equal to y
?
x?y
Exclusive-OR of x and y for single-bit variables;
Bitwise exclusive-OR of x and y for multiple-bit variables
:, ;
😡 ;
The largest integer less than or equal to x
?
x?S
The element x is contained in the set S.
·
A · (a1, a2,
c ak)
The integer A corresponds to the sequence of integers
(a1, a2, c ak)
11
PREFACE
WHAT’S NEW IN THE SEVENTH EDITION
In the four years since the sixth edition of this book was published, the field has seen continued innovations and improvements. In this new edition, I try to capture these changes while
maintaining a broad and comprehensive coverage of the entire field. To begin this process of
revision, the sixth edition of this book was extensively reviewed by a number of professors
who teach the subject and by professionals working in the field. The result is that, in many
places, the narrative has been clarified and tightened, and illustrations have been improved.
Beyond these refinements to improve pedagogy and user-friendliness, there have been
substantive changes throughout the book. Roughly the same chapter organization has been
retained, but much of the material has been revised and new material has been added. The
most noteworthy changes are as follows:
?
Fundamental security design principles: Chapter 1 includes a new section discussing the
security design principles listed as fundamental by the National Centers of Academic
Excellence in Information Assurance/Cyber Defense, which is jointly sponsored by the
U.S. National Security Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
?
Attack surfaces and attack trees: Chapter 1 includes a new section describing these two
concepts, which are useful in evaluating and classifying security threats.
Number theory coverage: The material on number theory has been consolidated
into a single chapter, Chapter 2. This makes for a convenient reference. The relevant
portions of Chapter 2 can be assigned as needed.
Finite fields: The chapter on finite fields has been revised and expanded with additional text and new figures to enhance understanding.
Format-preserving encryption: This relatively new mode of encryption is enjoying
increasing commercial success. A new section in Chapter 7 covers this method.
Conditioning and health testing for true random number generators: Chapter 8 now
provides coverage of these important topics.
User authentication model: Chapter 15 includes a new description of a general model
for user authentication, which helps to unify the discussion of the various approaches
to user authentication.
Cloud security: The material on cloud security in Chapter 16 has been updated and
expanded to reflect its importance and recent developments.
Transport Layer Security (TLS): The treatment of TLS in Chapter 17 has been updated,
reorganized to improve clarity, and now includes a discussion of the new TLS version 1.3.
Email Security: Chapter 19 has been completely rewritten to provide a comprehensive
and up-to-date discussion of email security. It includes:
— New: discussion of email threats and a comprehensive approach to email security.
— New: discussion of STARTTLS, which provides confidentiality and authentication
for SMTP.
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
12
PREFACE
13
— Revised: treatment of S/MIME has been updated to reflect the latest version 3.2.
— New: discussion of DNSSEC and its role in supporting email security.
— New: discussion of DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities (DANE) and the
use of this approach to enhance security for certificate use in SMTP and S/MIME.
— New: discussion of Sender Policy Framework (SPF), which is the standardized way
for a sending domain to identify and assert the mail senders for a given domain.
— Revised: discussion of DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) has been revised.
— New: discussion of Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance (DMARC) allows email senders to specify policy on how their mail should
be handled, the types of reports that receivers can send back, and the frequency
those reports should be sent.
OBJECTIVES
It is the purpose of this book to provide a practical survey of both the principles and practice
of cryptography and network security. In the first part of the book, the basic issues to be
addressed by a network security capability are explored by providing a tutorial and survey
of cryptography and network security technology. The latter part of the book deals with the
practice of network security: practical applications that have been implemented and are in
use to provide network security.
The subject, and therefore this book, draws on a variety of disciplines. In particular,
it is impossible to appreciate the significance of some of the techniques discussed in this
book without a basic understanding of number theory and some results from probability
theory. Nevertheless, an attempt has been made to make the book self-contained. The book
not only presents the basic mathematical results t…
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