HLSS603 American Public Resilience & Preparedness in Homeland Security Paper Resilience refers to the ability to adopt to changing conditions and within/rapidly recover from disruptions due to emergencies. Based on your week one readings, especially PDD-8, and outside research do you believe that resilience and preparedness taken in a homeland security context are synergistic?Instructions: Fully utilize the materials that have been provided to you in order to support your response. Your initial post should be at least 500 words. Forum posts are graded on timeliness, relevance, knowledge of the weekly readings, and the quality of original ideas. Sources utilized to support answers are to be cited in accordance with the APA writing style by providing a general parenthetical citation (reference the author, year and page number) within your post, as well as an adjoining reference list. Refer to grading rubric for additional details concerning grading criteria. Official website of the Department of Homeland Security
U.S. Department of
Presidential Policy Directive / PPD8: National Preparedness
Presidential Policy Directive / PPD-8 is aimed at strengthening the security and resilience of
the United States through systematic preparation for the threats that pose the greatest risk to
the security of the nation, including acts of terrorism, cyber attacks, pandemics, and
catastrophic natural disasters.
FEMA.gov: Learn more about Presidential Policy Directive / PPD-8
Presidential Policy Directive 8 (#)
March 30, 2011
PRESIDENTIAL POLICY DIRECTIVE/PPD-8
SUBJECT: National Preparedness
This directive is aimed at strengthening the security and resilience of the United States
through systematic preparation for the threats that pose the greatest risk to the security of the
Nation, including acts of terrorism, cyber attacks, pandemics, and catastrophic natural
disasters. Our national preparedness is the shared responsibility of all levels of government,
the private and nonprofit sectors, and individual citizens. Everyone can contribute to
safeguarding the Nation from harm. As such, while this directive is intended to galvanize
action by the Federal Government, it is also aimed at facilitating an integrated, all-of-Nation,
capabilities-based approach to preparedness.
Therefore, I hereby direct the development of a national preparedness goal that identifies the
core capabilities necessary for preparedness and a national preparedness system to guide
activities that will enable the Nation to achieve the goal. The system will allow the Nation to
track the progress of our ability to build and improve the capabilities necessary to prevent,
protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from those threats that pose
the greatest risk to the security of the Nation.
The Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism shall coordinate
the interagency development of an implementation plan for completing the national
preparedness goal and national preparedness system. The implementation plan shall be
submitted to me within 60 days from the date of this directive, and shall assign departmental
responsibilities and delivery timelines for the development of the national planning
frameworks and associated interagency operational plans described below.
National Preparedness Goal (#)
Within 180 days from the date of this directive, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall
develop and submit the national preparedness goal to me, through the Assistant to the
President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism. The Secretary shall coordinate this
effort with other executive departments and agencies, and consult with State, local, tribal,
and territorial governments, the private and nonprofit sectors, and the public.
The national preparedness goal shall be informed by the risk of specific threats and
vulnerabilities taking into account regional variations – and include concrete, measurable,
and prioritized objectives to mitigate that risk. The national preparedness goal shall define
the core capabilities necessary to prepare for the specific types of incidents that pose the
greatest risk to the security of the Nation, and shall emphasize actions aimed at achieving an
integrated, layered, and all-of-Nation preparedness approach that optimizes the use of
available resources. The national preparedness goal shall reflect the policy direction outlined
in the National Security Strategy (May 2010), applicable Presidential Policy Directives,
Homeland Security Presidential Directives, National Security Presidential Directives, and
national strategies, as well as guidance from the Interagency Policy Committee process. The
goal shall be reviewed regularly to evaluate consistency with these policies, evolving
conditions, and the National Incident Management System.
National Preparedness System (#)
The national preparedness system shall be an integrated set of guidance, programs, and
processes that will enable the Nation to meet the national preparedness goal. Within 240 days
from the date of this directive, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall develop and submit a
description of the national preparedness system to me, through the Assistant to the President
for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism. The Secretary shall coordinate this effort with
other executive departments and agencies, and consult with State, local, tribal, and territorial
governments, the private and nonprofit sectors, and the public.
The national preparedness system shall be designed to help guide the domestic efforts of all
levels of government, the private and nonprofit sectors, and the public to build and sustain
the capabilities outlined in the national preparedness goal. The national preparedness system
shall include guidance for planning, organization, equipment, training, and exercises to build
and maintain domestic capabilities. It shall provide an all-of-Nation approach for building and
sustaining a cycle of preparedness activities over time.
The national preparedness system shall include a series of integrated national planning
frameworks, covering prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. The
frameworks shall be built upon scalable, flexible, and adaptable coordinating structures to
align key roles and responsibilities to deliver the necessary capabilities. The frameworks shall
be coordinated under a unified system with a common terminology and approach, built
around basic plans that support the all-hazards approach to preparedness and functional or
incident annexes to describe any unique requirements for particular threats or scenarios, as
needed. Each framework shall describe how actions taken in the framework are coordinated
with relevant actions described in the other frameworks across the preparedness spectrum.
