DEH2702 Miami Dade College Module Dental Hygiene Program Discussion Chapter 6 discussion Briefly describe a dental health program you want to provide and w

DEH2702 Miami Dade College Module Dental Hygiene Program Discussion Chapter 6 discussion Briefly describe a dental health program you want to provide and write a goal for your program and two objectives for the goal. If you choose a dental health program similar to another student (e.g. sealant program) the goals and objectives MUST be different. Remember: All posts and responses should contain proper grammar, be free of spelling errors, be substantial, and reflect critical thinking. DEH 2702 Chapter 6 Oral Health Programs In
The Community
Chapter six, Oral Health Programs in the Community.
The overall mission of public health is to provide conditions in which people can be healthy, and
this is partly accomplished through oral health programs in communities. Programs can be
developed and implemented at three levels, the national, state, and local level. They have similar
roles, but they vary widely in organizational schemes.
As previously mentioned, the US Department of Health and Human Services is the federal
government’s principal role, and they protect the health of all Americans, and they provide
essential services, and they also provide regulatory oversight and monitoring of expenditures
made by the grants that they give out.
State oral health programs, they exist in all states, but they, of course, vary from state to state.
The table 6-1 in your textbook lists the various programs that are offered by state oral health
programs. That will not be on an exam or a test. It’s just there so it will show you what different
programs are offering.
State dental directors, their job is to provide leadership and guidance for the state oral health
programs. About 80% of them are full time. You don’t need to know that number. And there are
some dental hygienists that are actually state directors. Most of them would have a higher degree
and most likely a master’s degree in public health. Now state oral health programs, they are
funded nationally, but they also have money that is funded by each state’s general revenues, so
their programs, state oral health programs are national and state funded.
Most of the state or health programs, they operate in conjunction with a state or health coalition,
and we’ve discussed what a coalition was in chapter three. An example here of the state oral
health coalition is the Wisconsin Oral Health Coalition. And what they’ve done is they’ve
developed a document that’s on their website that can help other states form coalitions, and it’s
called the coalition building tool kit.
On a local level, individual counties or individual city health departments, they may have an oral
health program. Federally qualified health centers, these clinics they’re federally funded, and
they offer services on a sliding fee schedule. And they accept patients that receive public
assistance through Medicaid.
Now these clinics employ both public health dentists and public health dental hygienists,
meaning they have a degree in public health, along with a degree in dentistry. Sometimes they
supplement their clinical coverage by local dentists and local dental hygienists. In fact, one of
our students that graduated, she works in Fort Myers at a federally qualified health center.
Depending on the city, depending on the county, there are nonprofit and faith-based
organizations that may establish a community clinic, and they’re funded through various sources,
could be the government, United Way, foundation grants, donations. Sometimes they sell goods
and services. They might have special events, fundraisers, and all various other kinds of
sourcing. But people recognize a need for dental care, and they set up oral health programs,
usually on a local level.
In chapter three, we discussed the program planning process. In that chapter, we discussed
assessing a community, doing your community profile, so that you could find out what that
community actually needed. Well, in this PowerPoint, we’re going to go through the actual
program planning. So we’ve already assessed the community, and now we’re going to implement
and plan a program.
These are the steps in the program planning process. So communities obviously comprise a
whole variety of people, different personalities, different values. But when we did our
assessment of the community, we discovered a common need in that community as far as oral
health care, or it may be more than one need. But we’re going to prioritize that, and we’re going
to plan a program now.
So after the assessment and we found out what the needs are, prioritizing, it may seem like it’s
rather simple. But it’s a little more complex than people think. So for example, a need that
involves life or death, that would obviously or generally take a higher priority. But if there’s a
choice between a health need that might affect lives of a few people and one that affects the lives
of a large number of people, then the decision is less clear.
And this is a good example. When the community is trying to decide what to do with their
limited funds. So limited resources may need to decide whether that community is going to
initiate a free vaccine, flu vaccine, for its older population. Or is it going to enhance the
immunization program for children? Or is it going to add a clinic offering reduced dental care for
low income families? And these are some of the questions that the committee or the coalition
would look at to try and decide what is their goal with these limited funds that they have for
health care.
Now the community has decided, the coalition has decided where they’re going to put their
money and they’re going to develop a program. The first step in development of that program is
you have to have goals and you have to have measurable objectives, because goals and
objectives offer specific proposals for changes to be made in that community. It identifies and
addresses the specific problems that were identified in the needs assessment.
This is very similar to what you do in your dental hygiene care plan. The goals are very broad
statements. The objectives, these are statements that describe specific desired outcomes or results
that you want to achieve. Goals are broad based statements of desired long term or short term
changes, that if achieved will alleviate the identified need or needs.
Two examples here of goal statements. The first one, to improve the oral health of school-aged
children in LaBelle, Florida. The second one, to decrease oral cancer in males living in Miami,
Florida. Objectives, they are developed from goals. They are more specific, and they explain
how that program goal or goals will be accomplished. They are written using a performance
verb, and that verb is very critical to having a specific measurable objective.
