SSGS300 American Military Criminal Justice Reform Research Pproposal I have attached an example of what the professor expects along with my annotated bibli

SSGS300 American Military Criminal Justice Reform Research Pproposal I have attached an example of what the professor expects along with my annotated bibliography that I need implemented into the project. Must be 1000 words. THIS IS NOT A PAPER BUT A RESEARCH PROPOSAL, please know the difference before accepting the assignment.

The topic is:

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Criminal Justice Reform: Where do we Start?

The research proposal will include the following:

• Title page

• Abstract (100-120 words)

• Introduction

• Hypothesis/Problem Statement/Purpose Statement

• Literature Review and Definitions included in research

• Research methods/design

• References

• Appendices – as needed (annotated bibliography, example consent form, example survey if used) Running head: CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM
1
Criminal Justice Reform: Where do we start? (Annotated Bibliography)
SSGS300
American Military University
Criminal Justice Reform: Where do we start?
CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM
2
Annotated bibliography
Crutchfield, R. (2017). Current Criminal Justice System Policy Reform Movements: The Problem
of Unintended Consequences. Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality, 5(2). Retrieved from
https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1068&context=ijlse
Crutchfield evaluates the history of the criminal justice reform in the United States, and he
highlights the numerous examples of both the negative and positive consequences of reforms.
Crutchfield evaluates the early criminal justice reform movements in the United States and their
failures. From the evaluation, Crutchfield notes that there have been unintended consequences.
In his article, Crutchfield points out to the unintended consequences in the current system, and as
such, this becomes the firm ground for pushing for reforms within the criminal justice system.
The article discusses the failure of the policymakers in using the knowledge from the criminal
justice practitioners and the academic criminologists in initiating reforms that will address the
unintended consequences. Crutchfield notes that the poor relationship between the policymakers
and the criminal justice practitioners has inherently led to the failure of the criminal justice
system in the country. For the practitioners, they are usually focused on getting the job done
without taking steps to initiate reforms. On the other hand, the scholars in the criminal justice
system continue to pride themselves on the only understanding of how the various actors in the
criminal justice system behave and how the system works. Crutchfield pieces of advice are that
policies within the criminal justice system will change only when the policymakers and the
reformers bring their passion and drive together. Crutchfield concludes that in order for the
reforms to be successful, the scholars and the practitioners are central in writing of the laws and
in adopting policies.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM
3
Galston, W. (2016). Criminal justice reform: Issues and options for the next president. Retrieved
from https://www.brookings.edu/research/criminal-justice-reform-issues-and-options-for-thenext-president/
This article explores the facts and issues within the criminal justice system that provide
options for the next president. The article calls for all Americans across ideological, partisan, and
racial lines to rethink the nation’s criminal justice system because it is appropriate and necessary.
The article notes that with the recent debates and conversations on reforms in the criminal justice
system, all the discussions are not rooted in facts from sound data. The article notes that in many
of the debates, inconsistent facts are cited and this is what undermines all efforts to improve the
system that is broken in many ways. This article seeks to provide all American citizens and the
policymakers that include the president with a strong framework that will access the challenges
and opportunities in the criminal justice reform process that has lasted for decades. The author of
the article compiles a list of the best reliable data on the five critical elements within the criminal
justice system that is the rate of crimes in the country, prison population, the costs associated
with incarcerations, and the number of killings by the police. From the evidence presented in the
article allows all concerned parties to approach the complex issue of the criminal justice system
with a factual understanding? The author concludes his paper by analyzing the recent reform
efforts in criminal justice, and he urges the next president and the Congress to seize the
opportunity for actual reforms with bipartisan support and the American citizens that demand
action on the contemporary issues in the criminal justice system.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM
4
Herman, S. (2018). Getting There: On Strategies for Implementing Criminal Justice Reform.
Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law, 23(1). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.15779/Z389882N0J
Herman notes in her article how the criminal justice reform efforts have been unsuccessful. From
the literature review on previous reforms, Herman notes that the criminal justice has been
pressured with the need to reduce the mass incarcerations and remove all the bias against the
poor, the racial minorities and the mentally ill. With actions such as revising the sentencing laws
and the elimination of cash bails are reasonable steps in the right direction. For the advocates in
the country, they are busy using any tool they can get to achieve the best results in judicial
regulation, legislation, and administrative regulations. Herman notes that strategic discussions
that prioritize and bring together all the reform areas are not solving the issues because they are
held in closed doors or they are not held at all. Herman proposes that legislators should, at times,
yield to the will of the majority when the opinions of the public support a change. For the
legislators, they should be enlightened on policies regardless of the opinion from the public and
courts should be in a position to invalidate the choices that legislatures have when it comes to
initiating reforms. For Herman, she takes time to reflect on strategies that will initiate successful
criminal justice reforms with examples from states that have made successful legislative
revisions such as Louisiana. The article concludes by laying down a reconciling argument that
advocates for a populist criminal justice system that keeps the government in check and notes
that it is the role of the courts to check for irrational criminal justice policies.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM
5
Levin, B. (2018). The Consensus Myth in Criminal Justice Reform. Colorado Law Commons.
Retrieved from
https://scholar.law.colorado.edu/articles/1205?utm_source=scholar.law.colorado.edu%2Farticl
es%2F1205&utm_medium=PDF&utm_campaign=PDFCoverPages
This article by Levin takes a more in-depth look into the consensus myth that exists in the
criminal justice reform process. The article argues that with the current consensus, it is much
more restricted than it appears. The article notes that despite the shared vocabulary used by
reformists the consensus rests of exceptional critiques that highlight the flaws and provide
justification for the policy solutions. The article further notes that the current disagreements go
beyond the traditional left and right political divide, and it speaks volume of the disputes about
the state and the role of the criminal justice system in society. The article maps the existing but
profoundly distinct critiques of the criminal law that is the qualitative and quantitative
approaches. The quantitative approach is based on the belief that criminal law plays a critical and
legitimate function, but with time, the operation of the law has exceeded the function. The
underlying assumption is that there are optimal rates of criminalization and incarceration, but the
current system is neutral in that it has incarcerated a lot of people. In contrast, the qualitative
approach zooms in on criminal law as a sociocultural element or phenomenon. From the study of
both approaches, the article notes that the reformist frame has not been constructed from just a
miscalculation but rather all reforms should address the system marginalizes certain sections of
the populations and at the same time exacerbate both inequalities and power imbalances in the
country.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM
6
References
Crutchfield, R. (2017). Current Criminal Justice System Policy Reform Movements: The
Problem of Unintended Consequences. Indiana Journal Of Law And Social
Equality, 5(2). Retrieved from
https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1068&context=ijlse
Galston, W. (2016). Criminal justice reform: Issues and options for the next president. Retrieved
from https://www.brookings.edu/research/criminal-justice-reform-issues-and-options-forthe-next-president/
Herman, S. (2018). Getting There: On Strategies for Implementing Criminal Justice
Reform. Berkeley Journal Of Criminal Law, 23(1). Retrieved from
https://doi.org/10.15779/Z389882N0J
Levin, B. (2018). The Consensus Myth in Criminal Justice Reform. Colorado Law Commons.
Retrieved from
https://scholar.law.colorado.edu/articles/1205?utm_source=scholar.law.colorado.edu%2F
articles%2F1205&utm_medium=PDF&utm_campaign=PDFCoverPages

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