Campbellsville University Managing and Using Information Systems Paper Please take a moment to share your thoughts, ideas, comments and / or questions conc

Campbellsville University Managing and Using Information Systems Paper Please take a moment to share your thoughts, ideas, comments and / or questions concerning Week 5’s reading assignment lecture.need a paper of at-least 350 words in APA Format with 2 rferences Managing and Using Information Systems:
A Strategic Approach – Sixth Edition
Keri Pearlson, Carol Saunders,
and Dennis Galletta
© Copyright 2016
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 5
IT and Business Transformation
Sloan Valve
•What was wrong with their Product
Development Process?
•What did Sloan do? What is NPD?
•Did it help?
•Are all enterprise system implementations this
successful?
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
3
SILO PERSPECTIVE
VERSUS
BUSINESS PROCESS PERSPECTIVE
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
4
Silo (Functional) Perspective
• Specialized functions (sales, accounting, production, etc.
Executive Offices
CEO
President
Operations
Marketing
Accounting
Finance
Administration
• Advantages:
• Allows optimization of expertise.
• Group like functions together for transfer of knowledge.
• Disadvantages:
• Sub-optimization (reinvent wheel; gaps in communication;
bureaucracy)
• Tend to lose sight of overall organizational objectives.
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
5
The Process Perspective
• Examples of processes:
• Fulfill customer orders
• Manufacturing, planning, execution
• Procurement (see below)
Receive
Requirement for
Goods/Services
Create and Send
Purchase Order
Receive Goods
Verify Invoice
Pay Vendor
• Processes have:
• Beginning and an end
• Inputs and outputs
• A process to convert inputs into outputs
• Metrics to measure effectiveness
• They cross functions
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
6
Cross-Functional Nature of Business Processes
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
7
How to Manage a Process
• Identify the customers of processes (who receives
the output?)
• Identify the customers’ requirements (how do we
judge success?)
• Clarify the value each process adds to the
organizational goals
• Share this perspective so the organization itself
becomes more process focused
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
8
Comparison of Silo Perspective and
Business Process Perspective
Silo Perspective
Business Process
Perspective
Definition
Self-contained functional units
such as marketing, operations,
finance
Interrelated, sequential set of
activities and tasks that turns
inputs into outputs
Focus
Functional
Cross-functional
Goal
Accomplishment
Optimizes on functional goals,
which might be suboptimal for
the organization
Optimizes on organizational
goals, or the “big picture”
Benefits
Highlighting and developing
core competencies; functional
efficiencies
Avoiding work duplication and
cross-functional communication
gaps; organizational
effectiveness
Problems
Redundancy of information
throughout the organization;
cross-functional inefficiencies;
communication problems
Difficult to find knowledgeable
generalists; sophisticated
software is needed
What do you do when things change?
•Dynamic and agile processes
•Examples:
• Agile: Autos are built with wires and space for
options
• Dynamic: Call centers route incoming or even
outgoing calls to available locations and agents
• Software defined architectures (see chapter 6)
•IT is required to pull this off well
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
10
Techniques to Transform a Static
Process
•Radical process redesign
• Also known as business process reengineering
•Incremental, continuous process
improvement
• Including total quality management (TQM) and
Six Sigma
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
11
Incremental Change
• Total Quality Management
• Often results in favorable reactions from personnel
• Improvements are owned and controlled
• Less threatening change
• Six-Sigma is one popular approach to TQM
• Developed at Motorola
• Institutionalized at GE for “near-perfect products”
• Generally regarded as 3.4 defects per million opportunities for
defect (6 std dev from mean)
Improvement
Time
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
12
Radical Change
• Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
• Sets aggressive improvement goals.
• Goal is to make a rapid, breakthrough impact on key
metrics in a short amount of time.
• Greater resistance by personnel.
• Use only when radical change is needed.
