ASU Chapter 1 World Religions Islam in the Modern World Research Paper hello i want someone to help me with my essay assignment , its a one page essay you

ASU Chapter 1 World Religions Islam in the Modern World Research Paper hello i want someone to help me with my essay assignment , its a one page essay you just have to read chapter 1.1 on the book and give you impression and your thoughts about it . be simple and no need for fancy words . i will download the book its called ( Islam
in the Modern World ) Islam
in the Modern World
This comprehensive introduction explores the landscape of contemporary Islam.
Written by a distinguished team of scholars, it:
• provides broad overviews of the developments, events, people and movements that
have defined Islam in the three majority-Muslim regions;
• traces the connections between traditional Islamic institutions and concerns, and
their modern manifestations and transformations. How are medieval ideas, policies
and practices refashioned to address modern circumstances?
• investigates new themes and trends that are shaping the modern Muslim experience
such as gender, fundamentalism, the media and secularization;
• offers case studies of Muslims and Islam in dynamic interaction with different
societies.
Islam in the Modern World includes illustrations, summaries, discussion points and
suggestions for further reading that will aid understanding and revision. Additional
resources are provided via the companion website: www.routledge.com/cw/kenney.
Jeffrey T. Kenney is Professor of Religious Studies and University Professor at DePauw
University, USA.
Ebrahim Moosa is Professor of Religion and Islamic Studies in the Department of
Religion at Duke University, USA.
Religions in the Modern World
Also available:
Buddhism in the Modern World
Edited by David L. McMahan
Forthcoming:
Hinduism in the Modern World
Edited by Brian A. Hatcher
I
s l am
in the
M o d er n Worl d
Edited by Jeffrey T. Kenney
and Ebrahim Moosa
First published in 2014
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2014 Jeffrey T. Kenney and Ebrahim Moosa for selection and editorial matter;
individual contributors, their contributions.
The right of the editor to be identified as the author of the editorial material, and of the
authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77
and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced
or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means,
now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording,
or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission
in writing from the publishers.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or
registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without
intent to infringe.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Islam in the modern world / edited by Jeffrey T. Kenney and Ebrahim Moosa.
p. cm. — (Religions in the modern world)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Islam–21st century. 2. Islam–20th century. I. Kenney,
Jeffrey T. (Jeffrey Thomas), 1954- II. Moosa, Ebrahim.
BP161.3.I739 2013
297–dc23
2013002611
ISBN: 978-0-415-78085-8 (hbk)
ISBN: 978-0-415-78086-5 (pbk)
ISBN: 978-0-203-73634-0 (ebk)
Typeset in Gentium
By Saxon Graphics Ltd, Derby
To our students … past, present, and future
This page intentionally left blank
C
o n te nts
List of illustrations
Notes on contributors
Acknowledgements
Introduction – Jeffrey T. Kenney and Ebrahim Moosa
Part I: Traditions and transformations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Scripture in the modern Muslim world: the Quran and Hadith –
Jonathan Brown
Ethical landscape: laws, norms, and morality – Ebrahim Moosa
Governance and government – Robert D. Lee
From Isfahan to the internet: Islamic theology in the global village –
Anthony R. Byrd and Richard C. Martin
Piety and devotion – Carl W. Ernst
The multiple faces of Islamic education in a secular age –
Malika Zeghal
Part II: Themes and trends
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Women and gender in the Muslim world – Valentine M. Moghadam
and Namrata Mitra
#Islam, social networking and the cloud – Gary R. Bunt
Islam: unbound and global – Bruce B. Lawrence
Militant movements – William Shepard
Secularization and the search for an authentic Muslim modern –
Jeffrey T. Kenney
Islam and popular culture – Mark Sedgwick
ix
xiii
xix
1
11
13
35
57
79
107
125
149
151
177
209
231
255
279
viii
contents
Part III: Case studies of tradition and change
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
The emergence of media preachers: Yusuf al-Qaradawi –
Marcia Hermansen
Assertive secularism, Islam and democracy in Turkey –
Ahmet T. Kuru
The new Muslim Europe – Jørgen S. Nielsen
Routinizing the Iranian Revolution – Mohsen Kadivar
Muslim advocacy in America – Kathleen M. Moore
Women and Islamic law in Bangladesh: finding a space for the fatwa –
Tiffany A. Hodge
Far from Mecca: modern Islam in Indonesia and Malaysia –
Muhamad Ali
Politics and Islamization in African public spheres –
Abdulkader Tayob
299
301
319
335
351
369
389
405
425
Appendix: maps and tables
445
Index
451
I
l l u s t r a tio ns
Figures
1.1
Muslim pilgrims visiting Muhammad’s tomb in Medina follow the
tradition of saying “Peace be upon you” to him.
