American Public University System Socrates & The Public Opinion Paper Task: This 4 – 5 full page (not to exceed 6 pages) Philosophical Essay you will be w

American Public University System Socrates & The Public Opinion Paper Task:

This 4 – 5 full page (not to exceed 6 pages) Philosophical Essay you will be writing due Week 7 is designed to be a thoughtful, reflective work. The 4 – 5 full pages does not include a cover page or a works cited page. It will be your premier writing assignment focused on the integration and assessment relating to the course concepts. Your paper should be written based on the outline you submitted during week 4 combined with your additional thoughts and instructor feedback. You will use at least three scholarly/reliable resources with matching in-text citations and a Works Cited page. All essays are double spaced, 12 New Times Roman font, paper title, along with all paragraphs indented five spaces.

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You will pick one of the following topics only to do your paper on:

According to Socrates, must one heed popular opinion about moral matters? Does Socrates accept the fairness of the laws under which he was tried and convicted? Would Socrates have been wrong to escape?
Consider the following philosophical puzzle: “If a tree falls in the forest and there’s no one around to hear it, does it make a sound?” (1) How is this philosophical puzzle an epistemological problem? And (2) how would John Locke answer it?
Evaluate the movie, The Matrix, in terms of the philosophical issues raised with (1) skepticism and (2) the mind-body problem. Explain how the movie raises questions similar to those found in Plato’s and Descartes’ philosophy. Do not give a plot summary of the movie – focus on the philosophical issues raised in the movie as they relate to Plato and Descartes.
Socrates asks Euthyphro, “Are morally good acts willed by God because they are morally good, or are they morally good because they are willed by God?” (1) How does this question relate to the Divine Command Theory of morality? (2) What are the philosophical implications associated with each option here?
Explain (1) the process by which Descartes uses skepticism to refute skepticism, and (2) what first principle does this lead him to? (3) Explain why this project was important for Descartes to accomplish.

Your paper will be written at a college level with an introduction, body paragraphs, a conclusion, along with in-text citations/Works Cited page in MLA formatting. Students will follow MLA format as the sole citation and formatting style used in written assignments submitted as part of coursework to the Humanities Department. Remember – any resource that is listed on the Works Cited page must have an in-text citation in the paper to match or this is considered plagiarism.

APUS Philosophy Program Guide
How to Write a Thesis Statement
Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting – The Basics
MLA Formatting and Style Guide
MLA Overview and Workshop
Purdue OWL MLA Sample Paper
APUS Library

My outline is uploaded below if you need any other information please ask. 1
Christopher Hawthorne
Professor Nancy
Philosophy 101
Paper Outline
The paper will access probable causes that render one to accept or show contempt for
popular opinion, as well as demonstrate that Socrates’s argument is right in terms of rejecting the
validity of popular opinion, while adopting the preeminence of adept opinion. Equally, the paper
will outline various strengths and weaknesses that lead people to heed popular opinion. Finally,
the focus of this paper also will establish the necessity to obey laws, which have jurisdiction on
humans’ existence, and ascertain that Socrates would have accepted the fairness in which Socrates
was tried and convicted. As a result, the essay will justify why it would have been immoral for
Socrates to escape.
Rough draft of introduction to essay/paper
Socrates paid a high fee to illustrate his indulgent on the distinction between the
conviction regarding fairness of a law, and the believe that human beings are subjected to the law.
As the citizenry, people are subjected to various laws that have been created through the
constitutional process in spite of our thinking regarding the fairness of the law (Rubin). People
should accept their fate even if it leads to death, thus, Socrates would have been wrong to escape.
Socrates contends that one should not worry themselves concerning how others see you, but
humans should strive to live the correct way because popular opinion most of times is not the best
opinion (Plato).
First Major Point
A variety of privileges and opportunities are available for every person born under various
state laws and systems (Rubin).
A. Secondary point
As such, the privileges direct one to respect and accept to obey the numerous
requisites, which govern the state (Rubin).
B. Secondary point
Most laws mirror democracy, and in democracy the laws contend a compliance of
the popular opinion regardless of its unjustifiability (Plato).
C. Transition sentence into next paragraph
The opinion of the majority is assumed to outweigh and override the interests of the
minority despite of how accurate and logical the reasoning of the minority can be
Second Major Point
The strength of popular opinion is denounced on the basis of an understanding that good
reasoning cannot be ascertained because majority of people hold that opinion (Plato).
A. Secondary point
Therefore, correctness and incorrectness of an issue in a state that is regulated by popular
opinion laws, cannot be determined based on the premise of the majority thing about its
rightfulness and wrongfulness (Rubin).
B. Secondary point
The majority in Socrates time were majorly the commoners whole intellectual alertness is
questionable because of low levels of education. Hence, the majority cannot be entrusted
with decision making (Plato).
C. Transition sentence into next paragraph
The minority highly educated and privileged few cannot unfortunately practice what
they have learned despite having a superior advantage above the majority when it comes
to the application of one’s intellectual prowess (Plato).
Third Major Point
The endorsement of the opinion of the majority against the strength and weakness of the
argument concerning moral issues may have been captivated upon Socrates inclination based on
the two (Lightbody).
A. Secondary point
Socrates’ choices are impacted by the dependability of his inclinations, which do not
front popular opinion rather than, by the thinking of the majority to hold a similar
opinion (Lightbody).
B. Secondary point
The majority cannot be trusted in matters of applicability of laws that delve in justice
because justice be served aside from on obedience to the law (Plato).
C. Transition sentence into next paragraph
According to Socrates, the moral opinions of experts should be considered because
contrary to that there will be no fairness to the application of the law (Hart).
Rough draft of conclusion of the paper
The contentious issue of whether Socrates should escape leads to the question of what is
considered wrong or right. Socrates should not have escaped because that would have been
wrong since that would amount to a violation and betrayal of Socrates beliefs. Therefore,
constituted laws made for such jurisdiction upon which ones’ life is based, should always be
A. Discussion summary
State laws bequeath the citizens with various privileges and opportunities. The available
privileges enjoin Socrates to accept and respect state laws founded on the popular opinion.
Nonetheless, the strength of the majority’s opinion is denounced based on an
understanding that logical reasoning cannot be determined because the majority, who are
mostly uneducated hold that opinion. Therefore, Socrates is inclined between the
endorsement of popular opinion against the strengths and weaknesses of arguments pitting
moral issues.
B. Final observations
State laws must be obeyed despite their wrongness. The power of legal judgement would
be meaningless if private citizenry violates such laws. Hence, a wrong cannot be paid by
another wrong, but by doing what is right.
Works Cited
Hart, HLA, et al. The Concept of Law. Oxford UP, 2012.
Franklin, John. East Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Philosophy Thomas C
Brickhouse, et al. Routledge Philosophy GuideBook to Plato and the Trial of Socrates.
Routledge, 2004.
Lightbody, Brian. Dispersing the Clouds of Temptation: Turning Away from Weakness of Will and
Turning towards the Sun. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2015.
Plato. “Oxford World’s Classics: Plato: Defence of Socrates; Euthyphro; Crito.” 1997.
Rubin, Leslie G. Justice V. Law in Greek Political Thought. Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.

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