PSY540 SNHU Cognitive Psychology Final Project Milestone Three InstructionsA rough draft of your proposal is due at the end of this module. Be sure your dr

PSY540 SNHU Cognitive Psychology Final Project Milestone Three InstructionsA rough draft of your proposal is due at the end of this module. Be sure your draft includes all the required elements of your final proposal and incorporates any relevant instructor feedback you received on milestones one and two. This draft submission represents an opportunity to receive targeted instructor feedback that you can use to improve your final proposal (due in Module Nine).For additional details, please refer to the Milestone Three Guidelines and Rubric document.I HAVE ATTACHED AN EXAMPLE PAPER FOR YOU TO USE. I HAVE ALSO ATTACHED MY MILESTONES 1 AND 2 THAT ARE COMPLETED FOR YOU TO USE TO CREATE MILESTONE 3- THE ROUGH DRAFT OF MY FINAL PAPER. IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, PLEASE ASK! Running head: COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Cognitive psychology
Sharaya Janes
Southern New Hampshire University
Janes 1
Cognitive psychology
The area of cognitive psychology that interests me most is learning and decision making. This is
because the two concepts are strongly related to each other in several ways. For instance, one
cannot make any decision or judgment out of thin air. Each of them is informed by one’s prior
experience and each division produces some information, which can be added to a person’s
experience for future benefit (Lachman et al. 2015). Although in most of the real world scenarios,
feedback regarding a specific decision maybe degraded or delayed by for instance the
environmental noise, it is still the situation that with time we may learn to adapt to how we alter
our behaviour to improve our decision making. Learning is, therefore, a crucial element of the
judgment process and decision making.
In future, I would like to take my career to the level and that is mental health. This is after my
friend has had a mental disorder that affected his or her daily life relationships as well as
physical health. He was under depression and it affected him so much such that he could not
enjoy life or rather achieve a balance between efforts to attain psychological resilience and life
activities. I, therefore, believe that learning about cognitive psychology will help me boost my
knowledge of how to deal with people with mental disorders and come up with possible
interventions. According to the World Health Organization, mental health is the condition of
well-being where a person realizes his or her own abilities, cope with normal life stresses, and
work fruitfully and productively as well as being active in community work (Sternberg &
Sternberg 2016). It is good to know that the treatment of mental disorder depends on the
condition that one is suffering from. So it is advisable to diagnosis someone before deciding the
type of treatment to offer.
Chosen Research Question
1. How does cognitive learning affect the way we make decisions?
Lachman, R., Lachman, J. L., & Butterfield, E. C. (2015). Cognitive psychology and information
processing: An introduction. Psychology Press.
Sternberg, R. J., & Sternberg, K. (2016). Cognitive psychology. Nelson Education.
Annotated Bibliography
Sharaya Janes
Southern New Hampshire University
Janes 1
Janes 2
Cherry, K. (2019). Why Behaviorism Is One of Psychology’s Most Fascinating Branches.
Retrieved from
The article states how Watson Behaviorism Theory can help understand the learning and
decision-making process of a person. It can also assist in understanding individuals with mental
disorders to achieve almost mental health through conditioning. According to Cherry,
conditioning takes place by interacting with the environment, and the responses afterward help in
shaping one’s actions. The article further states that only observable behaviors should be
considered because moods, emotions, and cognitions are far too subjective. The internal mental
state of an individual can be controlled regardless of personality traits or even genetic
background. According to the author, there are two main types of conditioning, which are
classical and operant conditioning. The learning process can be achieved through associations,
rewards, and even punishments. The article thus provides method which a patient with mental
disorders can be assisted through classical or operant conditioning. It also offers strategies to
follow during the treatment process so that the patient can experience mental stability through a
suitable method of conditioning.
From the “Little Albert” experience, it was concluded that a person could get conditioned
through observable stimulus-response behaviors. Considering that all actions are learned through
conditioning, it is easy to understand the decision making of a person. It can also be easy to
improve the mental conditions of a person. One of the limitations of this theory is that it does not
rely on internal mental state and unconscious state of a person because it is not observable.
