University of Missouri-Kansas City Myth and Literature Essay from the list below will be wrote discuss All the essay should be 3-4 paragraphs Chapter 2 Cla

University of Missouri-Kansas City Myth and Literature Essay from the list below will be wrote discuss All the essay should be 3-4 paragraphs Chapter 2
Classical Mythology in Context
Creation
HISTORY
Creation Stories
• Reflect understanding of
how the world works
• Set ethical, social, and
religious patterns for a
society
• Provide explanations of the
order of a society
2.1 Prometheus (seated) molds human beings out of clay and
water. Marble sarcophagus. Third century CE. Museum Capitoline,
Rome, Italy. Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY, ART74681.
Hesiod’s Theogony ( Theos (GODS) AND GONOS (OFFSPRING)
•
•
•
A Theogony is a collection of stories about the nature of the cosmos and
represents the fundamental vision or worldview of a particular people or
culture.
All societies old enough to have created a cosmogony create a story to
support and transmit their views.
Purpose:
– to explain the origins of the universe (creation myth)
– Account of the genealogy of the Greek pantheon
– Origins of the social structure
– Explain the relationships between humans, deities, nature and the
cosmos
– As sacred stories they recreate a primordial age before written history
and provide a narrative context for religious rituals and beliefs.
– Hesiod b. ca 700 BCE in Boeotia.
Ancient Poets and The Muses
• The Muses were invoked at the beginning of
poems and hymns
• Homer begins the Iliad with a nod to the
muses and credits them throughout his epics.
• Hesiod creates their domain, definition and
credits them for his inspiration for Theogony
• Their early entry into the pantheon of
Olympus supports their importance.
Hesiod’s Theogony
• Began as oral history
• Recorded sometime in the
Archaic Period
• Many scholars assume Hesiod
is more fiction than fact
• Not considered sacred by
ancient Greeks
2.2 A lyre player performs in a musical competition. Detail
from an Attic red-figure amphora. Andocides Painter, c. 525–
520 BCE. Louvre Museum, Paris, France. @RMN-Grand
Palais/Art Resource, NY, ART154717.
Gaia or Gaea
• 1. From Chaos comes Night and Erebus
• 2. One of the Protogenos (primeval divinity) of
earth as a primal element that emerged at the
dawn of creation, along with air, sea and sky.
• 2. Gaia (GE) The great mother of all: the gods are
descended from her union with Uranus (the sky),
Pontos (the sea) and Gigantes from her mating
with Tartarus (hell pit) and mortal creatures come
from her earthly flesh.
•
Uranus and Gaia – Titans, Cyclopes and
Hecatonchires
•
Titans: They give birth to twelve sons and six daughters. He locked them in Gaia’s belly. Gaia suffered immense
pain and asker her all her Titan sons to rebel.
•
Four of them (the sentinels) and their brother at the center castrated Uranus. His blood fell producing the
avenging Erinyes( Furies) and the Gigantes.
•
Uranus prophesized that the fall of the Titans would happen like his. Pattern is repeated in generational
conflict among succeeding generations of deities. (Cronus – Rhea)
•
Cyclopes (Brontes Thunder, Steropes Lightening and Arges Bright
•
Hecatonchires: Cottus, Briareus, and Gyes (hundred arms and hands)
Treasury of Atreus
Treasury of Atreus
The Late Bronze Age: Mycenae
Mycenae was an important Bronze Age settlement in Greece
It was a fortified settlement,
probably the home of the king
(wanax), located on a hilltop
b
a
2.3a Plan of Mycenae’s Citadel.
2.3b Ruins of Mycenae today. © Florin
Stana/Shutterstock 194965928.
Ancient Greece
Map 2.1 Greece in the Mycenaean Age and the Archaic Period
The Late Bronze Age: Mycenae
• Communities had complex social
and economic networks
• Farmers and herders paid taxes in
kind
• All classes served in the army
• Slavery was common
• Bronze Age settlements disappear
soon after 1200 BCE
2.4 A man with a plow pulling oxen. Terracotta
statue from Boeotia, Greece. Seventh to sixth
century BCE. Louvre Museum, Paris, France. Gianni
Dagli Orti/The Art Archive at Art Resource, NY,
AA379724.