The national preparedness system shall include an interagency operational plan to support
each national planning framework. Each interagency operational plan shall include a more
detailed concept of operations; description of critical tasks and responsibilities; detailed
resource, personnel, and sourcing requirements; and specific provisions for the rapid
integration of resources and personnel.
All executive departments and agencies with roles in the national planning frameworks shall
develop department-level operational plans to support the interagency operational plans, as
needed. Each national planning framework shall include guidance to support corresponding
planning for State, local, tribal, and territorial governments.
The national preparedness system shall include resource guidance, such as arrangements
enabling the ability to share personnel. It shall provide equipment guidance aimed at
nationwide interoperability; and shall provide guidance for national training and exercise
programs, to facilitate our ability to build and sustain the capabilities defined in the national
preparedness goal and evaluate progress toward meeting the goal.
The national preparedness system shall include recommendations and guidance to support
preparedness planning for businesses, communities, families, and individuals.
The national preparedness system shall include a comprehensive approach to assess national
preparedness that uses consistent methodology to measure the operational readiness of
national capabilities at the time of assessment, with clear, objective and quantifiable
performance measures, against the target capability levels identified in the national
Building and Sustaining Preparedness (#)
The Secretary of Homeland Security shall coordinate a comprehensive campaign to build and
sustain national preparedness, including public outreach and community-based and privatesector programs to enhance national resilience, the provision of Federal financial assistance,
preparedness efforts by the Federal Government, and national research and development
National Preparedness Report (#)
Within 1 year from the date of this directive, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit
the first national preparedness report based on the national preparedness goal to me,
through the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism. The
Secretary shall coordinate this effort with other executive departments and agencies and
consult with State, local, tribal, and territorial governments, the private and nonprofit sectors,
and the public. The Secretary shall submit the report annually in sufficient time to allow it to
inform the preparation of my Administrations budget.
Roles and Responsibilities (#)
The Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism shall periodically
review progress toward achieving the national preparedness goal.
The Secretary of Homeland Security is responsible for coordinating the domestic all-hazards
preparedness efforts of all executive departments and agencies, in consultation with State,
local, tribal, and territorial governments, nongovernmental organizations, private-sector
partners, and the general public; and for developing the national preparedness goal.
The heads of all executive departments and agencies with roles in prevention, protection,
mitigation, response, and recovery are responsible for national preparedness efforts,
including department-specific operational plans, as needed, consistent with their statutory
roles and responsibilities.
Nothing in this directive is intended to alter or impede the ability to carry out the authorities
of executive departments and agencies to perform their responsibilities under law and
consistent with applicable legal authorities and other Presidential guidance. This directive
shall be implemented consistent with relevant authorities, including the Post-Katrina
Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 and its assignment of responsibilities with
respect to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Nothing in this directive is intended to interfere with the authority of the Attorney General or
Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation with regard to the direction, conduct, control,
planning, organization, equipment, training, exercises, or other activities concerning domestic
counterterrorism, intelligence, and law enforcement activities.
Nothing in this directive shall limit the authority of the Secretary of Defense with regard to the
command and control, planning, organization, equipment, training, exercises, employment,
or other activities of Department of Defense forces, or the allocation of Department of Defense
If resolution on a particular matter called for in this directive cannot be reached between or
among executive departments and agencies, the matter shall be referred to me through the
Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism.
This directive replaces Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD)-8 (National
Preparedness), issued December 17, 2003, and HSPD-8 Annex I (National Planning) (/hspd-8annex-1) , issued December 4, 2007, which are hereby rescinded, except for paragraph 44 of
HSPD-8 Annex I. Individual plans developed under HSPD-8 and Annex I remain in effect until
rescinded or otherwise replaced.
For the purposes of this directive:
(a) The term “national preparedness” refers to the actions taken to plan, organize, equip,
train, and exercise to build and sustain the capabilities necessary to prevent, protect against,
mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from those threats that pose the greatest risk
to the security of the Nation.
(b) The term “security” refers to the protection of the Nation and its people, vital interests,
and way of life.
(c) The term “resilience” refers to the ability to adapt to changing conditions and withstand
and rapidly recover from disruption due to emergencies.
(d) The term “prevention” refers to those capabilities necessary to avoid, prevent, or stop a
threatened or actual act of terrorism. Prevention capabilities include, but are not limited to,
information sharing and warning; domestic counterterrorism; and preventing the acquisition
or use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). For purposes of the prevention framework
called for in this directive, the term “prevention” refers to preventing imminent threats.
(e) The term “protection” refers to those capabilities necessary to secure the homeland
against acts of terrorism and manmade or natural disasters. Protection capabilities include,
but are not limited to, defense against WMD threats; defense of agriculture and food; critical
infrastructure protection; protection of key leadership and events; border security; maritime
security; transportation security; immigration security; and cybersecurity.
