Argosy University Africana Studies Within the Western Academy Paper Each student is required to respond to each question as thoroughly as possible, evidenc

Argosy University Africana Studies Within the Western Academy Paper Each student is required to respond to each question as thoroughly as possible, evidencing that you have read and interpreted the reading(s) that address the questions. Each response should be at least one to two paragraphs for a total of ten to fourteen sentences minimum. Try to answer each question in the order in which it is given and to the best of your ability. Be thorough and creative! The total assignment should span between two (2) and four (4) typed double-spaced pages and should be written in Times New Roman 12-point font within 1-inch margins; while I have given the page range as a guideline, I am more concerned with the quality of the work instead of the quantity. So do your best and try to enjoy it.


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2. Reflect on the origins of Africana (Black) Studies within the Western academy. Describe the emergence of Black Studies at SF State, a Predominately White Institution (PWI). What did the students want at SF state and how did they go about getting it and why? In responding to this question, you must include a discussion of Black power/ Revolutionary Nationalism, the BSU, the academic and social concerns of the students and the intentions of the college/university in the development of the discipline at SF state institutions. Be creative here. See: Carmichael’s “Black Power,” Karenga, Maulana. “Introduction” and Bunzel, John. “Black Studies at San Francisco State.”

3. Discuss the two phases or paths of Black Studies, according to Hare. Review the courses listed. In what ways do the course content and course objectives fulfill this two-phase path? What then is the goal of Black Studies according to Hare and what is a current definition of the discipline? For full credit you must include that you understand the two phases, examples of classes that support your answer, and clear interpretations of the definition and purpose of Black Studies. See: Hare, Nathan. “Questions and Answers About Black Studies” and Bunzel.

4. What is the role of European Americans within Black Studies as professors and students, according to Hare? What does it mean to deracicize white students? Be clear and specific. See: Hare, Nathan. “Questions and Answers About Black Studies”. You only need to read Hare to answer this question here. The term is explained in the reading.

5. What seems to be the purpose and necessity of Black/Africana Studies today, given when, why and how it emerges in the Western Academy? Isn’t overt and covert racism over and haven’t so many African American achieved the middle class? And are not college students well aware of Africana history, culture and experiences today? So why would Africana Studies still be important? Be creative here. For full credit you must support your ideas from ALL of the readings.

Black Studies at
San Francisco State College
Stokely Carmichael (aka)
Kwame Ture (1941-1998)
• Born in Trinidad
• Attended Howard University
• Majored in Philosophy
• Civil Rights Activist (King)
• Leader of Student Nonviolent
Coordinating Committee
• 1966 Coined the term Black Power
Black Power/Revolutionary
Nationalism (1966-1967)
Define racism according to Carmichael &
Hamilton? What are two types and examples.
What is their interpretation of the problem of the
white middle class and Black folks assimilation into
the middle class? (p.41)
Explain the problem of integration. (p.37)
Define Black Power, what Black folks must do and
why?. (p.34, 39 & 44)
Describe what Black Power looks like in practical
terms by way of examples. (p.46)
Student Programs at SFSC
(See Karenga & Bunzel)
Negro Student Association becomes Black
Student Union (BSU). Why change in name?
What is the “Experimental College” and its
relationship to “Black Studies” by 1966 ?
What is the “Community Involvement”
Program ?
What were Black Students’ academic
concerns and social concerns? (Karenga and Bunzel
Students’ Concerns
(See Karenga & Bunzel)
Do these concerns reflect an integrationist
consciousness or Black Power
consciousness? Explain?
Do you find that you have the same
academic concerns in 2018 ? Why or why
not? Explain.
(See Karenga & Bunzel)
SFSC President Robert Smith announces
creation of Black Studies Department under
the direction of Dr. Nathan Hare (February
Black Students’ Union were in discussion with administration and
the Board of Trustees about department beginning in the fall of
By 1968, Black Studies courses still in Experimental College at
this time.
Dr. Nathan Hare
Prior to SFSC taught at
Howard University.
Created the first Black
Studies curriculum in the
nation while at SFSC.
(See “Questions and Answers About Black
SFSC, cont. 1968
If the University fails to institute the Black Studies
department the BSU will strike immediately.
BSU gives demands to Smith; if not met, then strike
November 6, 1968 Black Students’ Union begins
5 month strike.
November 13, 1968 SFSC is completely shut down.
Demands of the Black Students’ Union
Fall 1968
1.That all Black Studies courses being taught through various
departments be immediately part of the Black Studies Department and
that all the instructors in this department receive full-time pay.
2. That Dr. Hare, Chairman of the Black Studies Department, receive a fullprofessorship and a comparable salary according to his qualifications.
3. That there be a Department of Black Studies which will grant a Bachelor’s
Degree in Black Studies; that the Black Studies Department chairman,
faculty and staff have the sole power to hire faculty and control and
determine the destiny of its department.
4. That all unused slots for Black students from Fall 1968 under the Special
Admissions program be filled in Spring 1969. (address decrease in enrollment from
12- 4%)
5. That all Black students wishing so, be admitted in Fall 1969. (open enrollment)
6. That twenty (20) full-time teaching positions be allocated to the
Department of Black Studies.
7. That Dr. Helen Bedesem be replaced from the position of Financial Aid
Officer and that a Black person be hired to direct it; that Third World
people have the power to determine how it will be administered.
8. That no disciplinary action will be administered in any way to any
students, workers, teachers, or administrators during and after the strike as
a consequence of their participation in the strike.
9. That the California State College Trustees not be allowed to dissolve any
Black programs on or off the San Francisco State College campus.
10. That George Murray maintain his teaching position on campus for the
1968-69 academic year.
SFSC, cont.
School closes December 13, 1968 for holiday
January 6, 1969 school reopens with a faculty
strike for educational reforms, removal of police
from campus, agreement to student demands
and a collective bargaining contract.
Students also join and continue striking for
SFSC, cont.
March 20, 1969 an agreement is signed
by the Black Student Union with the
University committee reflecting a resolution
of the student demands.
Nathan Hare is not rehired for the following academic
March 21, 1969 strike ends. Fall 1969
Black Studies Department opens.
So what did the BSU achieve?
A Black Studies Department with jurisdiction over existing Black Studies
courses from Experimental College
Twelve full-time professors, where earlier there was only one (Hare).
The authority to grant a Bachelor of Arts degree in Black Studies.
The right to hire and fire professors in the department with the advice
and consent of the community review board (from the community).
128 Black students (already admitted for last spring) without regard to
traditional criteria.
A considerable increase of Black students for the next fall term.
New administrative positions: Co-director of Financial Aid, to better meet
the financial needs of Black students. (A Black man was hired for this
No penalization, academic, or legal for students participating in strike.
Agents of Change (2016)
( Documentary)
Black Studies courses are common today, but that hasn’t always been the case.
In one of the most high-profile student actions of the 1960s, students at San
Francisco State University went on strike, shutting down the campus for five
months. But the strike didn’t end until the school acceded to student demands
and created the first Black Studies department at an American university. This
film, shot by the students and their allies, is a classic primary source document of
the 1960s.

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