The Effect of Aging on The Genetic Material of The Cell Research Report Please create a PRESENTATION on google slides as well as an ESSAY on the topic of: Explore the current research on aging and describe the effect of aging on the genetic material of the cell. Please make sure that there are FIFTEEN or more slides on the google slides presentation as well as an MLA bibliography for the presentation and an ADDITIONAL one for the essay as well. I have attached an example of what the presentation should look like as well as another example of what the essay should look like and I have also attached the rubric for further reference. Please make sure the Bibliography is MLA FORMATTED. Please make sure to cite every source you use in the research report. Just to make it clear, this research report consists of a GOOGLE SLIDES PRESENTATION and an ESSAY on the topic in bold above. Thanks so much and please don’t hesitate to ask me any questions. Although, there shouldn’t be any confusion because my directions are pretty straight forward. Thank you! Argue 1
16 September 2018
Trans Fatty Acids:
You might not realise it, but something very unhealthy could be coming home with you
from the grocery store. It could be in your pantry or even in your lunchbox, however you should
not fear it as its okay to have on an odd occasion. But, one type of ingredient health experts are
especially worried about is trans fat or better known as Trans Fatty Acids. Its found naturally in
dairy and meat, but only in very small quantities. Trans fats can also be man made by turning
liquid vegetable oil into a solid substance. When looking at a food label, you might see it listed
as trans fat, vegetable oil or hydrogenated fat. And is often used to make snacks, baked goods
and deep fried foods. Trans fats were first used during World War II, when animal fats like butter
were harder to attain. Therefore, products like margarine became a useful alternative. After the
war, it became easy to understand why trans fats remain a popular ingredient today: it is easier
to produce than sourcing solid animal fat, as well as providing a better taste, and longer lifetime.
Despite this, health professionals have been warning people about the dangers of trans fats. In
fact, trans fats have contributed to a half million deaths a year, many of those in developing
countries ill-equipped to address the health threats posed by a product cherished for its low
price and long shelf life (Jacobs, par. 2).
Trans fat was the first synthetic fat to become a significant ingredient of our food supply
when a German scientist presented Procter & Gamble with ways to add hydrogen to
cottonseed oil. Because the product looked like lard, P&G started selling it in 1911 as Crisco
(Hallock, par. 1). In the late ’50s, health advocates recommended reducing saturated fats, such
as in butter and beef, from our diets, which set in motion the use of margarine instead, a trend
that heightened in the 1980s. That’s when saturated-fat opponents also campaigned against
beef fat and tropical oils for frying and fast-food companies responded by using partially
hydrogenated oil instead (Hallock, par. 5-6). A diet rich in saturated fats can drive up total
cholesterol, and tip the balance toward more harmful LDL cholesterol, which prompts blockages
to form in arteries in the heart and elsewhere in the body. For that reason, most nutrition experts
recommend limiting saturated fat to under 10% of calories a day (Truth About Fats, par. 9).
However, the Center for Science in the Public Interest ironically admired fast food companies in
the early 1980s for replacing heart disease-risky saturated fat with trans fats made from what
they described as heart-healthy polyunsaturated fats. By 1989 more than 10,000 food
products sold in the U.S. contained trans fats. In the early 1990s, 95 percent of prepared
cookies and 100 percent of crackers manufactured in the U.S. contained trans fats, according to
FDA estimates. Then scientists discovered alarming health effects of trans fats. In one clinical
trial, the people who consumed trans fats had significantly higher levels of LDL-cholesterol (the
bad cholesterol) in their blood and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol (the good cholesterol),
both reliable predictors of cardiovascular disease. Trans fats consumers showed even worse
cholesterol levels than those who consumed similar amounts of saturated fat (McCarthy, par. 7).