The Iron Age: Ascra
• The Iron Age is named after its use of iron for tools and weapons
• Few records remain from this period
• Hesiod’s Works and Days was composed at the end of this period
• Takes place in Ascra, on Mount Helicon in Boetia
• Hesiod’s description of Ascra is backed up by the archeological record
• Kings have lost central authority
• Most residents are small, independent farmers
The Archaic Period: Olympia
Towns developed into robust communities
a
2.5a Plan of Olympia, Greece.
2.5b Ruins of Olympia today: the
Palaestra. © f8grapher/Shutterstock
138597086.
As kings gained more power
and became tyrants, Greek
cities developed a collective
identity as a demos
b
Temple of Zeus
Steps to temple of Zeus
Tripod – Temple of Zeus – ca 720BCE –
Symbol of Cretan Zeus as Bull
Gateway to Hera’s Temple and avenue of the
flame
Avenue of the Flames
Entrance to Olympic Track
Seat of Priestess of Demeter
The Archaic Period and Panhellenism
• Hellenic identity developed during the Archaic Period
• Maintained by Panhellenic sanctuaries and festivals
• Oral performances of works by Homer and Hesiod developed a
shared understanding of gods and goddesses
• Led to a gradual homogenization of belief and worship
• Local variations on the traits and worship of gods remained
Alternative Creation Stories
• Philosophers of the Archaic Period imagined
that a substance or process created the
universe
• Orphic creation stories include gods not found
in Hesiod
• Early gods were Phanes, Protogonus, Chronus
as well as Zeus and Earth
2.6 A youthful divinity, perhaps Phanes. Detail from a marble relief. Second
century CE. Galleria e Museo Estense, Modena, Italy. Alinari / Art Resource,
NY, ART129980.
The Theogony
• Hesiod was instrumental in shaping
Panhellenic ideas of the gods
• Theogony was a collection of oral poems
• Hymns
• Catalogues
• Dramatic Tales
• Described the Greek understanding of the
creation of the universe
Table 2.1
Hymns
• Meant to be recited aloud
• Primary purpose is prayer to and praise of the
gods
• Hesiod’s hymn to the Muses praises them for
inspiring his poetry
• Hymn to Hecate presents her as a protective
goddess
2.7 A Muse plays a lyre atop Mount Helicon. Attic red figure (white ground),
Lekythos. Achilles Painter, c. 445 BCE. Staatliche Antikensammlungen und
Glypothek München, Photograph by Renate Kühling, S80 Beazley Archive
Number: 213977.
Catalogues
• Genealogies of the gods
• Designed to be recited aloud
• Describes creation as a genealogy
of the earliest gods
• Presents two methods of
procreation: spontaneous and
within marriage
2.8 Strife (Eris). Interior of a black figure cup.
Nikosthenes, c. 540–530 BCE. The J. Paul
Getty Museum, Villa Collection, Malibu,
California, 86.AE.169.
Dramatic Tales
• The dramatic tales describe how
Zeus came to rule creation
• He imprisons chaotic gods
• Institutes marriage to control
female reproduction
• Creates order and justice
2.9 Zeus defeats Typhoeus. Chalcidian black-figure hydria, c. 540 BCE.
Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glypothek München. Photograph by Renate
Kühling, 596.
Prometheus and Pandora
• Addresses both the institution of marriage
and the ideal of order in society
• Prometheus steals fire to benefit humanity,
his creation
• Zeus punishes them by sending them
Pandora
• Beautiful but deceitful; represented
women
2.10 The creation of Pandora with Epimetheus,
Hermes, and Zeus. Red-figure krater. Fifth century
BCE. Ashmolean Museum / The Art Archive at Art
Resource, NY, AA566705.
Classical Mythology in Context
Creation
THEORY
The Social World Shapes Myth
• Bronislaw Malinowski placed myths within
social context
• Only social context can explain the
function of a myth for its society
• Myths can be ‘charters’: practical guides
about how to behave for the people who
hear them
2.11 Pig figure. Wood, paint, and fiber. Early to mid-twentieth century. Papua New
Guinea, Prince Alexander Mountains, Middle Sepik River. Image copyright © The
Metropolitan Museum of Art. Image source: Art Resource, NY, ART500336.