Using an active verb in an objective, it communicates an activity. These terms here, such as
adapt, implement, write, demonstrate, recite, those are specific terms that can tell you, if you
think of it as a student, exactly what is expected. Verbs such as understand, value, or learn, they
really don’t mean anything. And I’ll give you an example.
If I told you I wanted you to value the steps in the program planning process, what exactly does
that mean? It’s very vague, and you don’t understand exactly what you’re supposed to do. If I tell
you I want you to recite, or I want you to identify the steps in the planning process, you know
exactly what that means.
So that objective happens to be in this PowerPoint. That would mean that you need to know
those steps. You’re going to see it again probably on a quiz or an exam, so it’s a very specific. It’s
not a vague. It’s measurable. That term is used often with objectives, because you can measure
what you do by an exam. There are in box 6-4 in the textbook, there’s various sample
performance verbs that can be used for writing objectives.
There is a common format used for writing objective. It’s called SMART. Listed here are the
steps. Please be familiar with it.
This slide shows you examples of measurable objectives that can be written for our goal. So our
goal was to decrease oral cancer in males living in Miami, Florida. The objectives for that, and
you can have more than one objective for a goal. Three objectives. Reduce the initiation of
tobacco chewing among youth in Miami, Florida. Another objective, to decrease tobacco
advertising targeted toward youth in Miami, Florida. And the third one is to promote the benefits
of the HPV vaccine for the youth in Miami, Florida.
So our program has its goals, and it has its objectives. And then the next step is to select the
interventions. On your national board, and it has been year after year, it will give you examples
of goals, of objectives, of interventions. It’s going to ask you which one is which.
So interventions describe how the objectives will be accomplished. They are task-oriented. They
are specific services or specific activities that are going to be implemented to change or improve
the program participants, either their knowledge, attitude, behavior, or awareness.
When you’re planning your program activities, you have to consider the resources that you have,
and you have to consider any constraints you might have on that program. So for example,
planning a school-based fluoride varnish program, available resources might be the site at which
the program will be conducted, any supportive personnel at that site, what are your supplies on
hand, an industry sales representative willing to donate the fluoride varnish, that would be great
for a fluoride furnish program.
So those were your resources. What are the constraints that you might have? Well, the
availability of dental personnel to conduct screenings and then apply fluoride varnish. We know
that fluoride is not accepted by many parents, so that would be the negative attitudes from some
parents. The amount of time children are out of the classroom to get this fluoride and lack of
funding for additional costs.
So in simple terms, the implementation phase, it’s the process of putting the plan into action. And
it can include things such as monitoring the plan’s activities, monitoring the personnel,
equipment, resources, supplies. Sometimes includes revising things as needed in the program. An
evaluation during this process helps focus on the plan. This type of evaluation would be
formative evaluation, because it’s done during the process of the plan.
Evaluation. It measures the results of our program against the goals and objectives that were
developed when you were planning the program. It is an ongoing process to identify problems
and then come up with solutions to assist in revising a program as needed.
There are two types of program evaluation that you must know. First one is formative evaluation,
which I just used that term. This occurs as the program is taking place.
So this is a good example of formative evaluation. So as part of this six-month health fitness
program, the participants have to walk 30 minutes a day, five days a week. At the 12-week point,
which is half way, they are asked to discuss any difficulties they are encountering. And what
formative evaluation does is it can point out any problems and identify opportunities to correct
any program deficiencies.
Summative evaluation, it’s also known as outcome evaluation. And it involves judging the merit
or worth of the program after it is completed, after it has been in operation. So this step is an
attempt to determine whether a fully operational program is meeting the goals for which it was
This is a great example of summative evaluation. So at the end of the six-month health fitness
program, participants pre-program weight and blood pressure are compared to post-program
weight and blood pressure. So did that program work? That’s what summative evaluation is
looking at.
Obviously, depending on your program, there are specific measurement instruments used to
evaluate each program objective. These are just some examples of what they might be. Each
specific objective is reviewed to determine how well it met, the program goals.
Evaluation. It just determines whether the program accomplished what it was designed to
accomplish. In other words, were the objectives of the program successfully met, and if they
weren’t, why not? When you’re doing an evaluation, you’re basically summarizing what went
well and what did not go well. And when you draw conclusions, it’s not based on your intuition.
You cannot go to taxpayers into the community who gave you, let’s say, $50,000 for a program,
and you just say, you know what, I think that went really well. Well, they want to know exactly
how you know that. So in an evaluation process, you can give them the actual findings. If you
look at evaluation as, let’s say, an exam, a final exam that you have at the end of a course, we
don’t know as instructors, how well you know the information unless we evaluate you on it. So
that’s also a form of evaluation is an examination.
There is always the possibility in your program that there’s some type of negative outcome.
Maybe some of the objectives were not met. That does not mean that the program was a failure.
Negative outcomes become a learning experiences and learning opportunities for future
programs. So in some sense, the program was successful because during the evaluation process,
you found out how you can do it better next time.