In 2015, FDA released its final determination that Partially Hydrogenated Oils (PHOs)
are not Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). The FDA is extending the compliance date for
certain uses of partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs). For the majority of uses of PHOs, June 18,
2018, remains the date after which manufacturers cannot add PHOs to foods. However, to allow
for an orderly transition in the marketplace, FDA is allowing more time for products produced
prior to June 18, 2018 to work their way through distribution (Final determination, par. 1-3). In
addition, The World Health Organization announced a sweeping plan that urged governments
around the globe to eliminate the use of trans fats. Even before the Food and Drug
Administration announced its ban three years ago, most American companies had already
started to reduce or eliminate their use of trans fats in cookies, cakes and frozen foods. The
campaign was developed in partnership with Vital Strategies, a global health group backed by
Michael Bloomberg, who introduced the nations first municipal ban on trans fats in 2006, when
he was mayor of New York City. The campaign, seeks to eradicate trans fats from global food
supplies by 2023, potentially saving some 10 million lives, according to the W.H.O (Jacobs, par.
1-4). In the meantime, The American Heart Association recommends that adults who would
benefit from lowering LDL cholesterol reduce their intake of trans fat and limit their consumption
of saturated fat to 5 to 6% of total calories (Trans Fats, par. 10).
Hallock, Betty. Rise and Fall of Trans Fat: A History of Partially Hydrogenated Oil. ?Los Angeles
Times?, Los Angeles Times, 7 Nov. 2013,
Harvard Health Publishing. The Truth about Fats: the Good, the Bad, and the in-between Harvard Health. ?Harvard Health Blog?, Feb. 2015,
Jacobs, Andrew. Trans Fats Should Be Eliminated Worldwide by 2023, W.H.O. Says. ?The
York Times,? The New York Times, 14 May 2018,
McCarthy, William. Remember When Trans Fats Were Supposed to Be Good for You? ?UCLA
Newsroom,? 25 Mar. 2014,
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Food Additives & Ingredients – Final
Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils (Removing Trans Fat). ?U S Food
and Drug Administration Home Page?, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 18
Trans Fats. ?About Heart Attacks,? American Heart Association , 2015,
Trans Fatty Acids
By Sean Argue
What are trans fats?
There are two broad types of trans fats found in foods: naturally-occurring and
artificial trans fats.
Naturally Occuring: produced in the
gut of some animals and foods made
from these animals
Artificial: created in an
industrial process that adds
hydrogen to liquid vegetable
oils to make them more solid.
The primary dietary source for trans fats in processed food is partially
Why do some companies use trans fats?
Trans fats are:
easy to use
inexpensive to produce
last a long time
give foods a desirable taste and
Many restaurants and fast-food outlets
use trans fats to deep-fry foods because
oils with trans fats can be used many
times in commercial fryers.
Several countries (e.g., Denmark,
Switzerland, and Canada) and
jurisdictions (California, New York
City, Baltimore, and Montgomery
County, MD) have reduced or restricted
the use of trans fats in food service
How do trans fats affect my health?
Trans fats raise your bad (LDL)
cholesterol levels and lower
your good (HDL) cholesterol
Eating trans fats increases your
risk of developing heart disease
and stroke. Its also associated
with a higher risk of developing
type 2 diabetes.
Trans fats consumers showed even
worse cholesterol levels than
those who consumed similar
amounts of saturated fat
Why did trans fats become so popular if they have such bad health effects?
Trans fats were first used during World War II, when animal fats like butter were harder to
attain. Therefore, products like margarine became a useful alternative.
In the late ’50s, health advocates
The Center for Science in the Public
recommended reducing saturated fats,
Interest ironically admired fast food
such as in butter and beef, from our
companies in the early 1980s for
diets, which set in motion the use of
replacing heart disease-risky
margarine instead, a trend that
saturated fat with trans fats made from
heightened in the 1980s.
what they described as heart-healthy
Which foods contain trans fats?