Courtesy of Jonathan Brown.
Quranic verse used in state public art in Tehran commemorating those
who died in the Iran-Iraq War. It states that the martyrs remain alive
with their Lord.
Courtesy of Jonathan Brown.
16
1.2
2.1 Islamic banking in Malaysia, 2010.
Courtesy of Bloomberg/Getty Images.
A common Arabic inscription on a wall in rural Morocco: God, King,
Country. Found throughout the country, it symbolizes the links between
rulership, people and God.
Courtesy of Lauren Kenney.
31
41
3.1
60
3.2 Ayatollah Khomeini.
Courtesy of iStockphoto.
64
4.1 Tariq Ramadan.
Courtesy of AFP/Getty Images.
94
5.1
Set of whirling dervishes and other ceramic products on sale at a roadside
souvenir stall at Istiklal Caddesi in Istanbul, Turkey.
Courtesy of iStockphoto.
117
x
illustrations
6.1 al-Azhar University, Cairo.
Courtesy of Lauren Kenney.
After a lecture on the Quran from Asiya Andrabi (seen wearing white gloves),
members of Dukhtaran-e-Millat leave their meeting in an illegal madrassa
in Srinagar, Kashmir (2007).
Courtesy of Veronique de Viguerie/Getty Images.
138
7.1
8.1 Anwar Al-Awlaki.
Courtesy of Reuters.
8.2
An Egyptian protester streams a demonstration via Skype in Cairo’s
Tahrir Square.
Courtesy of Mohammed Abed/AFP/Getty Images.
157
194
199
9.1 M.F. Husain poses in front of one of his paintings (London, 2007).
Courtesy of Chris Jackson/Getty Images.
219
10.1 Hassan al-Banna.
© Jamal Nasrallah/epa/Corbis.
234
11.1 Tahrir Square, Cairo.
Courtesy of Jonathan Rashad/Getty Images.
273
12.1 Halal food store, Japan.
© Emran Kassim.
290
12.2 Islamic fashion store, Canada.
© Muhammad Ghouri.
291
13.1 Yusuf al-Qaradawi.
Courtesy of Fayez Nureldine/AFP/Getty Images.
304
14.1 Turkish flag and statue of Atatürk.
Courtesy of Image Source/Getty Images.
325
15.1 Prayer in Paris, France.
Courtesy of Miguel Media/AFP/Getty Images.
346
illustrations
16.1 Ayatollah Khomeini is greeted by his supporters during his return to Iran after
15 years in exile (Tehran, 1979).
Courtesy of Gabriel Duval/AFP/Getty Images.
359
16.2 Billboards with Ayatollah Khamenei (current spiritual leader of Iran) and
Ayatollah Khomeini (previous leader and force behind the 1979 Revolution).
© dbimages/Alamy.
365
17.1 Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf during a rally in Times Square against the House
of Representatives hearings on “Radicalization of American Muslims”
chaired by Peter King (New York, March 2011). Demonstrators and
religious leaders who spoke to the crowd saw the hearings as divisive
and racist.
Courtesy of Robert Nickelsberg/Getty Images.
18.1 Female activists shout slogans during a protest against the public
caning of women in Dhaka (June 2009). A spike in harsh punishments
raised concerns among women’s and human rights activists.
Courtesy of Munir Uz Zaman/AFP/Getty Images.
371
393
19.1 Petronas Towers and Masjid al-Syakirin Mosque in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Courtesy of iStockphoto.
419
20.1 Crowd outside the mosque in Kano, Nigeria.
Courtesy of Aminu Abubakar/AFP/Getty Images.
431
20.2 Boy going to Islamic school in Cape Town, South Africa.
Courtesy of Shaamielah Davids.
435
Tables
7.1
Social/gender indicators, Muslim-majority countries by region (2010)
163–4
7.2
Women’s organizations in selected Muslim-majority countries, and
priority campaigns (c. 2010)
166–7
7.3
Legal and policy changes in selected Muslim-majority countries (2006–11)
168–9
14.1 State-religion regimes and democracy in 49 Muslim-majority countries
322
xi
xii
illustrations
14.2 Periods of democratization and de-democratization in Turkey
323
17.1 Pew Forum Report, “Lobbying for the Faithful: Religious Advocacy in
Washington, DC”
373
17.2 Major Muslim American advocacy organizations and the dates they
were founded
383
18.1 Court cases and judgments
394
A
Muslim population by region
448
B
Countries with the largest number of Muslims
448
C
Countries with the largest number of Muslims living as minorities
449
Maps
A
Distribution of Muslim population by country and territory
446
B
World distribution of Muslim population
447
C
o n tr ib uto rs
Muhamad Ali, PhD is an Assistant Professor in Islamic Studies in the Department of
Religious Studies at the University of California, Riverside, USA. He teaches Islam in
Southeast Asia, topics in modern Islam, and approaches to Islam in religious studies.
