ANS409 Michigan State Age at Menopause Fixed or Variable Among Women Questions Questions: After birth in humans, mice or farm animals (pick one species), do numbers of ovarian follicles increase, decrease or remain unchanged during aging? (Professor Feedback: correct answer, but figure only shows theoretical line and not real data that depicts changes in number of follicles) Is age at menopause fixed or variable among women? Provide a figure or table showing scientific proof of your answer. (PF: answer needs improvement, use data for age at menopause at different ages not averages for countries. explanation of numbers etc. in parenthesis isn’t clear. the average age for menopause ranged 49-52. the range at menopause for individuals is much greater).Identify a specific gene with a direct (cause and effect) impact on number of primordial follicles in the ovarian reserve. (PF: data presented are correlative. to improve use cause and effect studies that evaluated the direct effect of a gene on number of primordial follicles)Identify a biomarker that is predictive of size of the ovarian reserve and ovarian response to superovulation (or assisted reproductive technologies, ART). (PF: interpretation of data in figure is incorrect. as AMH increases so do number of eggs collected. also need to reference that AMH is a biomarker for size of the ovarian reserve) Revised 5/8/2019
Rubric for the Final Module Report (FMR):
Level 1: 20 points awarded because all the following 13 Items are correct:
1. FMR UPLOADED TO D2L in a single file in the following order using these six (Items
2 to 7) headings to provide the following information:
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received from the Instructor on your original RQ answers.
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may impact your life/career/thinking and why/how?”
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8. PAGE LIMIT FOR ITEM 5 IS 3 PAGES OR LESS.
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parts of an RQ (e.g., a, b) are properly referenced using the number style as in Biology
of Reproduction and add after the reference number, the page, table or figure number in
the reference you are referring to in your answer to the RQ. For example: 1. Page 1;
Yanagimachi R. Fertility of mammalian spermatozoa: its development and relativity.
Zygote 1994; 2:371372. NOTE. Just reading the Abstract in a paper is unacceptable.
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12.DEADLINE: FMR was uploaded by Syllabus deadline.
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Level 2: 18 pts awarded because all Items in Level 1 are correct except
one or two Items total (from Items 1 through 4 and/or 8 through 11) were
Level 3: 16 pts awarded because all Items in Level 1 are correct except
two Items total (from Items 1 through 4 and/or 8 through 11) were
incorrect and answer to either Item 6 or 7 was inadequate (lacked
Level 4: 14 pts awarded because all Items in Level 1 are correct except
one part (a or b) of the answer to a SINGLE RQ in Item 5 and two Items
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Level 1 are correct except one part (a or b) of the answer to a SINGLE RQ
in Item 5 and answer to either Item 6 or 7) was inadequate (lacked
Level 5: 12 pts awarded because all Items in Level 1 are correct except
one part (a or b) of EACH RQ and two or three Items total (from Items 1
through 4 and/or 8 to 11) were incorrect. OR, all Items in Level 1 are
correct except one part (a or b) of the answer for EACH RQ and answer to
either Items 6 or 7) was inadequate (lacked substance).
Level 6: 0 pts awarded because Both parts (a or b) of answers to a
SINGLE RQ in Item 5 are incorrect. OR, five or more Items total from 1
through 4 and/or 6 through 11 were incorrect. OR, Item 12 or 13 was not
RQ1 A) After birth in humans, mice or farm animals (pick one species), do numbers of
ovarian follicles increase, decrease or remain unchanged during aging?
In the figure above, it shows the number of primordial follicles in women from birth to the
age of 60. The x-axis represents the number of primordial follicles in an exponential
factor to simplify the actual number, so 102 represents 100 follicles. The y-axis
represents the age of women from birth to the age of 60. The solid line shows how the
number of primordial follicles gradually decreases from birth to over 50 years old. At
birth, women have already lost nearly 5 million primordial follicles from the normal death
of cells. After being born, the decline of follicles is not as rapid, but it still decreases as a
woman grows older. By the time menopause hits, the follicle count is expected to be
less than a thousand (1). Another study also confirmed that the number of follicles
decrease during the last 10 years before a woman reaches menopause (2). Ultimately,
results show that after birth, womens number of ovarian follicles decrease during aging
SQ: Besides aging, what other factors contribute to the decrease of ovarian follicles
RQ 1B) Is age at menopause fixed or variable among women? Provide a figure or table
showing scientific proof of your answer.
