NSCI 100 Wilkes University Value of Education Final Exam Study Guide there are 60questions on natural science 100-The Scientific Endeavor class. please answer them. NSCI*100 Summer 2020 Final Exam Study Guide
These are possible questions that will be on the final exam. There may be more than one version of the question
and not all questions may be asked. The on-line portion is multiple-choice, true-false, matching and short answer.
In terms of the value of education, why is learning about science important?
What are the responsibilities of an educated society?
What is considered science? What is not considered science?
What distinguishes the natural sciences from the social sciences?
What are the 2 common traits found in all scientists?
What is the difference between pure science, applied research, and technology? What is the driving force
Why is science empirical?
What are the definitions of hypothesis, theory, and law? When are they formed in the experimental
As discussed in class, what 3 areas of input are needed to set a governmental policy related to science?
Under what conditions does the scientific method work best?
Why is the first principles section of a scientific research proposal vital?
How are hypotheses formed?
What is meant by a representative sample? What fallacy is committed when a scientific study does not
have a representative sample?
What is the main manipulated variable?
Why is a control group crucial to a study?
What are confounding variables?
What are the 4 types of bias that can enter into an experiment?
Why is serendipity in science not solely a matter of chance?
How can sampling, experimenter, and subject bias be removed or prevented?
From what does experimental protocol stem and how or when can it be modified?
Under what 3 conditions does correlation equal causality?
Why are statistical analyses done in experiments?
What is the difference between accuracy & precision?
How can lack of knowledge about your subject lead to errors in experimental design?
How can confounding variables or a failure to control variables lead to errors in experimental design?
How can errors in statistical analysis or a lack of statistical significance be caught and removed from a
published research study?
Why are post-hoc hypotheses considered poor science?
What is the difference between an observational study and a causal study? Review the Khan Academy
video seen in class.
What are the characteristics of scientists with respect to how they work with one another, where they
work, and what influences their work?
Understand the uses of the peer-review process and its advantages and disadvantages.
What is CUDOS and how do these scientific norms benefit the search for scientific knowledge?
What is the most important characteristic of a scientist?
Why do scientists commit fraud?
34. Why must researchers trust that previously published work is valid and free of fabrication and
35. What is the difference between fabrication and falsification?
36. How can fraud be caught or detected in the sciences (2 ways)?
37. Why is the ethical treatment of humans and animal subjects required in scientific research?
38. What 4 things define a scientific theory?
39. Know the characteristics of pseudoscience
40. Know the characteristics of pseudoscientists
41. Know the signs of bogus science and ploys of health-related pseudoscience
42. What is propositional knowledge and under what 3 conditions should it be doubted?
43. What are problems with anecdotal data, testimonials, and eye-witness reports?
44. Under what conditions should we question the endorsement of a Nobel prize winning scientist? What
fallacy is committed?
45. What is the most reliable source of knowledge?
46. What 2 things are not considered reliable sources of knowledge?
47. Review the Unit 9 video quiz assignment. Some of the unit 9 video questions are already below.
48. When does deception by our senses occur? (3 circumstances)
49. What 5 things influence perception?
50. What are examples of pareidolia?
51. How is it possible for the prophecies of Nostradamus to appear to be highly accurate and yet not be?
52. What is confirmation bias and how does it affect our thinking?
53. What is availability error and how does it affect our thinking? What fallacy is committed with availability
54. Are memory and perception constructive like a photograph?
55. What factors affect memory?
56. What is cryptomnesia? What examples were given in the lecture notes?
57. Is subjective validation related to the Forer Effect?
58. Is it possible for even scientists to underestimate the probability of an unlikely event to occur?
59. Review the videos in the lecture notes.
60. What does SEARCH stand for?
61. What are the criteria of adequacy and what do they mean? How are they related to the definition of a
scientific theory (asked in #38 above)?
62. Vaping. 1 question will be asked.
a. True or false: There are no known long-term health risks to vaping.
b. True or false: Nicotine and vaping products provide revenue to states through taxes.
c. True or false: Because of government regulation, vaping product labels accurately state the
63. Review questions in Pons and Fleischmann. 1 question will be asked.
a. Why didnt Pons & Fleischmann want to collaborate with the Jones group?
b. How did competition with the Jones group cause Pons & Fleischmann to behave unethically with
respect to publishing their work?
c. What control run did Pons & Fleischmann not do?
d. When other scientists tried to replicate the cold fusion experiments by Pons & Fleischman, why
were there a variety of results for the same experiment?
e. 2 blatantly unethical behaviors were observed on the part of Pons or Fleischmann. What were
64. You will be given a science article, one that youve never read before, and asked to answer questions
about the scientific design (e.g., hypothesis, independent variable, dependent variable, confounding
variable, results, conclusion, bias). This will be similar to the Science News assignment.
Updated: 6/16/2020 SYF
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