Therefore, it can be hard to determine or change how a person makes a decision.
Janes 3
NEMADE, R., REISS, N., & DOMBECK, M. (2016). Psychology of DepressionPsychodynamic Theories. Retrieved from
The article states how Freud’s Psychodynamic theory can help in understanding human behavior
by understanding the different parts of the mind, which is the id, ego, and superego. According to
the author, the brain has a vast untapped capability, and it is only a part of ego and superego
which people know of. Through the theory, it can be understood how the mind of a person makes
the decision, and it adopts to learning. By understanding that there is a conflict between the ego,
Id, and superego as a person grows, it becomes easy to help a person have mental health because
it is easy to understand how they learn and make decisions.
The article states that the childhood experiences shape the personalities of a person. These
findings can be used to determine the learning and decision making process of a person. It can
also be used to highlight ways which mental disorders can be controlled. The most common way
to do this is by making the repressed knowledge conscious. It is because mental illness was
caused by mental tension, which is generated by repression. I can thus use the findings of this
theory to understand how the human mind is programmed to learn and make decisions and even
understand how an individual can have mental health.
Janes 4
Koek, K., & Meijel, v. (2019). Decision making on (dis)continuation of long-term treatment
in mental health services is an interpersonal negotiation rather than an objective
process: qualitative study. Retrieved from
The research determines ways which individuals are deemed fit after undergoing psychosocial
treatment of mental disorders. It also states the various ways in which clinical psychiatrists
determine when a person is fit to stop getting mental health treatment. The subjects of the study
provide a better understanding of how theories like the behavioral theory can be used to
determine if a person is has achieved the right mental state/health.
The results state that in most cases, poor understanding of an individual’s mental capability may
cause psychiatric treatment to continue, and a professional team is required to avoid this. The use
of incentives and rewards can also play a key role in enhancing a patient’s mental disorders. The
only challenge with the study is that the subjects of the research are given a limited time, which
is not enough to understand the functionality of their brain. I would thus spend more time or have
many subjects of the study to know how to improve their mental health and when to know they
are fit.
Janes 5
Katarina G., David R., Petra S., & Ulla-Karin S. (2016) Shared decision-making in mental
health care—A user perspective on decisional needs in community-based
services, International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Wellbeing, 11:1, DOI: 10.3402/qhw.v11.30563
The research project states the role of shared decision-making and how it can determine the
effectiveness of mental health care for a patient. The main goal of this project is to assess the
information and decision needs for patients with mental illness and how SDM can be used. Three
semi-structured interviews were conducted to 22 individuals with mental illness where the data
gathered was used to determine the effectiveness of this method in healing individuals with
mental illness. The methods used in treating these patients is also highlighted to determine how
each individual responds to it.
The results of the study found out that different individuals may respond differently when it
comes to mental treatment strategies. The difference may pose a challenge for the healthcare
providers in determining precisely if a patient has fully recovered or not. It is the reason why
they recommend the use of shared decision-making as it determine if a person has fully
recovered or not. The research thus provides a deep understanding on the use of communitybased mental health services. I would use its findings to further research on the cognitive factors
and the attitudinal relationship which should be taken in utilizing SDM in enhancing mental
health of an individual.
Final Paper
Final Paper
Tonimarie Giordano
Southern New Hampshire University
PSY540- Cognitive Psychology
Final Paper
Problem Statement
Eyewitness testimony is a record given by individuals of an occasion they have
seen. For instance, they might be required to give a portrayal at a trial of a burglary or an
accident somebody has seen. This incorporates recognizable proof of culprits, points of
interest of the wrongdoing scene and so forth. Eyewitness testimony is a critical region of
examination in cognitive psychological and human memory. Juries tend to give careful
consideration to eyewitness testimony and for the most part, discover it a solid wellspring
of data. One issue with eyewitness testimony it that trials do not take place right away it
can take weeks and even months before the trial begins this is a considerable amount of
time that passes before an eyewitness has to recall the event that took place. Along with
time, there are other factors that affect eyewitness testimony such as leading questions
and memory conformity.