Classical Mythology in Context
Creation
COMPARISON
The Ancient Near East
Ancient Greece, a
part of the
Mediterranean
world, was also
greatly influenced by
the Near East
Comparative
mythology studies
the similarities
between myths in
different societies;
or the ways in which
they move among
related societies
Map 2.2 Creation Stories in the Ancient Near East
Ishtar Gate – Berlin
Creation Stories from the Levant
• Enuma Elish, the Babylonian creation story,
may have influenced Greek oral poetry
• Depicts the Gods as fighting the forces of
chaos
• Genesis is distinguished by the Hebrew’s
monotheistic beliefs and focus on the
creation of humanity
• It also emphasizes the creation of order
2.12 Illuminated medieval manuscript of Genesis 1 from the Hebrew
Bible. The Xanten Bible. Germany, thirteenth to fourteenth century CE.
Spencer Collection. The New York Public Library / Art Resource, NY,
ART497620.
Classical Mythology in Context
Creation
RECEPTION
Titans in Modern Art
2.13 Prometheus, the Light Bringer. Paul Manship, c. 1934. Rockefeller
Center, New York, USA. Melvyn Longhurst/Alamy, E6RE48.
Titans in Modern Art
• Modern artists have used the Titans to
symbolize rebellion against order; but also as
emblems of strength
• Statues of two Titans, Atlas and Prometheus,
adorn Rockefeller Center in New York City
• They reflect both the anxieties of the
Depression and the determination to
overcome it
• Both statues also reflect faith in technology
and industry
2.14 Atlas. Lee Oscar Lawrie, c.
1937. Rockefeller Center, New York,
USA.
imageBROKER/Alamy,
CY0A65.
The Twelve Olympians: Zeus, Hera, and Their Children
Zeus’ Establishment as Supreme God
Zeus—sky
Poseidon — sea
Hades — underworld
Pantheon of Gods
Zeus (Jupiter)
Hera (Juno)
Poseidon (Neptune)
Hades (Pluto)
Hestia (Vesta)
Hephaestus (Vulcan)
Ares (Mars)
Apollo
Artemis (Diana)
Demeter (Ceres)
Aphrodite (Venus)
Athena (Minerva)
Hermes (Mercury)
Dionysus (Bacchus)
Canonical twelve (with removal of Hades and Hestia)
Hestia, Goddess of the Hearth and Its Fire
A goddess of chastity
Hearth/sacred fire
Hestia (“hearth”)
Family?tribe ?city ?state
Transmission of fire
First-born of Cronus and Rhea
The Twelve Olympians
Zeus
Amorous nature
Image of father, husband, and lover
Justice and virtue
Moral order of the universe
The cloud-gatherer
“Bright”
Thunder/lightening
Aegis/eagle/oak
Tales of Zeus’ subordination
Zeus and Hera
Hieros Gamos
Hera: consort and queen
Stern, vengeful
Women/marriage/childbirth
Peacock
Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia
Elis
Olympic Games, 776 B. C.
Connection with Heracles
Pelops and Hippodamia
Temple of Zeus
West pediment: Lapiths and Centaurs
Ixion impregnates the nephele (“cloud”) that Zeus had fashioned to resemble his wife, Hera
Ixion’s punishment on the wheel
Nephele gives birth to Centaurus, the father of the race of centaurs
Chiron: wise, gentle tutor to heroes
Violent and lustful nature typical of centaurs
Lapiths, a Thessalian tribe
Pirithoüs, Lapith chieftain and a son of Ixion
Wedding of Pirithoüs and Hippodamia
The Twelve Olympians
East pediment: race of Pelops and Oenomaüs
Metopes: Twelve Labors of Heracles
Cult image of Zeus carved by Pheidias
Oracles at Olympia and Dodona
Whispering oaks of Dodona
Priestess and tripod
Oracles and prophets
Trophonius
Melampus
Amphiaraüs
Tiresias
Children of Zeus and Hera
Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth
Hebe: cupbearer to gods
Ganymede
Hephaestus, divine artisan
God of fire and forge
Lame
Return of Hephaestus
Consort of Aphrodite
Her adultery with Ares
Ares, god of war
Cult partner: Aphrodite
Thrace
Eros
Brutality of war
The Twelve Olympians
Other Children of Zeus
The Nine Muses
Mnemosyne (“memory”)
Patrons of literature and the arts
Pieria/Mt. Helicon
“Reminders”
Calliope (epic)
Clio (history or lyre playing)
Euterpe (lyric or tragedy and flute playing)
Melpomene (tragedy or lyre playing)
Terpsichore (choral dancing or flute playing)
Erato (love poetry or hymns to gods and lyre playing)
Polyhymnia (sacred music or dancing)
Urania (astronomy)
Thalia (comedy)
The Three Fates
Children of Zeus and Themis
Moirai (Greek) or Parcae (Latin)
Clotho (“spinner”)
Lachesis (“apportioner”)
Atropos (“inflexible”)
Luck or Fortune (Tyche)
Necessity (Ananke)
Chapter 2
Classical Mythology in Context
Creation
HISTORY
Creation Stories
• Reflect understanding of
how the world works
• Set ethical, social, and
religious patterns for a
society
• Provide explanations of the
order of a society
2.1 Prometheus (seated) molds human beings out of clay and
water. Marble sarcophagus. Third century CE. Museum Capitoline,
Rome, Italy. Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY, ART74681.
