ENGL102 West Virginia Impact of Employees National Regional Culture Analysis i need you to choose one of the sources and evaluate it in 4 to 5 pages + work cited pageI will upload 12 sources with summarize choose one and the instruction in the other upload file. Alnassar 1
Ahsen, Y. (2017). The Impact of Employees National/Regional Culture on the Adaptation to
Organizational Culture. Management Studies, 5(5). doi:10.17265/23282185/2017.05.003
Culture is among the challenging factors that affect human behavior. According to
Ahsen (2017), culture is a necessary aspect for people to cohabit. It can sabotage
communication and interaction among people. Enterprises have to strike a balance between
people and business culture for them to succeed. Managers have to understand the value of
cultural differences between people both locally and nationally. The author supports
Hofstedes dimension of culture, arguing that it is essential to manage multiple cultures in
the workplace. According to the author, people experience culture shock if they suspect that
they are being mistreated in the organization. Dealing with perceived cultural challenges
requires both management and employees working together in developing and implementing
diversity management strategies. Instead of crafting workplaces to suit individual culture
enterprises need to embrace a collective culture that accommodates all the cultural
differences in the workplace. Cross-cultural interaction helps generate more solutions and
opinions thus increased productivity.
Cooper, R. (2019). Culture Shock! Thailand: A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette.
Singapore: Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte.
Cooper (2019), in his book Culture Shock, defines culture shock as a state of
disorientation that occurs to anyone who has been subjected to new surroundings. The cultural
disorientation occurs as a result of discomfort in the new zone. The book provides expatriates
and long term visitors with copying mechanism to soften the dangers of culture shock on
moving to a strange country. The author incorporates experiences of individuals who have been
victims of culture shock. The book explores first impression on entering an unfamiliar
environment. The tactics to dealing with culture shock include learning more about the host
country, seeking advice from experts, identifying the good things about the host country, finding
a healthy lifestyle and often communicate with the host country nationals. According to Cooper
(2019), communication helps one establish relationships. The strategies help one gain
composure and adapt quickly to the new culture. The author offers a systematic guideline to
expatriates who might be caught in the traps of culture shock.
Dutton, E. (2013). Culture Shock and Multiculturalism: Reclaiming a Useful Model from the
Religious Realm. Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars
Culture affects every individual confronted with a new environment. Culture shock
may be caused by changes in the environment, the introduction of a new religion, lifestyle
challenges among other causes. According to Dutton (2013), culture shock can be used as a
model to understand how different people are affected by cultural differences. The 2013
study by Dutton holds that when researchers are faced with a foreign environment they
experience culture shock. The statement supports the argument that culture shock is a natural
experience. Exposure to multiculturalism affects the moral behavior of an individual. During
the various stages of culture shock religion plays a central role in helping the individual deal
with the negative or positive effects of culture shock. The author narrows his study to discuss
how religion affects multiculturalism. The primary conclusion made by the author is that a
change in religion causes culture shock. The experience affects the behaviors and reaction of
expatriates, international students, travellers, field researchers, and business among others
Elmer, D. (2013). Cross-Cultural Connections: Stepping Out and Fitting In Around the
World. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Cross-cultural scientist Duane Elmer in his book Cross-Cultural Connections
believes that culture has brought about a significant impact on the interaction of people. The
modern advancement in technology and globalization has enhanced the mobility of people
across cultures. For people to reap the best out of globalization they must be able to face
culture shock. According to Elmer (2013), the success of international interactions lies in
effectively facing culture shock. In the book, the author discusses the various tactics for local
and international expatriates to deal with multiculturalism. One must avoid all the pitfalls
that tie one in the mess of culture shock. The book offers real-time illustrations and practical
experiences that help people communicate effectively, reduce apprehension and establish
strong international relationships. The author explores all the possible measures and tactics
that sail business, travelers among others out of the chains of culture shock.
Goldstein, S. B., & Keller, S. R. (2015). U.S. college students lay theories of culture shock.
International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 47, 187-194.
Learners need adequate social, economic, and mental preparation when moving to a
new environment. For instance, students who study abroad have to be trained and helped out
of culture shock. The training packages for international students have to incorporate critical
beliefs, values, and expectations that help them achieve intercultural adjustment to their new
environment. Researchers Goldstein & Keller (2015) conducted a study on 149 U.S students
to examine the various theories of culture shock. According to the authors, culture shock is
an experience that occurs as a result of differences in communication, language, and
surrounding. Cognitive and internal factors such as identity confusion, poor stress
management and prejudices were found to have limited effect on culture shock. The authors
recommend that when dealing with cultural differences, an effort has to be directed to the
external causes. The basic approaches recommended by the authors in dealing with culture
shock are preparation, facilitation, support and adequate socialization on the host culture.
