WMU Economic Contribution of the Sierra Leone Port Authority Paper i need chapter one to three and the two chapter will come after we finish and supervisor have gone through it and there is not corrections need to be done then we can i will go for the remaining two and if there is any correction i will have resend it to you again please include the abstract and table of content and references.topic of Dissertation: The Economic Contribution of the Sierraleone Port Authority to the Development of the Sierra leone Economy CHAPTER ONE
This chapter gives an introduction to the economic contribution of Sierra Leone Ports
Authority to the development of Sierra Leone. According to Costa (1997) economic
contribution is the process for identifying, assessing, and prioritizing development of
A port becomes a wheel of economy if it runs efficiently. Presently the function of a port is
not only limited but has expanded to a logistical platform. The efficiency of a port is
important in international trade since a seaport is the nerve of foreign trade of a country.
A seaport is the compulsory transit point for the bulk of this trade, permitting the import of
goods, which the country does not itself produce in sufficient quantity and the export of
items which the country has a surplus or has a competitive edge to produce contributing to
the development of its economy. Besides, a port is also a place for the provision of further
services, which add value to the products transported and thus helps the increasing
demand of trade.
The globalization of world economy has brought about tremendous increase in exchanges
of goods across the world. The world trade also accelerated as cost of shipping has
increased due to the introduction of economy of scale and the development of technology
in shipping. To cope with the ever growing world trade, ports of every country will no
doubt continue to play a critical and important role in providing the cheapest mode of
Port performance and port economics are closely related with macroeconomics hence, any
changes in port traffic or operation and port organization has an impact on national
economy particularly on the hinterland.
Sierra Leone seaports are today more than just government owned public utilities; they are
indeed, focal points of convergence for several contending and competing business
interests from shipping lines, port authorities, and individual terminal operators to freight
forwarders and inland logistics agencies; not to leave out the shippers (the exporterimporter fraternity) whose cargo is what is being ultimately being transported. They
represent what may rightly be considered a complex mosaic of contractual and business
relationships, which in turn give rise to maze of regulatory and operating institutions and
procedures and ever-changing rules of dynamic inter-play.
Under the impact of first-generation port reforms, initiated since the mid-nineties,
following economic liberalisation and globalisation policies, the entire gamut of existing
institutional arrangements and underlying transactional and business processes in the port
sector have been undergoing a profound transformation.
Consequently, conventional port and terminal ownership, management and regulatory
frameworks guiding the port operations are undergoing changes in line with broader
process of functional evolution of ports and global maritime trade.
BACKGROUND TO THE SIERRA LEONE PORTS AUTHORITY
The Sierra Leone Ports Authority was established under the Ports Act of 1964 (Amended in
1991, 2002 & 2006). By the 1964 Port Act, the Management of the Sierra Leone Ports
Authority as a statute must manage and control the affairs of the Ports; hence, it is a semiautonomous entity. At inception, the main responsibilities of the Ports Authority include:
To control all Ports and maritime activities in Sierra Leone
To operate the Port of Freetown
To oversee the Ports of Nitti and Pepel which are managed and operated by
private mining companies.
On 1st January, 1965, the Ports Authority commenced operations upon assumption of the
responsibility of Port and harbor activities which were formally undertaken by Port
Management and Port Marine Department. Before the restoration of democratic rule in
1996, the Port Authority went through successive expatriate management from
Wanportman to Hamburg Port Consultancy (HPC). It therefore got its first indigenous
management in 1996.
The main Seaport in Sierra Leone is the Queen Elizabeth Quay II located in the East end of
the capital Freetown at Cline Town and which handles all types of vessels. The port has a
protected anchorage on the Rokel River with an alongside depth of 10 meters and an
overall length of 1133.0 meters. The Port has six Berths, four large Warehouses and a
Container Stacking area of over 50,000 sq meters. The Port has probably the finest natural
harbors (being sheltered) in West Africa which can be seen as a competitive advantage.
In a bid to follow more productive and efficient contemporary trends in port management,
the Government of Sierra Leone (Ministry of Transport and Aviation) through the National
Commission for privatization decided to transform the management of the Port from a
service port to a Landlord Port.
The Ports Authority also operates ferry services linking Freetown and Lungi, Port Loko
District where the International Airport is situated. The port of Freetown is the largest in
Sierra Leone and provided facilities for cargo handling, anchorage for vessels loading or
discharging over side, oil jetty, a jetty for loading or discharging frozen fish, the handling of
bulk palm kernel oil, supply of fresh water and bunkers alongside berths.
Before the advent of the civil war in 1991, which stifled the operations of the Ports
Authority, about 11% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was being contributed by the Ports
With the concession for the container section already signed and FTC commencing
operations at the container terminal other private port operators expressed interest in the
other core port operations. Subsequently, two years later the shore cargo handling
operations was licensed out to an indigenous company the Leone Dock Labour company
and most recently, the ship cargo handling operations (Stevedoring) has been licensed out
to Ports stevedoring local company.