After your evaluation is completed, as I said, you need to tell people what happened in that
program. So there’s various ways of doing that. You could have a journal article, some type of
summary report, something that’s detailed for the stakeholders, the advisory committee, or the
community. So reporting evaluation results to the community and stakeholders, it will increase
the community support and gain future funding from possibly other organizations so that you can
continue that program.
Many community oral health programs, they begin on a smaller scale, and that’s called pilot
testing. A pilot test, it provides an opportunity to implement a new process on a very small scale
and receive input. And any weaknesses in the program, in the process, can be addressed before
implementing it on a larger population. I’d like you to know that term.
In chapter two, we discussed primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. These next few slides
are going to cover primary prevention.
Community water fluoridation is an excellent example of a primary prevention program.
Fluoridation is recognized as one of the top 10 public health measures of the 21st century. Dental
sealants is another great example of primary prevention. So along with water fluoridation, dental
sealants are a cornerstone of community practice to prevent and control dental caries.
Educating people about oral health, that is another primary prevention, and it can be a primary
prevention program. You’ve done that when you went out to the elementary schools and talked to
the children about their oral health. So the whole intent of oral health education is to assist
people in making decisions about their oral health and to choose behaviors conducive to
maintaining their oral health.
When developing oral health education programs, it obviously needs to be effective. And to be
effective, it’s based on sound health promotion and sound health education theory. That’s going
to be discussed in chapter eight.
There are community-based opportunities for oral health education. A few of those are listed
right here. As I said you went out into the elementary schools to give education, oral education to
those children. But these are other areas where oral health education can be addressed.
When developing an oral health presentation, there are certain steps that you should go through
so that you can make sure that your presentation will be effective. Some of the websites you can
go to are listed here, the ADA, the ADHA, various opportunities to get information, materials
that you can use that can be adapted for your presentations.
When you’re developing an oral health education program, you don’t just simply go out there and
give out the information that you know. You have to have some kind of plan, and it’s called a
lesson plan. And what that does is it ensures that all the information and materials that you need
are presented in the most effective order and supported effectively by carefully chosen
instructional materials. So when you do a program, you want it to be effective. So you need to
write up a plan for it. The next two slides show you a template or an outline for an oral health
education lesson plan.
Now let’s say you’ve got your plan developed. There are various teaching methods for oral health
presentations. We’re going to go over that in the next few slides. Please be familiar with the
various teaching methods.
A lecture. I’m sure many of you are familiar with what a lecture is. Do the learners need to know
something that they did not know before, such as certain facts or cognitive information. A lecture
might be an appropriate method for delivering a lesson that puts heavy emphasis on facts and the
delivery of factual content.
The lecture format– it is teacher or leader-centered– presents many facts in a short period of
time, most effective when you need to present information to large groups. That’s why it’s often
used in college classes. Learners are not actively involved, so communication is just kind of one
way from the instructor to the students. It can detract from learning if who’s ever doing the
presentation has poor presentation skills. Maybe they’re boring. I’m sure you’ve all been
presented with that at some point in the class.
It’s usually best to use this type of method with some other type of method. In other words, use a
lecture with some other type of method that we’re going to discuss on the next slides. This
picture shows why a lecture method may not always be that effective. This looks very similar to
my history class in college where we had over 600 students in a lecture hall, and the instructor
was so far in front of the class that we could barely see.
A discussion is another format, another teaching method. So do the learners need to be able to
think differently about something than they did before, such as maybe develop or modify
attitudes? A discussion has been shown to be an effective strategy for dealing with attitudes.
In a discussion, the leader and the learners interact. It is learner-centered. It is very often used in
health education. Leaders use questions to stimulate participation and interaction. It’s very useful
for problem-solving, and it encourages reasoning and critical thinking skills. The downside of it
is that people with very strong personalities tend to dominate in discussions, so that means you
have to have a competent leader to keep everything on track and to make sure that everybody
gets to participate.
The next method would be demonstration. So do the learners need to be able to do something
that they could not do before, such as a skill? A demonstration, showing the skills being
performed correctly by someone who already has those skills is the most appropriate method in
this situation, and as you can see here, there’s an instructor that’s trying to show children how to
brush their teeth.
In a demonstration, it shows the steps in a procedure, and it allows the learner to see the actions
being performed. As you can see here, this little girl is looking at the typodont, and she’s
practicing on her typodont on how to brush teeth. A demonstration illustrates in reinforces theory
content. It can be used as a complement to either a lecture or a discussion. The demonstrator
needs the skills to perform that demonstrated task.
And if you have more than one demonstrator– let’s say you’re going out to an elementary school
to demonstrate toothbrushing techniques– if you have more than one demonstrator, everybody
needs to be calibrated on what they are teaching, their demonstration skills. It can be difficult to
show demonstration in large groups, so usually it needs to be a smaller group. It also requires
careful preparation. You have to have the appropriate equipment, and you have to have the
appropriate facilities.
Simulation. This provides opportunities for learners to practice actions or behaviors in the safety
of a classroom setting. This looks like our radiology lab, looks very familiar. Actually, it is not
our lab….
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