In this table it shows women from different countries and the median age at which they
reach menopause and the range of these individual values. In the column listed as
range, there is data that indicate that the number is not available for that specific
percentile because the women used in that sample were too young for menopause to
be determined (3). Another study showed that the age of menopause varied from
country to country as well. Mexico was as young as 46 and France was as old as 52 (4).
Results show that menopause is variable among women and typically range from 49 to
52 years old and in some cases 46 years young.
SQ: How does the cultural background of women play a part in the age of menopause
1) Section II. F. J. Broekmans, M. R. Soules, B. C. Fauser, Ovarian Aging:
Mechanisms and Clinical Consequences, Endocrine Reviews, Volume 30, Issue
5, 1 August 2009, Pages 465493, https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2009-0006
2) Page 268. R. Godson and M. Faddy. Ovarian Aging, Follicular Depletion, and
Steroidogenesis, Pergamon, Volume 29, 1994, Pages 265-274.
3) Page 1200. A. Morabia, M. Costanza, and The World Health Organization
Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives, American Journal
of Epidemiology, Volume 148, Issue 12, 05 May 1998, Pages 1195-1205.
4) Page 281. F. Thomas, F. Renaud, E. Benefice, T. Meeus, J. Guegan,
International Variability of Ages at Menarche and Menopause: Patterns and Main
Determinants, Project Muse, Volume 73, Number 2, April 2001, pp. 271-290
RQ2A) Identify a specific gene with a
direct (cause and effect) impact on
number of primordial follicles in the
ovarian reserve. Provide a figure showing
scientific proof of your answer.
– This figure shows how the gene
rs11111146, also known as CCDC53,
affects the follicle count in the ovarian
reserve. The three different colored dots
represent three different forms of the
CCDC53 gene and the number in
parentheses next to it denotes how many
were present. As an African American
woman increases in age (x-axis) the
follicular count decreases (y-axis). The
variance of the gene shows how it may
affect a woman differently, but overall the
results show that the number of follicles
decrease as a woman grows older. (1)
RQ 2B) Identify a
biomarker that is
predictive of size
of the ovarian
scientific proof of
-The figure below
shows the relationship between a biomarker, basal Anti-mullerian (AMH), and the
ovarian reserve. The number of eggs collected (x-axis) from a woman after accessing
the amount of AMH present (y-axis) decreases as the amount of AMH increases. (2)
Another study concludes that AMH is a better indication of ovarian size when it is
received while the ovary is stimulated as opposed to basal AMH measurements. (3)
SQ: How would the affect of the gene change on the ovarian reserve once passed
through numerous generations? Does a biomarker present a different effect on the
ovarian reserve when it is shown in a specific race?
1) Schuh-Huerta, S.M., Johnson, N.A., Rosen, M.P. et al. Hum Genet (2012) 131:
2) Muttukrishna, S. , McGarrigle, H. , Wakim, R. , Khadum, I. , Ranieri, D. and Serhal, P.
(2005), Antral follicle count, anti?mullerian hormone and inhibin B: predictors of ovarian
response in assisted reproductive technology?. BJOG: An International Journal of
Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 112: 1384-1390. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2005.00670.x
3) Peñarrubia J1, Fábregues F, Manau D, Creus M, Casals G, Casamitjana R, Carmona
F, Vanrell JA, Balasch J. Basal and stimulation day 5 anti-Mullerian hormone serum
concentrations as predictors of ovarian response and pregnancy in assisted
reproductive technology cycles stimulated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone
agonist–gonadotropin treatment. Pub Med. 04/20/2005.
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