The ongoing privatization has made redundant almost Two Thousand (2000) workers with
most of them now involved in private sector investment, thus contributing to Economic
1.1.1 LOCATIONS OF PORT AREAS
Majority of Port areas are being situated in the capital city of Freetown. Not with standing
there is other principal port in the North and Southern Provinces respectively. The
Principal port areas include the following:
Freetown (Cline Town) Queen Elizabeth II Quay which sheds storage
areas, roadways and workshops, administrative buildings, gates and
adjacent land including reuained land for other port purposes.
Freetown (Cline Town) including the former audit building, medical
centre and areas adjacent to the ex-Fourah Bay College Compound.
Freetown cape lighthouse signal station and adjacent land.
Freetown the Ferry Terminals at Kissy and Government Wharf
Southern Province Nitti Port. This is privately managed by Sierra Rutile
Limited; a mining company operating in Moyamba District.
Northern Province Pepel Port. This is privately managed by African
Minerals that has now been bought by a Chinese company called Shandong
The objectives of this study are as follows:
To investigate the ownership, management and operations of the Sierra Leone Ports
Authority with the aim of determining its efficiency and effectiveness
To examine the economic contributions of the Sierra Leone Ports Authority over a
considerable period and to determine its impact on employment and national
To highlight the constraints faced by the Sierra Leone Ports Authority.
It should be noted that, apart from its viable revenue contributions to the Sierra Leone
Economy, the Sierra Leone Ports Authority also provides employment opportunities and
training facilities which enhance economic development. This is evident when the Ports
Authority employs a greater proportion of both skilled and unskilled Sierra Leoneans. In
the case of those Sierra Leoneans who havent acquired skills, the Ports Authority engages
them in stevedore activities: by so doing the Authority mitigates the unemployment
hazards and hence a reduction in the crime rate. In particular those youth migrating from
the provinces to the city are mostly employed by the Ports Authority to engage in jobs like
stevedoring. Also school leaves do gain employment in the quay.
Before the privatization of some sects of the quay, the Ports Authority provides a wealth of
contribution to the Sierra Leone Economy. The privatization of cargo handling, container
vessel saw the ports contribution to the Economy badly hit. Those private entities pay
meager amount of royalties to Government. The Sierra Leone Ports Authority is
responsible for about 98% transportation of goods into and out of the country. For this
season a greater attention must be placed on the activities of the Sierra Leone Ports
Authority since the ease of transportation of goods is only efficiently possible though the
This research will provide information on the essence of Sierra Leone Ports Authority in
most post war, post Ebola and rehabilitation programs, which demand large capital goods
to be imported and thus increasing the operations of the ports in providing inputs. There
have been a lot of debates about the impact of Sierra Leone Ports Authority on the Sierra
Leone economy. While some people say that the Sierra Leone Ports Authority is more of a
liability to the government, others contend that the ports sector contribute immensely to
the economic development of the nation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to
investigate the contributions of the Sierra Leone Ports Authority to national economy.
Regarding the contribution to professional knowledge it is hoped that this study will
contribute in informing not only the population in the city, but the general wider audience.
This will increase awareness and an understanding of the significance of Sierra Leone Ports
Authority, regardless of the challenges. This study is of great importance, as it will affect
numerous organizations and whole communities one-way or the other and can therefore
be regarded as a historical opportunity.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
This study seeks to test the hypothesis that Sierra Leone Ports Authority is a major
contributor and financier to the provision of sea transportation, economic growth and
development of Sierra Leone. This research will prove or negate this assertion.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This study covers a ten years period ranging from 2010 to 2014 inclusive. This period is
chosen because during this period, Sierra Leone Ports Authority activities were captured
and available data is sufficient to support the research objectives and to determine the
governments role in assisting Sierra Leone Ports Authority for national development.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions have been used to obtain the needed answers to achieve the
objectives of the study.
Are staff of Sierra Leone Ports Authority competent and committed to their task or
terms of providing transportation benefit for all?
Is there an up to date and adequate Ports security and seaport strategies adopted?
What are the environmental constraints facing the implementation of the sea
transportation strategy of Sierra Leone Ports Authority?
Are the services provided commensurate, proportionate, and impartial to promote
effective and efficient services?
How does Sierra Leone Ports Authority assist in the growth and economic
development of Sierra Leone?
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This work will entail the use of both quantitative and qualitative tools for the research
analysis. The use of this tool will be based on primary and secondary data sources. These
two methods will be complimented by personal interviews of Sierra Leone Ports Authority
Officials, and focus group discussions (FGDs) with the workers. This will be guided by a
well structured questionnaire.
In the secondary data collection, will capture recent publication produced by Sierra Leone
Ports Authority, magazines, organizations, newspapers etc.
The data analysis will be done using the following tools viz; tables, percentages, averages
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The entire content of this study covers five chapters.
? Chapter 1(one) General background to the study
Introduction of the concepts and definitions of the subject matter
Scope and limitations
? Chapter 2 (Two) Theories and literatures of government expenditures, financing
and public utility.
Standards, provisions of the public institutions Act with the actual implementation
experience during the period 201014.