Trans fats can be found in many
Doughnuts, and baked goods
including cakes, pie crusts,
biscuits, frozen pizza,
cookies, crackers, and
stick margarines and other
Products can be listed as 0 grams of
trans fats if they contain 0 grams to
You can determine the
less than 0.5 grams of trans fat per
amount of trans fats in a
particular packaged food
You can also spot trans fats by reading
by looking at the Nutrition
ingredient lists and looking for the
ingredients referred to as partially
Are there naturally occurring trans fats?
Small amounts of trans fats occur naturally in some meat and dairy
There have not been sufficient studies to determine whether these
naturally occurring trans fats have the same bad effects on
cholesterol levels as trans fats that have been industrially
How can I limit my daily of trans fats?
The American Heart Association recommends cutting back on
foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to
reduce trans fat in your diet and preparing lean meats and
poultry without added saturated and trans fat.
Read the Nutrition Facts panel on foods you buy at the
When eating out, ask what kind of oil foods are cooked in.
Replace the trans fats in your diet with
monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats.
Regulating Your Intake of Saturated and Trans Fats
Eat a dietary pattern that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy
products, poultry, fish and nuts. Also limit red meat and sugary foods and beverages.
Use naturally occurring, non hydrogenated vegetable oils such as canola, safflower,
sunflower or olive oil most often.
Look for processed foods made with unhydrogenated oil rather than partially
hydrogenated or hydrogenated vegetable oils or saturated fat.
Use soft margarine as a substitute for butter, and choose soft margarines (liquid or
tub varieties) over harder stick forms. Look for 0 g trans fat on the Nutrition Facts
label and no hydrogenated oils in the ingredients list.
Doughnuts, cookies, crackers, muffins, pies and cakes are examples of foods that may
contain trans fat. Limit how frequently you eat them.
Limit commercially fried foods and baked goods made with shortening or partially
hydrogenated vegetable oils. Not only are these foods very high in fat, but that fat is
also likely to be trans fat.
Hallock, Betty. Rise and Fall of Trans Fat: A History of Partially Hydrogenated Oil. Los Angeles
Times, Los Angeles Times, 7 Nov. 2013,
Harvard Health Publishing. The Truth about Fats: the Good, the Bad, and the in-between – Harvard Health. Harvard
Health Blog, Feb. 2015, www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/the-truth-about-fats-bad-and-good.
Jacobs, Andrew. Trans Fats Should Be Eliminated Worldwide by 2023, W.H.O. Says. The New York Times, The
New York Times, 14 May 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/05/14/health/trans-fats-who-ban.html.
McCarthy, William. Remember When Trans Fats Were Supposed to Be Good for You? UCLA
Newsroom, 25 Mar. 2014,
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Food Additives & Ingredients – Final
Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils (Removing Trans Fat). U S Food
and Drug Administration Home Page, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 18
Trans Fats. About Heart Attacks, American Heart Association , 2015,
Score Not Meeting Approaching Meets Exceeds Expectations
Expectations Expectations Expectations
Requirement Summary Summary of Summarizes all Summarizes all current
does not the research current research research using
explain the is lacking or using evidence evidence including data
topic, does incomplete. including data (models, graphs and
(models, graphs statistics) and visuals
sense or does
and statistics) created by the student
Requirement Two or more One of the All sources are All sources are
2 of the sources sources is not scholarly scholarly sources
are not a scholarly sources
scholarly source and/or Minimum of 3 interviews, data or
sources missing MLA sources required visuals created by the
and/or Bibliography with MLA student.
missing MLA or In-Text Bibliography &
Bibliography Citations In-Text Citations
O pts 7 pts
Requirement Report is Report is Report is Report is submitted 1
submitted submitted a submitted by the week before due date.
more than a day late. due date
Requirement Report is Report is Report is easy to Report style is
unclear or lacking or understand and reflective, creative and
does not incomplete organized in a artistic in design and
logical way thoughtfulness.
O pts 7 pts
0/60 pts 28/60 pts 60/60 pts
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