BA411 Grantham University Week Effective communication Presentation I need the final paper and power point created. After I received the documents, I will

BA411 Grantham University Week Effective communication Presentation I need the final paper and power point created. After I received the documents, I will work on the recording based on the content created. Template is attached. Thanks.

Now it’s your turn! Below is all the information given on a training program needed, called Effective Communication. You are a trainer in the given situation.

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Part 1 – Paper

The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:

Write at least 5 pages using Microsoft Word in APA style, see example below.
Use font size 12 and 1” margins.
Include cover page and reference page.
At least 80% of your paper must be original content/writing.
No more than 20% of your content/information may come from references.
Use at least three references from outside the course material, one reference must be from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the three reference requirement.
Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style.

References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost, CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing.

A detailed explanation of how to cite a source using APA can be found here (link).

Download an example here.

Part 2 – PowerPoint Presentation

Create a PowerPoint presentation and record yourself presenting the response to the assignment. The presentations should be a minimum of six minutes in length and include at least 15 slides.

TIP: If you have Office Mix, you can record a voiceover for your PowerPoint presentation. Or, you may use a free app called Screencast-o-matic to record your presentation. With Screencast-o-matic, you can record a screenshare of your PowerPoint slides while you verbally present your information. You can even select an option where you are visible in a thumbnail in the lower right-hand corner of the screen while the PowerPoint slide fills up the rest of the screen. Visit this website for the free download:

The requirements below must be met for your presentation to be accepted and graded:

Design and format each slide for a presentation, see example below.
Include a cover slide and reference slide (these slides do not count toward the 15 slide requirement).
Use at least three references from outside the course material, preferably from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the three reference requirement.
Identify sources on slides that contain reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) and list them on a reference slide.