(f) The term “mitigation” refers to those capabilities necessary to reduce loss of life and
property by lessening the impact of disasters. Mitigation capabilities include, but are not
limited to, community-wide risk reduction projects; efforts to improve the resilience of critical
infrastructure and key resource lifelines; risk reduction for specific vulnerabilities from natural
hazards or acts of terrorism; and initiatives to reduce future risks after a disaster has occurred.
(g) The term “response” refers to those capabilities necessary to save lives, protect property
and the environment, and meet basic human needs after an incident has occurred.
(h) The term “recovery” refers to those capabilities necessary to assist communities affected
by an incident to recover effectively, including, but not limited to, rebuilding infrastructure
systems; providing adequate interim and long-term housing for survivors; restoring health,
social, and community services; promoting economic development; and restoring natural and
Last Published Date: August 14, 2018
A CARRI Report
Definitions of Community Resilience: An Analysis 2013
Page 2 of 14
DEFINITIONS OF COMMUNITY RESILIENCE:
A CARRI Report
Resilience (derived from the Latin resalire, to spring back) has become an important term in the
language of many disciplines ranging from psychology to ecology. Unfortunately, there is no
commonly accepted definition of resilience that is used across all disciplines. The purpose of
this note is to analyze the more widely used definitions in terms of their core concepts. The
definitions which are most valuable in terms of improving the ability of communities to recover
after disasters explicitly or implicitly contain the following five core concepts:
resilience is an attribute of the community.
a communitys resilience is an inherent and dynamic part of the
the community can adapt to adversity.
adaptation leads to a positive outcome for the community relative to its
state after the crisis, especially in terms of its functionality.
Comparability: the attribute allows communities to be compared in terms of their
ability to positively adapt to adversity.
The term resilience was first used in the physical sciences to denote the behavior of a spring. In
the 1970s and 1980s, resilience was adapted by the ecological and psychological communities to
describe somewhat different phenomena.
In psychology, the term was used to describe groups that did not change behavior in
spite of adversity (e.g., Werner).
In ecology, the term was used to describe ecosystems that continued to function more or
less the same in spite of adversity (most notably Holling).
Resilience began being used in terms of disasters, especially by the engineering community
(particularly referring to physical infrastructure), in the 1980s, and was related to the concept of
being able to absorb and recover from a hazardous event. Since that time, hybrid definitions
Definitions of Community Resilience: An Analysis 2013
Page 3 of 14
have arisen that combine the engineering with the ecological, or the ecological with the
Table 1 contains many of the most widely recognized definitions of resilience relevant to
communities. The definitions generally reflect how the community responds to some adverse
event, a crisis. However, there are significant differences that transcend their original intended
domain of use. Thus, while one could simply categorize the definitions in terms of domains (as
indicated in the Table), it is probably more useful to look for themes among the core concepts
within the definitions that can be used for classification.
One way the definitions can be classified is by contrasting Being vs Becoming. Many of the
ontological definitions of resilience begin with the ability to …, for example, those of Brown,
Pfefferbaum, and Adger, i.e., resilience is an attribute of the community.
Others take a
phenomenological view of resilience as a process most notably Norris, but also Sonn, and the
Centre for Community Enterprise.
DEFINITIONS OF RESILIENCE
First author, year
The ability to store strain energy and deflect
elastically under a load without breaking or being
The speed with which a system returns to
equilibrium after displacement irrespective of how
many oscillations are required
The persistence of relationships within a system; a
measure of the ability of systems to absorb changes
of state variables, driving variables, and parameters,
and still persist
Buffer capacity or the ability of a system to absorb
perturbation, or the magnitude of disturbance that
can be absorbed before a system changes its
The ability to persist through future disturbances
Definitions of Community Resilience: An Analysis 2013
Page 4 of 14
Positive adaptation in response to adversity; it is not
the absence of vulnerability, not an inherent
characteristic, and not static
The transition probability between states as a
function of the consumption and production
activities of decision makers
The ability of a system that has undergone stress to
recover and return to its original state; more
precisely (i) the amount of disturbance a system can
absorb and still remain within the same state or
domain of attraction and (ii) the degree to which the
system is capable of self-organization
The amount of change or disruption that is required
to transform the maintenance of a system from one
set of mutually reinforcing processes and structures
to a different set of processes and structures
Maintenance of natural capital (as the basis for
social systems’ functioning) in the long run
The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and
reorganize while undergoing change so as to still
retain essentially the same function, structure,
identity, and feedbacks
The capacity of linked social-ecological systems to
absorb recurrent disturbances … so as to retain
essential structures, functions, and feedbacks
The ability by an individual, group, or organization
to continue its existence (or remain more or less
surprise .Resilience is found in systems that are
highly adaptable (not locked into specific strategies)
and have diverse resources
Definitions of Community Resilience: An Analysis 2013
Resilience Alliance, 2006
Page 5 of 14
The capacity of a system to ab…
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