He is a graduate of the Department of Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies, Edinburgh
University, UK, and the University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA. He has published two
books: Multicultural-Pluralist Theology (2003) and Bridging Islam and the West: An Indonesian
View (2009), along with many articles, including “Islamic Liberalism in Southeast Asia”
(2012). His current project is a history of religious pluralism in Indonesia.
Jonathan Brown is a Professor of Islamic Studies in the School of Foreign Service at
Georgetown University in Washington, DC, USA. His book publications include The
Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith
Canon (2007), Hadith: Muhammad’s Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World (2009) and
Muhammad: A Very Short Introduction (2011). He has published articles in the fields of
hadith, Islamic law, Sufism, Arabic lexical theory and pre-Islamic poetry and is the
editor in chief of the Oxford Encyclopedia of Islamic Law.
Gary R. Bunt is Reader in Islamic Studies in the Department of Theology, Religious
Studies and Islamic Studies at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David, UK. He
directs the university’s MA Islamic Studies (by distance learning). Dr Bunt’s primary
research focus is on Islam in cyberspace, and his books include iMuslims: Rewiring the
House of Islam (2009), Islam in the Digital Age (2003) and Virtually Islamic (2000). A related
research website and blog can be found at www.virtuallyislamic.com.
Anthony R. Byrd is a PhD candidate in the Graduate Division of Religion at Emory
University, USA. In addition to work on contemporary Islamic theology and political
xiv
contributors
liberalism, his research focuses on philosophy and theology in the classical tradition
surrounding issues of reason and evil, moral psychology, and models of the self in
Islamic thought.
Carl W. Ernst is William R. Kenan, Jr., Distinguished Professor of Religious Studies at
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA. He is a specialist in Islamic studies,
with a focus on West and South Asia. His published research, based on the study of
Arabic, Persian, and Urdu, has been mainly devoted to general and critical issues of
Islamic studies, pre-modern and contemporary Sufism, and Indo-Muslim culture. His
most recent book is How to Read the Qur’an: A New Guide, with Select Translations (2011).
Marcia Hermansen is Director of the Islamic World Studies programme at Loyola
University Chicago, USA, where she teaches courses in Islamic studies and religious
studies in the Theology Department. She received her PhD from the University of
Chicago in Arabic and Islamic Studies. Her books include Muslima Theology: The Voices
of Muslim Women Theologians (forthcoming), Shah Wali Allah’s Treatises on Islamic Law
(2010) and The Conclusive Argument from God, a study and translation (from Arabic) of
Shah Wali Allah of Delhi’s Hujjat Allah al-Baligha (1996). She was an associate editor of
the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003). Dr Hermansen has
contributed numerous academic articles in the fields of Islamic thought, Sufism, Islam
and Muslims in South Asia, Muslims in America, and women and gender in Islam.
Tiffany A. Hodge is completing her PhD at Emory University, USA, in the West and
South Asian Religions (WSAR) programme. During the academic year 2012–13, she will
serve as a visiting professor in Vanderbilt University’s Religion department. A Fulbright
scholar and Charlotte Newcombe dissertation fellow, Hodge conducted her dissertation
fieldwork in rural Bangladesh on religious authority and dispute resolution.
Mohsen Kadivar has been a Visiting Research Professor of Islamic Studies in the
Department of Religion at Duke University, USA, since 2009. An Iranian dissident who
was jailed for speaking out against the authoritarianism of the Iranian regime, Kadivar
has published widely on theology and philosophy. He is an outspoken critic of Iranianstyle Islamic theocracy. For more details see http://kadivar.com.
Jeffrey T. Kenney is Professor of Religious Studies and University Professor at DePauw
University, USA, where he teaches courses in comparative religions and Islamic
studies. His research focuses on modern Islamic thought in Egypt and the greater
Middle East, with a special interest in political religion, radicalism, Islamism,
modernization, and secularization. His publications on these subjects have appeared
in journals, books, and encyclopedias.
contributors
Ahmet T. Kuru is Associate Professor of Political Science at San Diego State University,
USA, and formerly postdoctoral scholar at Columbia University, USA. He is the coeditor (with Alfred Stepan) of Democracy, Islam, and Secularism in Turkey (2012). Kuru is
the author of Secularism and State Policies toward Religion: The United States, France, and
Turkey (2009), which received the Distinguished Book Award from the Society for the
Scientific Study of Religion. His articles have been published in World Politics,
Comparative Politics, and Political Science Quarterly. Kuru is the Chair of the American
Political Science Association’s Religion and Politics Section.