References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost or on Google Scholar, government websites and publications, reputable news media (e.g. CNN, The Wall Street Journal, New York Times) websites and publications, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing BA411 Final Project – Effective Communication
Tim Smith the IT manager comes to you and says “My project coordinators are in a slump; they
just are not producing their usual caliber of work. I need to find out what the problem is. No
one on the project team knows what is going on. The communications from my project
coordinators are coming across as rude, which in turn keeps morale low. The teams are not
doing the work. I was hoping you would be able to put together an Effective Communication
training for them to help get everyone back on the right track.” There are 10 project
coordinators in the IT department. Two of the project coordinators are in the
organization’s Bangkok office. Tim wants the training to last no longer than 4 hours and wants it
to be face to face in a class room with you, the trainer. He does not want to fly the
Bangkok associates in and would like you to set up a Skype session with them during your
training. He also wants you to set up weekly coaching sessions with each project manager and
himself for a month after the training is completed.
Training Purchased from USA Training: Effective Communication
You are to use this information, but are not limited to it. Tim wants to make sure this
information is covered in the training as he went online and bought it from USA Training,
however he is open to what research you find. He wants the training to be interactive and
requests that you include at least one activity around communication in the training.
Effective Communication:
People in organizations typically spend over 75% of their time in an interpersonal situation;
thus it is no surprise to find that at the root of a large number of organizational problems is
poor communication. Effective communication is an essential component of organizational
success whether it is at the interpersonal, inter-group, intra-group, organizational, or external
In this chapter we will cover the basic process of communication and then we will cover some
of the most difficult communication issues managers’ face-providing constructive and effective
feedback and performance appraisal.
The Communication Process
Although all of us have been communicating with others since our infancy, the process of
transmitting information from an individual (or group) to another is a very complex process
with many sources of potential error.
In any communication at least some of the “meaning” lost in simple transmission of a message
from the sender to the receiver. In many situations a lot of the true message is lost and the
message that is heard is often far different than the one intended. This is most obvious in crosscultural situations where language is an issue. But it is also common among people of the same
Communications is so difficult because at each step in the process there major potential for
error. By the time a message gets from a sender to a receiver there are four basic places where
transmission errors can take place and at each place, there are a multitude of potential sources
of error. Thus it is no surprise that social psychologists estimate that there is usually a 40-60%
loss of meaning in the transmission of messages from sender to receiver.
It is critical to understand this process, understand and be aware of the potential sources of
errors and constantly counteract these tendencies by making a conscientious effort to make
sure there is a minimal loss of meaning in your conversation.
It is also very important to understand that a majoring of communication is non-verbal. This
means that when we attribute meaning to what someone else is saying, the verbal part of the
message actually means less than the non-verbal part. The non-verbal part includes such things
as body language and tone.
Barriers to Effective Communication
There are a wide number of sources of noise or interference that can enter into the
communication process. This can occur when people now each other very well and should
understand the sources of error. In a work setting, it is even more common since interactions
involve people who not only don’t have years of experience with each other, but
communication is complicated by the complex and often confliction relationships that exist at
work. In a work setting, the following suggests a number of sources of noise:
Language: The choice of words or language in which a sender encodes a message will
influence the quality of communication. Because language is a symbolic representation
of a phenomenon, room for interpretation and distortion of the meaning exists. In the
above example, the Boss uses language (this is the third day you’ve missed) that is likely
to convey far more than objective information. To Terry it conveys indifference to her
medical problems. Note that the same words will be interpreted different by each
different person. Meaning has to be given to words and many factors affect how an
individual will attribute meaning to particular words. It is important to note that no two
people will attribute the exact same meaning to the same words.
Defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the
Misreading of body language, tone and other non-verbal forms of communication
Noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency)
Receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues
Power struggles
Self-fulfilling assumptions
Language-different levels of meaning
Assumptions-e.g. assuming others see situation same as you, have same feelings as you
Distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people
Perceptual Biases: People attend to stimuli in the environment in very different ways.
We each have shortcuts that we use to organize data. Invariably, these shortcuts
introduce some biases into communication. Some of these shortcuts include
stereotyping, projection, and self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotyping is one of the most
common. This is when we assume that the other person has certain characteristics
based on the group to which they belong without validating that they in fact have these
Interpersonal Relationships: How we perceive communication is affected by the past
experience with the individual. Perception is also affected by the organizational