When it comes to time the exactness of eyewitness memory debases quickly after
introductory encoding. Obviously, scrutinize has reliably found that the more drawn out
the crevice amongst seeing and reviewing the episode, the less precisely that memory will
be reviewed. Next, we have leading questions; in a legitimate connection, the recovery of
data is normally inspired by various sorts of addressing. A lot of examination has
explored the effect of sorts of addressing on onlooker memory, and studies have reliably
demonstrated that even exceptionally unpretentious changes in the wording of an inquiry
can have an impact. Social contagion of memory alludes to a circumstance in which one
individual’s report of a memory impacts someone else’s report of that same experience.
This obstruction frequently happens when people talk about what they saw or
experienced, and can bring about the recollections of those included being affected by the
Final Paper
report of someone else. A few elements that add to memory similarity are age; the elderly
and youngsters will probably have memory contortions because of memory congruity and
certainty (people will probably adjust their recollections to others on the off chance that
they are not sure about what they recall).
The area of cognitive psychology that relates to my topic is the memory. Memory
is the term given to the structures and procedures required in the capacity and consequent
recovery of data. Memory is fundamental to every one of our lives. Without a memory, of
the past, we can’t work in the present or consider what’s to come. We would not have the
capacity to recollect what we did yesterday, what we have done today or what we plan to
do tomorrow. Without memory, we couldn’t learn anything. Memory is included in
handling limitless measures of data. This data takes a wide range of structures, e.g.
pictures, sounds or significance. Some theories that apply to memory are reconstructive
memory and decay theory. These theories relate to my problem because reconstructive
memory has to do with the recall process which effects eyewitness testimony. As for
decay theory is explained how we forget information. Furthermore, this makes me
wonder how reliable eyewitness testimony is?
Contemporary Relevance
One theory that stands out to me that is important to understanding the reliability
of eyewitness testimony is Bartlett’s theory of reconstructive memory. This theory is
suggested that recall is subject to personal interpretation dependent on our learned or
cultural norms and values, and the way we make sense of our world (McLeod, 2009).
When it comes to memory we do not store information at is presented to us; instead, we
separate the data by significance or fundamental importance. Bartlett guaranteed that
Final Paper
memory is not a blank videotape but rather is changed when we review it. Our demeanors
and reactions to occasions change our memory for those occasions. We utilize patterns
that we as of now need to translate data and fuse these into our memory. Recovery of
putting away recollections along these lines includes a dynamic procedure of recreation
utilizing a scope of data, where we fill in the crevices of missing data by an endless
supply of what is liable to fit into any given situation. A strength is that it has applications
that are helpful in this present reality. For instance, the testimony of eyewitnesses, who
have frequently intensely depended upon in court without other proof, has been observed
to be inconsistent with an expansive number of cases. Research has found a zero
connection between an individual’s assurance that their memory is exact and the real
precision of their memory. A limitation
Another theory is decay theory asserts that information is forgotten because of the
gradual disappearance, rather than displacement, of the memory trace (Sternberg &
Sternberg, 2012 p.251). Data is hence less accessible for later recovery over the long haul
and memory, and in addition memory quality, wears away. When we gain some new
useful knowledge, a neurochemical “memory trace” is made. A trace is some type of
physical and/or substance change in the nervous system. Trace decay theory expresses
that overlooking happens as an aftereffect of the programmed decay or blurring of the
memory trace. Trace decay theory concentrates on time and the restricted length of
transient memory. This theory proposes short-term memory can just hold data for
somewhere around 15 and 30 seconds unless it is practiced. After this time the
data/follow trace decay and blurs away. A strength is that it has supported research of
forgetting by short-term memory and a limitation of this theory is that we don’t know
Final Paper
whether the inability to recall something mirrors that it is no more in our memory, or that
it reflects recovery disappointment. Maybe it is still there yet we can’t recover the
memory for reasons unknown.