Bruce B. Lawrence is an Emeritus Professor of Religion at Duke University, USA. The
Marcus Family Professor of Islamic Studies, he also served as the inaugural director of
the Duke Islamic Studies Center. He has authored, co-authored, edited or co-edited 16
books, many of which have won prizes, while also sparking debates in and beyond the
academy. His research focuses on Islam in all phases and all disciplines, with special
attention to institutional Islam in Asia, Indo-Persian Sufism, the religious masks of
violence, and contemporary Islam as both Abrahamic faith and religious ideology.
Robert D. Lee has taught political science at Colorado College, USA, since 1971. His
interest in Islam developed from dissertation research on Algeria in the colonial
period and then from an interest in contemporary Muslim intellectuals and their
efforts to reinterpret the past.
Richard C. Martin (PhD, Near Eastern Studies at New York University, 1975) is
Professor Emeritus of Islamic Studies and History of Religions at Emory University,
USA. He is the author of several articles and books on Islam, and coauthor of Defenders
of Reason in Islam: Mu`tazilism from Medieval School to Modern Symbol (1997); and editor in
chief of The Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2004). He has served on several
editorial boards and is past president of the American Research Center in Egypt.
Namrata Mitra is a graduate student in the philosophy and literature programme at
Purdue University, USA. She is currently completing her dissertation titled Nationalism
Haunted by Evil: Representations of 1947 Partition. Her research interests include social and
political philosophy, postcolonial literature and theory, and transnational feminism.
Valentine M. Moghadam is Professor of Sociology and Director of the International
Affairs Program at Northeastern University in Boston, USA, which she joined in
January 2012. Among her many publications, Professor Moghadam is author of
Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East (first published 1993;
second edition 2003; updated third edition expected in 2013); Women, Work and
Economic Reform in the Middle East and North Africa (1998); Globalizing Women: Transnational
xv
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contributors
Feminist Networks (2005), which won the American Political Science Association’s
Victoria Schuck award for best book on women and politics for 2005; and Globalization
and Social Movements: Islamism, Feminism, and the Global Justice Movement (2009, updated
second edition fall 2012). She has edited seven books, most recently Making Globalization
Work for Women: The Role of Social Rights and Trade Union Leadership (2011). With Professor
Massoud Karshenas, she is co-editor of Social Policy in the Middle East: Economic, Political,
and Gender Dynamics (2005).
Kathleen M. Moore is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of California
Santa Barbara, USA. Her publications concern Muslims in the United States and their
encounters with the American legal system, including The Unfamiliar Abode: Islamic
Law in the United States and Britain (2010).
Ebrahim Moosa is Professor of Religion and Islamic Studies in the Department of
Religion at Duke University, USA. He has published on modern Islamic ethics and
Islamic law with a comparative perspective on developments in the Middle East and
South Asia. His book Ghazali and the Poetics of Imagination (2005) won a prize at the
American Academy of Religion and he was named Carnegie scholar in 2005 in order to
pursue research on south Asian madrasas.
Jørgen S. Nielsen is Professor and Director of the Centre for European Islamic
Thought in the Faculty of Theology at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Since
1978 his research has focused on Islam in Europe, and he is the author of Muslims in
Western Europe (3rd edn, 2004).
Mark Sedgwick is Professor of Arab and Islamic Studies at Aarhus University in
Denmark. He previously taught Arab history for many years at the American University
in Cairo, Egypt. He is the author of Islam & Muslims: A Guide to Diverse Experience in a
Modern World (2006) and of books on Sufism and on Islamic modernism. He also works
on Islam in Europe and on terrorism and counter-radicalization.
William Shepard is Retired Associate Professor of Religious Studies at the University
of Canterbury in New Zealand, where he taught from 1978 to 1998. Prior to that he
taught at Cornell College in Iowa, USA. His PhD is from Harvard University. His main
research interest has been modern Islamic ideological thought, on which he has
published a number of articles, and several translations of Sayyid Qutb’s writings,
including Sayyid Qutb and Islamic Activism (1996), a full translation of Qutb’s Social
Justice in Islam. He has also published a textbook, Introducing Islam (2009; e-book
version, JBL Online).
contributors
Abdulkader Tayob (PhD, Temple University, 1989) currently holds a research chair at
the University of Cape Town in South Africa (Islam, African publics and religious
values). He has published a number of books, edited books, and numerous articles and
book chapte…
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