? Chapter 3 (Three) Methodology including data collection
Data presentation and tools of analysis
? Chapter 4 (Four) analyses and interprets data collected with discussions. Highlights
the interpretations and discussions from data presented.
? Chapter 5(five) summarizes the main arguments and suggests with financial feasible
options that are available for development partners.
MSc in Maritime Affairs
LLM in International Maritime Law
Valid for the Class of 2019
Approved 20 September 2018
Amended 5 March 2019
The development of the skills of good scholarship at postgraduate level is greatly assisted not
only by an ability to communicate well in the chosen language (English at WMU), but also by the
acquisition of other important research skills. This means understanding the learning process to
enable the development of rigorous thinking skills to analyse material, synthesise ideas and
The aim of this Reference Guide for MSc Dissertations is to help you to understand the
processes and procedures behind achieving successful outcomes of research. The transition
from an ability to write down other people’s ideas to writing down one’s own need not be a
difficult task. This Reference Guide will prove useful in assisting in that transition.
The Reference Guide for MSc Dissertations should be read in conjunction with the Reference
Guide to Assessment and Examinations valid for your year, and also the appropriate Academic
Very useful guidance may be found in the book 50 steps to improving your academic writing by
Chris Sowton (2012) and its appendices. Mistakes in presentation often result from failing to
read such guidance.
The APA (2010) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) is the
WMU-approved standard of referencing; see www.apastyle.org/. The use of a system other
than APA must be agreed by the student and the supervisor.
Revised 20 September 2018
Amended 5 March 2019
Dissertation Schedule for MSc Students in the Class of 2019
Guidelines for Dissertations
Page Layout and Printing
Format of the Title Page
Format of the Declaration
Preparation of the Abstract
Table of Contents
Lists of Tables, Figures and Abbreviations
Instructions for Saving and Submitting Dissertations
WMU Research Ethics Committee Guidelines and Protocol Form
This booklet has been produced to provide students and staff with a reference guide for the
dissertation process. It should be used in conjunction with the Reference Guide to
Examinations and Assessment for the Class of 2019.
Dissertation Schedule for Students of Class 2019:
MSc in Maritime Affairs
Term 1 (standard, 14-month programme)
WMU 149: Research Methodology and Study Skills
Term 2 (standard and accelerated programmes)
WMU 149 Research Methodology and Study Skills refresher for all
Research proposals are submitted by students to the course portal.
Students may be required by Heads of Specialization to orally present
and defend their proposals.
Research proposals are reviewed and approved or referred back for
improvement by Heads of Specialization.
Supervisors/co-supervisors are appointed.
Students are informed.
Students start research work together with supervisors.
Supervisors report progress to Heads of Specialization and to the Vicest
President (Academic), highlighting any areas of concern (1
Term 3 (standard and accelerated programmes)
Supervisors report progress to Heads of Specialization and to the VicePresident (Academic), highlighting any areas of concern (2nd
Supervisors report progress to Heads of Specialization and to the VicePresident (Academic), highlighting any areas of concern (3rd
Deadline for the submission of the draft dissertations by students to
the course portal
Supervisors report progress to Heads of Specialization and to the VicePresident (Academic), highlighting any areas of concern (4th
Names of assessors are sent by supervisors to Heads of Specialization
and the Vice-President (Academic).
Final dissertations submission by students in electronic form to Turnitin
Deadline for results from assessors to Heads of Specialization and the
Dissertation Grades are examined and approved by the CAC
Students are informed
Indicatively, a draft dissertation is understood as one evidencing completion or near completion of core
research and analysis.
1. GUIDELINES FOR DISSERTATIONS
A candidate may not present as a dissertation for the degrees of Master of Science or
Master of Laws any work that has been accepted for any award at the World Maritime University
The scope of the dissertation depends on the topic and methodology applied. The main
body of a dissertation written by a single student should not exceed 15,000 words; for a pair of
students, it should not exceed 25,000 words; and for a trio of students, it should not exceed
Each student writing a dissertation is assigned a member of Faculty as supervisor. A cosupervisor may also be assigned, who may be a member of Faculty, a member of the research
staff, or may be external to the University. All supervisors must hold doctoral degrees and cosupervisors at least a Masters degree. All supervisory roles must be approved by the
Curriculum & Assessment Committee.
It is expected that the candidate will meet regularly with the supervisor (or co-supervisor);
for the MSc in Maritime Affairs, this is from March through September. Indicatively, meetings
should take place at least once every month, and at least five meetings should be held during
the subject period, in person or electronically. Typically, meetings should consider the
dissertation chapter by chapter, phase by phase or section by section. Each section, once
completed, should be passed to the English language faculty for advice on an ongoing basis.
At the start of the process, the supervisor and student(s) should agree a schedule of
meetings. The supervisor shall keep a record of the meetings and the candidate shall approve
the record, on paper or electronically.
Subject to the agreement of the Head(s) of Specialization/Programme concerned, two or
three students may write a dissertation as a group. Working in groups requires substantial
discipline and cooperation ethics. The supervisor and the students shall reach a clear
agreement on the division of the work in the dissertation, so that each student can be awarded
an individual mark. Students should be c…
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