The theory that I believe offers the greatest utility for practitioners to apply in
addressing real-world issues would be Bartlett’s theory of reconstructive memory.
Eyewitnesses to crimes and car accident regularly need to replicate their declaration
ordinarily to writers, the police or a court – this is somewhat similar to the serial
multiplication in Bartlett’s study. You would expect leveling and honing of recollections
to happen.
Research Findings
Mistaken or flawed identification has assumed a newfound prominence in recent
years: It’s been cited as a factor in nearly 78 percent of the nation’s first 130 convictions
later overturned by DNA testing, according to the New York-based Innocence Project,
which works to free die wrongly convicted (Stambor, 2006).
Loftus and Palmer did a study in 1974, to test their hypothesis on whether the
language used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory. Along these lines, they meant
to demonstrate that leading questions could mutilate eyewitness testimony records thus
have a confabulating impact, as the record would get to be misshaped by signals gave in
the question. According to study one, the results, eyewitness testimony may be one-sided
by the way inquiries are asked after a wrongdoing is conferred. The results from study
two suggest that memory is effortlessly contorted by addressing strategy and data
procured after the occasion can converge with unique memory bringing about a mistaken
review or reconstructive memory. The strength of this study is that it is easy to replicate
Final Paper
since it was a laboratory experiment. A limitation of the study is that it needed
commonplace authenticity/environmental legitimacy. One way they could have extended
this research was to a broader group and not just students because they are less
experienced drivers so more experienced drivers may have been able to better predict the
speed of the vehicle.
A study done by Yuille and Cutshall in 1986 is a real-life case study of leading
questions and eyewitnesses. In the began their study they have pointed out that juries do
not focus on the mistakes in eyewitness testimony, however, acknowledge that what is
said is valid. Yuille and Cutshall had interviewed 13 individuals that had witnesses a gun
shop robbery in real-life. According to the results of this study, they found that
eyewitnesses are actually reliable for several factors including recalling large numbers of
accurate details and that the misleading information that was given had little effect on the
eyewitnesses and had obtained more details than the police. A limitation of this study is
that only 13 individuals participated which limits the reliability of the findings. A
strength was that they had used a field study and had real witnesses to a real life crime.
One thing to get better results would be to have more participants.
Finally, we have the study done by Peterson and Peterson (1959) they explored
one of the elements that make our short-term memory decay, i.e. why we overlook data in
our short-term memory. In 1959, they directed an investigation that uncovered how time
between recollecting something and recalling it influenced the life of a memory.
Individuals could recall 50% of trigrams following a 3 seconds delay. However, when
there was an 18 seconds delay there was only a 5% recall of trigrams accurately. So
according to the results, it suggests that time does result in the decay of short-term
Final Paper
memory. A limitation of this study is that people do not usually try to recall trigrams in
real-life and the number of participants was low (24); a strength is that this study is easy
to replicate.
Methodological Principles
There are a number of things that could be done in the legal system to improve the
accuracy of eyewitness testimony. One thing is when and how eyewitnesses are
interviewed. Per my research, we found out that time plays a factor in recall memory so it
would be beneficial to interview the eyewitness as soon as possible. Another suggestion
is how lineups should be constructed and conducted. Leading questions affect how a
witness responds so they should be careful of the directions that are given to a witness as
they are viewing a lineup. Another suggestion would be to educate jury members on
eyewitness memory. Eyewitness memory can be of incredible quality to the legitimate
framework, yet many years of examination now contends that this declaration is regularly
given much more weight than its exactness legitimizes.
When it comes to the timing of an interview of an eyewitness and the wording of
the directions given to an eyewitness during a line would be perceived positively. I
believe this because people do not like that people are being falsely accused of a crime
that they did not commit and I think others would agree that with these two things it
could potentially lower the rate of those falsely accused. The suggestion on educating
juries on eyewitness memory I believe would be perceived negatively; reason being is
that they may find that educating juries on this topic may cause them to possib…
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