Hesiod’s Theogony ( Theos (GODS) AND GONOS (OFFSPRING)
•
•
•
A Theogony is a collection of stories about the nature of the cosmos and
represents the fundamental vision or worldview of a particular people or
culture.
All societies old enough to have created a cosmogony create a story to
support and transmit their views.
Purpose:
– to explain the origins of the universe (creation myth)
– Account of the genealogy of the Greek pantheon
– Origins of the social structure
– Explain the relationships between humans, deities, nature and the
cosmos
– As sacred stories they recreate a primordial age before written history
and provide a narrative context for religious rituals and beliefs.
– Hesiod b. ca 700 BCE in Boeotia.
Ancient Poets and The Muses
• The Muses were invoked at the beginning of
poems and hymns
• Homer begins the Iliad with a nod to the
muses and credits them throughout his epics.
• Hesiod creates their domain, definition and
credits them for his inspiration for Theogony
• Their early entry into the pantheon of
Olympus supports their importance.
Hesiod’s Theogony
• Began as oral history
• Recorded sometime in the
Archaic Period
• Many scholars assume Hesiod
is more fiction than fact
• Not considered sacred by
ancient Greeks
2.2 A lyre player performs in a musical competition. Detail
from an Attic red-figure amphora. Andocides Painter, c. 525–
520 BCE. Louvre Museum, Paris, France. @RMN-Grand
Palais/Art Resource, NY, ART154717.
Gaia or Gaea
• 1. From Chaos comes Night and Erebus
• 2. One of the Protogenos (primeval divinity) of
earth as a primal element that emerged at the
dawn of creation, along with air, sea and sky.
• 2. Gaia (GE) The great mother of all: the gods are
descended from her union with Uranus (the sky),
Pontos (the sea) and Gigantes from her mating
with Tartarus (hell pit) and mortal creatures come
from her earthly flesh.
•
Uranus and Gaia – Titans, Cyclopes and
Hecatonchires
•
Titans: They give birth to twelve sons and six daughters. He locked them in Gaia’s belly. Gaia suffered immense
pain and asker her all her Titan sons to rebel.
•
Four of them (the sentinels) and their brother at the center castrated Uranus. His blood fell producing the
avenging Erinyes( Furies) and the Gigantes.
•
Uranus prophesized that the fall of the Titans would happen like his. Pattern is repeated in generational
conflict among succeeding generations of deities. (Cronus – Rhea)
•
Cyclopes (Brontes Thunder, Steropes Lightening and Arges Bright
•
Hecatonchires: Cottus, Briareus, and Gyes (hundred arms and hands)
Treasury of Atreus
Treasury of Atreus
The Late Bronze Age: Mycenae
Mycenae was an important Bronze Age settlement in Greece
It was a fortified settlement,
probably the home of the king
(wanax), located on a hilltop
b
a
2.3a Plan of Mycenae’s Citadel.
2.3b Ruins of Mycenae today. © Florin
Stana/Shutterstock 194965928.