Gutchess, A. H., & Indeck, A. (2012). Cultural influences on memory. Retrieved from
Studies have shown that cultural differences may affect the moral and mental
functioning of an individual. For instance, employees faced with cultural insecurity perform
poorly compared to nationals of the host culture. According to Gutches & Indeck (2012),
cultural differences affect how people perceive the world around them. Since culture
operates as a lens to the behavior and reaction of people culture shock occurs when people
are confronted with an unfamiliar environment. Culture shock occurs due to mental
instability as the one tries to process the new setting into the memory. An individual has to
be accorded support to adapt to cultural norms and values. The authors evidence in the study
proves that emotional, attentional and object-based process varies across cultural groups. The
researchers conclude that memory formation and retrieval depends on cultural background. If
individuals swiftly adapt to cultural changes they experience mental stability. Mental
stability improves interaction and communication thus enhancing the ability to survive in the
Loh, B. (2017). Constructing home and identity across cultures: the culture shock and return
culture shock experience of international students. doi:10.22215/etd/2003-05649
Barbara Loh, in his expository study, proposes that sojourners encounter culture
shock on venturing a new environment. The experience of denial to the new environment
different from their own is what Loh (2017) refers to as culture shock. People faced with
culture shock have to find survival mechanisms to cope with the new culture. The process of
adaptation to the host culture requires development of new values, expectations, and
behaviors that create a social identity compatible with the new environment. The author also
expounds on the return culture shock that occurs when sojourners leave the host environment
back to their home culture. The strange home experience creates return culture shock.
Individual faced with culture shock require a process of re-socialization. Lack of adequate
training and socialization leads to a feeling of non-belonging that affects social and mental
stability of the victim. The author concludes that return culture shock is more debilitating
compared to culture shock.
Lopez, S. (2017). How Culture Affects Memory Encoding: Extending the ‘Threat to
Conceptual Self’ Model (TCSM) for Traumatic Experiences. SSRN Electronic
Culture shock occurs when people move to a new environment with customs different
from their home location. Lopez (2017) defines culture shock as a series of emotional
reactions that result from losing familiar signs and symptoms of social intercourse. It also
involves the adjustments required to adapt and become used to the new situation. Culture
shock is thus a process that one undergoes once faced with a strange environment. The
author believes that it is not possible to avoid culture shock since it is a subjective
experience. Individuals have to learn how to limit the negative influences of culture shock.
Prolonged experience of culture shock may lead to depression. The study recommends that
people preparing for a culture change should approach the situation with open eyes and
engage in frequent interactions with people of the host culture. The basic stages of culture
shock include honeymoon, rejection, adjustment or negotiation and mastery stage.
McInnes, W. (2012). Culture Shock: A Handbook for 21st Century Business. Hoboken, NJ:
John Wiley & Sons.
Businesses need to change their culture, skills, and structure to accommodate
multiculturalism in the workplace. As opposed to most of the studies on culture shock,
McInnes (2012) approaches culture shock from an organizational perspective. According to
the author for business to succeed and get out of culture shock must change their culture,
structure, and skillsets. The author compares the modern and traditional corporations
concluding that companies using traditional models, such as the hierarchical structure, are
subject to culture shock. Employees in such work settings experience a feeling of humiliation
due to lack of cultural flexibility. Technology and globalization require businesses to create
and effectively manage workplace diversity. Diversity entails well-structured mechanisms
that accommodate people from different cultural orientations. The author proposes that
corporations with the desire to connect and see business progress should ethically and
consciously check out culture shock.
OJI, K. (2014). MANAGING CULTURE SHOCK AND CONFLICT. Bloomington, IN Xlibris
People move from one location to another in such of better social, political, and
economic opportunities. Culture shock is among the fundamental factors limiting the
exploration of these opportunities. Oji (2014) incorporates United States immigrants
challenges to illustrate how culture shock limits people to opportunities. The author uses
various culture shock problems faced by immigrants to recommend coping strategies.
According to the author conflict and culture shock were among the critical issues faced by
immigrants in the United States. Feelings of fear and rejection limits individuals access to
available opportunities in the new environment. The study reveals that people of minority
cultures are faced with feelings of low status, which differentiates them from the other
population. The experience attracts biasness in all aspects of life. Individuals with
perceptions of cultural inferiority should be supported and motivated to feel valued. All
people should be involved in dealing with the problem of culture shock.
Sreeleakha, P. (2014). Managing culture shock and reverse culture shock of Indian
citizenship employees. International Journal of Management Practice, 7(3), 250.
In recent years adaptability to different cultures has become an issue. Researchers
have projected that the problem of culture shock will continue to affect expatriates and
business in the years to come. According to Sreeleakha (2014) multinationals who hire
international staffs will be required to face out culture shock. An employee travelling to
international assignments will have to manage culture shock and reverse culture shock on
moving back to their parent country. It is the responsibility of the management to ensure that
employees are motivated to face off cultural differences. According to the author, the factors
that determine culture shock coping strategies include age, income, industry experience,
education qualification and exposure to previous expatriation experience. Organizations need
to understand how culture shock affects the various groups of individuals for them to craft
the best coping strategies. The study concludes that culture shock is worse compared to
reverse culture shock.
Xia, J. (2015). Analysis of Impact of Culture Shock on Individual Psychology. International
Journal of Psychological Studies, 1(2), 97. doi:10.5539/ijps.v1n2p97
The trend of globalization has made international communication a common
phenomenon for all people. According to Xia (2015), international communication has made
culture shock a common problem faced by business entities. The concern for culture shock has
attracted much research to document measures to cope with the problem of culture shock. The
author explores the various effects of culture shock that may hinder international
communication and integration. The focus of the study by Xia (2015) is to recommend measures
to minimize the psychological discomfort associated with culture shock. The author holds that
people should be prepared and avoid unnecessary anxiety when facing cultural patterns. Culture
results in emotional discomfort and psychological confusion which leads to stress. Lack of
proper measures to control psychological anxiety and confusion leads to depression. The basic
recommendation for dealing with stress advanced by Xia (2015) include understanding the four
stages of culture shock and becoming familiar with the new culture.
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