Improvement
Time
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
13
Comparing the Two
Improvement
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
14
Key Aspects of Radical Change
Approaches
• Need for quick, major change
• Thinking from a cross-functional process
perspective
• Challenge to old assumptions
• Networked (cross-functional organization)
• Empowerment of individuals in the process
• Measurement of success via metrics tied to
business goals and effectiveness of new processes
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
15
Workflow and Mapping Processes
• Workflow diagrams show a picture of the sequence
and detail of each process step
• Objective is to understand and communicate the
dimensions of the process
• Over 200 products are available to do this
• High-level overview chart plus detailed flow
diagram of the process
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
16
BPM
• Information systems tools used to enable information
flow within and between processes.
• Comprehensive, enterprise software packages.
• Most frequently discussed:
• ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning),
• CRM (Customer Relationship Management),
• SCM (Supply Chain Management)
• Designed to manage the potentially hundreds of
systems throughout a large organization.
• SAP, Oracle, Peoplesoft are the most widely used ERP
software packages in large organizations.
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
17
BPM Architecture
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
18
Standardization vs Integration
Business Process Standardization
Business Process
Integration
Low
High
High
Single face to customers
High needs for reliability,
and suppliers but standards predictability, and sharing;
not enforced internally
single view of process
Low
Decentralized design;
business units decide how
to meet customer needs
Tasks are done the same way
across units, but there is little
need for business units to
interact
Source: J. Ross “Forget Strategy: Focus IT on your Operating Model,”
MIT Center for Information Systems Research Briefing (December 2005)
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
19
Enterprise Systems (Enterprise Resource
Planning or ERP)
• Seamlessly integrate information flows throughout the
company.
• Reflect industry “best” practices.
• Need to be integrated with existing hardware, OSs,
databases, and telecommunications.
• Some assembly (customization) is required
• The systems evolve to fit the needs of the diverse
marketplace.
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
20
ERP Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
Disadvantages
•
Represent “best practices”
•
Enormous amount of work
•
Modules throughout the
organization communicate with
each other
•
Require redesign of business
practices for maximum benefit
•
Require customization if special
features are needed
•
Enable centralized decision-making
•
Eliminate redundant data entry
•
Very high cost
•
Enable standardized procedures in
different locations
•
Sold as a suite, not individual
modules
•
Requires extensive training
•
High risk of failure
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
21
ERP II
• Makes information available to external
stakeholders too
• Enables e-business applications
• Integrates into the cloud
• Includes ERP plus other functions (see Figure 5.8)
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
22
ERP and ERP II Functions
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
23
Customer Relationship
Management
• Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a
natural extension of applying the value chain model
to customers.
• CRM includes many management activities
performed to
• obtain,
• enhance relationships with, and
• retain customers.
• CRM can lead to better customer service, which
leads to competitive advantage for the business.
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
24
CRM
•Common systems are:
• Oracle
• SAP
• Salesforce.com (web-based cloud system)
•Oracle and SAP integrate into their ERP
systems
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
25
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
• An enterprise system that manages the integrated
supply chain
• Translation: processes are linked across companies
• The single network optimizes costs and
opportunities for all companies in the supply chain
• Every part of the supply chain has the latest
information about sales expected and inventories
from source materials at all stages
• Bullwhip effect occurs when the supplier at each
stage adds a small “buffer” for it’s suppliers in case
demand is higher than expected
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
26
Difficulties in Integrated Supply Chains
• Information integration requires agreement of what
information to share, how to share it, and the
authority to view it.
• Trust must be established
• Planning must be synchronized carefully
• Workflow must be coordinated between partners to
determine what to do with the information they
obtain
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
27
Advantages and Disadvantages
of Enterprise Systems
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
28
The Adoption Decision
• The enterprise system sometimes should drive
business process redesign when:
• Just starting out.
• Organizational processes are not relied upon for strategic
advantage.
• Current systems are in crisis.
• It is inappropriate for the enterprise system to drive
business process redesign when:
• Changing an organization’s processes that are relied upon for
strategic advantage.
• The package does not fit the organization.
• There is a lack of top management support.
© 2016 John Wi ley & Sons, Inc.
29
Managing and Using Information Systems:
A Strategic Approach – Sixth Edition
Keri Pearlson, Carol Saunders,
and Dennis Galletta
© Copyright 2016
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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