relationship two people have. For example, communication from a superior may be
perceived differently than that from a subordinate or peer.
Cultural Differences: Effective communication requires deciphering the basic values,
motives, aspirations, and assumptions that operate across geographical lines. Given
some dramatic differences across cultures in approaches to such areas as time, space,
and privacy, the opportunities for miscommunication while we are in cross-cultural
situations are plentiful.
Reading Nonverbal Communication Cues
A large percentage (studies suggest over 90%) of the meaning we derive from communication,
we derive from the non-verbal cues that the other person gives. Often a person says one thing
but communicates something totally different through vocal intonation and body language.
These mixed signals force the receiver to choose between the verbal and nonverbal parts of the
message. Most often, the receiver chooses the non-verbal aspects. Mixed messages create
tension and distrust because the receiver senses that the communicator is hiding something or
is being less than candid.
Non-verbal communication is made up of the following parts:
1. Visual
2. Tactile
3. Vocal
4. Use of time, space, and image
This often called body language and includes facial expression, eye movement, posture, and
gestures. The face is the biggest part of this. All of us “read” people’s faces for ways to interpret
what they say and feel. This fact becomes very apparent when we deal with someone with dark
sunglasses. Of course we can easily misread these cues especially when communicating across
cultures where gestures can mean something very different in another culture. For example, in
American culture agreement might be indicated by the head going up and down whereas in
India, a side-to-side head movement might mean the same thing.
We also look to posture to provide cues about the communicator; posture can indicate selfconfidence, aggressiveness, fear, guilt, or anxiety. Similarly, we look at gestures such as how we
hold our hands, or a handshake. Many gestures are culture bound and susceptible to
This involves the use of touch to impart meaning as in a handshake, a pat on the back, an arm
around the shoulder, a kiss, or a hug.
The meaning of words can be altered significantly by changing the intonation of one’s voice.
Think of how many ways you can say “no”-you could express mild doubt, terror, amazement,
anger among other emotions. Vocal meanings vary across cultures. Intonation in one culture
can mean support; another anger
Use of Time as Nonverbal Communication:
Use of time can communicate how we view our own status and power in relation to others.
Think about how a subordinate and his/her boss would view arriving at a place for an agreed
upon meeting…
Physical Space:
For most of us, someone standing very close to us makes us uncomfortable. We feel our
“space” has been invaded. People seek to extend their territory in many ways to attain power
and intimacy. We tend to mark our territory either with permanent walls, or in a classroom
with our coat, pen, paper, etc. We like to protect and control our territory. For Americans, the
“intimate zone” is about two feet; this can vary from culture to culture. This zone is reserved for
our closest friends. The “personal zone” from about 2-4 feet usually is reserved for family and
friends. The social zone (4-12 feet) is where most business transactions take place. The “public
zone” (over 12 feet) is used for lectures. Similarly, we use “things” to communicate. This can
involve expensive things, neat or messy things, photographs, plants, etc. Image: We use
clothing and other dimensions of physical appearance to communicate our values and
Nonverbal Communication:
A “majority” of the meaning we attribute to words comes not from the words themselves, but
from nonverbal factors such as gestures, facial expressions, tone, body language, etc.
Nonverbal cues can play five roles:
1. Repetition: they can verbally repeat the message the person is making.
2. Contradiction: they can contradict a message the individual is trying to convey.
3. Substitution: they can substitute for a verbal message. For example, a person’s eyes can
often convey a far more vivid message than words and often do.
4. Complementing: they may add to or complement a verbal message. A boss who pats a
person on the back in addition to giving praise can increase the impact of the message.
5. Accenting: non-verbal communication may accept or underline a verbal message.
Pounding the table, for example, can underline a message.
Skillful communicators understand the importance of nonverbal communication and use it to
increase their effectiveness, as well as use it to understand more clearly what someone else is
really saying.
A word of warning: Non-verbal cues can differ dramatically from culture to culture. An
American hand gesture meaning “A-OK” would be viewed as obscene in some South American
countries. Be careful.
Developing Communication Skills: Listening Skills
There are a number of situations when you need to solicit good information from others; these
situations include interviewing candidates, solving work problems, seeking to help an employee
on work performance, and finding out reasons for performance discrepancies.
Skill in communication involves a number of specific strengths. The first we will discuss involves
listening skills. The following lists some suggests for effective listening when confronted with a
problem at work:
Listen openly and with empathy to the other person.
Judge the content, not the messenger or delivery; comprehend before you judge.
Use multiple techniques to fully comprehend (ask, repeat, rephrase, etc.).
Active body state; fight distractions.
Ask the other person for as much detail as he/she can provide; paraphrase what the
other is saying to make sure you understand it and check for understanding.
Respond in an interested way that shows you understand the problem and the
employee’s concern.
Attend to non-verbal cues, body language, not just words; listen between the lines.
Ask the other for his views or suggestions.
State your position openly; be specific, not global.
Communicate your feelings but don’t act them out (e.g. tell a person that his behavior
really upsets you; don’t get angry).
Be descriptive, not evaluative-describe objectively, your reactions, consequences.
Be validating, not invalidating (“You wouldn’t understand”); acknowledge other’s
uniqueness, importance.