Ancient Greece
Map 2.1 Greece in the Mycenaean Age and the Archaic Period
The Late Bronze Age: Mycenae
• Communities had complex social
and economic networks
• Farmers and herders paid taxes in
kind
• All classes served in the army
• Slavery was common
• Bronze Age settlements disappear
soon after 1200 BCE
2.4 A man with a plow pulling oxen. Terracotta
statue from Boeotia, Greece. Seventh to sixth
century BCE. Louvre Museum, Paris, France. Gianni
Dagli Orti/The Art Archive at Art Resource, NY,
AA379724.
The Iron Age: Ascra
• The Iron Age is named after its use of iron for tools and weapons
• Few records remain from this period
• Hesiod’s Works and Days was composed at the end of this period
• Takes place in Ascra, on Mount Helicon in Boetia
• Hesiod’s description of Ascra is backed up by the archeological record
• Kings have lost central authority
• Most residents are small, independent farmers
The Archaic Period: Olympia
Towns developed into robust communities
a
2.5a Plan of Olympia, Greece.
2.5b Ruins of Olympia today: the
Palaestra. © f8grapher/Shutterstock
138597086.
As kings gained more power
and became tyrants, Greek
cities developed a collective
identity as a demos
b
Temple of Zeus
Steps to temple of Zeus
Tripod – Temple of Zeus – ca 720BCE –
Symbol of Cretan Zeus as Bull
Gateway to Hera’s Temple and avenue of the
flame
Avenue of the Flames
Entrance to Olympic Track
Seat of Priestess of Demeter
The Archaic Period and Panhellenism
• Hellenic identity developed during the Archaic Period
• Maintained by Panhellenic sanctuaries and festivals
• Oral performances of works by Homer and Hesiod developed a
shared understanding of gods and goddesses
• Led to a gradual homogenization of belief and worship
• Local variations on the traits and worship of gods remained
Alternative Creation Stories
• Philosophers of the Archaic Period imagined
that a substance or process created the
universe
• Orphic creation stories include gods not found
in Hesiod
• Early gods were Phanes, Protogonus, Chronus
as well as Zeus and Earth
2.6 A youthful divinity, perhaps Phanes. Detail from a marble relief. Second
century CE. Galleria e Museo Estense, Modena, Italy. Alinari / Art Resource,
NY, ART129980.
The Theogony
• Hesiod was instrumental in shaping
Panhellenic ideas of the gods
• Theogony was a collection of oral poems
• Hymns
• Catalogues
• Dramatic Tales
• Described the Greek understanding of the
creation of the universe
Table 2.1
Hymns
• Meant to be recited aloud
• Primary purpose is prayer to and praise of the
gods
• Hesiod’s hymn to the Muses praises them for
inspiring his poetry
• Hymn to Hecate presents her as a protective
goddess
2.7 A Muse plays a lyre atop Mount Helicon. Attic red figure (white ground),
Lekythos. Achilles Painter, c. 445 BCE. Staatliche Antikensammlungen und
Glypothek München, Photograph by Renate Kühling, S80 Beazley Archive
Number: 213977.
Catalogues
• Genealogies of the gods
• Designed to be recited aloud
• Describes creation as a genealogy
of the earliest gods
• Presents two methods of
procreation: spontaneous and
within marriage
2.8 Strife (Eris). Interior of a black figure cup.
Nikosthenes, c. 540–530 BCE. The J. Paul
Getty Museum, Villa Collection, Malibu,
California, 86.AE.169.
Dramatic Tales
• The dramatic tales describe how
Zeus came to rule creation
• He imprisons chaotic gods
• Institutes marriage to control
female reproduction
• Creates order and justice
2.9 Zeus defeats Typhoeus. Chalcidian black-figure hydria, c. 540 BCE.
Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glypothek München. Photograph by Renate
Kühling, 596.
Prometheus and Pandora
• Addresses both the institution of marriage
and the ideal of order in society
• Prometheus steals fire to benefit humanity,
his creation
• Zeus punishes them by sending them
Pandora
• Beautiful but deceitful; represented
women
2.10 The creation of Pandora with Epimetheus,
Hermes, and Zeus. Red-figure krater. Fifth century
BCE. Ashmolean Museum / The Art Archive at Art
Resou…
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