Be conjunctive, not disjunctive (not “I want to discuss this regardless of what you want
to discuss”).
Don’t totally control conversation; acknowledge what was said.
Own up: use “I”, not “They”… not “I’ve heard you are non-cooperative.”
Don’t react to emotional words, but interpret their purpose.
Practice supportive listening, not one way listening.
Decide on specific follow-up actions and specific follow up dates.
A major source of problem in communication is defensiveness. Effective communicators are
aware that defensiveness is a typical response in a work situation especially when negative
information or criticism is involved. Be aware that defensiveness is common, particularly with
subordinates when you are dealing with a problem. Try to make adjustments to compensate for
the likely defensiveness. Realize that when people feel threatened they will try to protect
themselves; this is natural. This defensiveness can take the form of aggression, anger,
competitiveness, avoidance among other responses. A skillful listener is aware of the potential
for defensiveness and makes needed adjustment. He or she is aware that self-protection is
necessary and avoids making the other person spend energy defending the self.
In addition, a supportive and effective listener does the following:
Stop Talking: Ask the other person for as much detail as he/she can provide; ask for
other’s views and suggestions.
Look at the person, listen openly and with empathy to the employee; be clear about his
position; be patient.
Listen and Respond in an interested way that shows you understand the problem and
the other’s concern is validating, not invalidating (“You wouldn’t understand.”);
acknowledge other’s uniqueness, importance.
Check for understanding; paraphrase; ask question for clarification.
Do not control conversation; acknowledge what was said; allow the other to finish
before responding.
Focus on the problem, not the person; is descriptive and specific, not evaluative; focuses
on content, not delivery or emotion
Attend to emotional as well as cognitive messages (e.g., anger); aware of non-verbal
cues, body language, etc.; listen between the lines
React to the message, not the person, delivery or emotion
Make sure you comprehend before you judge; ask questions
Use many techniques to fully comprehend
Stay in an active body state to aid listening
Fight distractions
Take Notes; Decide on specific follow-up actions and specific follow up dates
Constructive Feedback: Developing Your Skills
“I don’t know how to turn her performance around; she never used to have these attendance
problems and her work used to be so good; I don’t know why this is happening or what to do.”
This manager is struggling with one of the most important yet trickiest and most difficult
management tasks: providing constructive and useful feedback to others. Effective feedback is
absolutely essential to organizational effectiveness; people must know where they are and
where to go next in terms of expectations and goals-yours, their own, and the organization.
Feedback taps basic human needs-to improve, to compete, to be accurate; people want to be
competent. Feedback can be reinforcing; if given properly, feedback is almost always
appreciated and motivates people to improve. But for many people, daily work is like bowling
with a curtain placed between them and the pins; they receive little information.
Be aware of the many reasons why people are hesitant to give feedback; they include fear of
causing embarrassment, discomfort, fear of an emotional reaction, and inability to handle the
reaction. It is crucial that we realize how critical feedback can be and overcome our difficulties;
it is very important and can be very rewarding but it requires skill, understanding, courage, and
respect for yourself and others. Withholding constructive feedback is like sending people out on
a dangerous hike without a compass. This is especially true in today’s fast changing and
demanding workplace. Why managers are often reluctant to provide feedback? As important as
feedback is, this critical managerial task remains one of the most problematic. Many managers
would rather have root canal work than provide feedback to another-especially feedback that
might be viewed as critical. Why are managers so reluctant to provide feedback? The reasons
are many:
Fear of the other person’s reaction; people can get very defensive and emotional when
confronted with feedback and many managers are very fearful of the reaction.
The feedback may be based on subjective feeling and the manager may be unable to
give concrete information if the other person questions the basis for the feedback.
The information on which the feedback is based (eg. performance appraisal) may be a
very flawed process and the manager may not totally trust the information.
Many managers would prefer being a coach than “playing God.”
Other factors get in the way of effective communication or feedback sessions. Some of
these reasons are:
Defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the
Misreading of body language, tone.
Noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency).
Receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues.
Power struggles.
Self-fulfilling assumptions.
Language-different levels of meaning.
Manager’s hesitation to be candid.
Assumptions-e.g. assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you.
Distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
Effective Feedback has most of the following characteristics:
Descriptive (not evaluative) (avoids defensiveness.) By describing one’s own reactions, it
leaves the individual fee to use it or not to use it as he sees fit.
Avoid accusations; present data if necessary.
Describe your own reactions or feelings; describe objective consequences that have or
will occur; focus on behavior and your own reaction, not on other individual or his or
her attributes.
Suggest more acceptable alternative; be prepared to discuss additional alternatives;
focus on alternatives
Specific rather than general.
Focused on behavior not the person. It is important that we refer to what a person does
rather than to what we think he is. Thus we might say that a person “talked more than
anyone else in this meeting” rather than that he is a “loud-mouth.”
It takes into account the needs of both the receiver and giver of feedback. It should be
given to help, not to hurt. We too often give feedback because it makes us feel better or
gives us a psychological advantage.
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