CRJ545 Saint Leo Week 2 Implications on The Criminal Justice Field Response Respond to the stated question, including any relevance to and implications on the field of criminal justice. Be sure to discuss the issue(s) to which the question pertains. Remarks can include your opinion(s), but must be based on experience, research, and/or prior learning. Use this exercise to foster a rich dialogue with your colleagues about issues that are important to the field of criminal justice. During the span of the discussion, you must post to this board on four unique days. Your initial posting must be no less than 200 words and is due no later than Thursday 11:59 PM EST/EDT. The day you post will count as one of your required four unique postings. You will also be required to post responses to at least three of your colleagues’ initial postings. Responses must be no less than 100 words, be posted on at least three unique days, and are due no later than Sunday at 11:59 PM EST/EDT. Active Learning Week 1
Respond to the stated question, including any relevance to and implications on the field of
criminal justice. Be sure to discuss the issue(s) to which the question pertains. Remarks can
include your opinion(s), but must be based on experience, research, and/or prior learning. Use
this exercise to foster a rich dialogue with your colleagues about issues that are important to the
field of criminal justice.
During the span of the discussion, you must post to this board on four unique days.
Your initial posting must be no less than 200 words and is due no later than Thursday 11:59
PM EST/EDT. The day you post will count as one of your required four unique postings.
You will also be required to post responses to at least three of your colleagues’ initial postings.
Responses must be no less than 100 words, be posted on at least three unique days, and are due
no later than Sunday at 11:59 PM EST/EDT.
First, discuss the three basic fingerprint patterns and their basic characteristics.
What obvious characteristic of each pattern do you feel is distinct enough set that
particular basic pattern apart from the others? Then, provide a brief discussion of
the three types of evidentiary fingerprints that you could expect to find at a crime
scene with a brief description of each category.
Benjamin Bowden posted Jun 28, 2019 10:35 AM
The three basic fingerprint patterns are: arch, loop, and whorl (Hames, Nordby, & Bell,
2014). Arch fingerprints look just like you would draw a hill on a piece of paper, starts
straight with a slow incline ending at a peak with a slow decline. Or, an arch also looks
like an increase in terrain elevation as you would see on a topographical map. Loop
fingerprints have a distinct loop like the loop you make when you tie your shoes, loops
can face either the inner or outer arm. Lastly, the whorl fingerprint is a small circle or a
dot with a series of slightly bigger circles around it. The three basic fingerprint patterns
are distinct enough to tell them apart, and possession or location of just one of these
patterns on an individuals finger may be able to eliminate or accuse someone of being a
suspect. However, the additional features of fingerprints, or minutiae, is what a fingerprint
analysis will use and testify to in court.
The three types of fingerprints likely to be found at a crime scene include: latent, patent,
and plastic (Hames, Nordby, & Bell, 2014). Latent fingerprints are usually invisible to the
naked eye and need to be enhanced by either a physical or chemical process in order to
be retrieved and analyzed. Patent fingerprints are flat just like latents but are made in a
substance that makes them recognizable and able to be lifted without enhancement.
Plastic fingerprints are made in a solid substance that are impressionable such as wax,
soft rubber, and clay.
Hames, S. H., Nordby, J. J., & Bell, S. (2014). Forensic Science: An Introduction to
Scientific and Investigative Techniques (4th ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Margaret Fitzgerald posted Jun 30, 2019 6:09 PM
Fingerprints may all be different but they all have three things in commonpatterns based on the visible ridges. These three patterns are called arch, loop, and
whorl. The arch pattern has two variations-plain or tented. The arch is plain when the
ridges at the center are continuous from one side of the finger to the other. Tented arch
ridges do not flow continuously side to side. The loop pattern also has two variations
that are named based on what direction the slope lies. These are known as radial and
ulnar because, depending on the hand, the slope of the loop points either toward the
outer arm bone-ulna or to the inside arm bone-radial. On the left hand, the ulnar loop
opens to the left and on the right hand, the ulnar loop opens to the right. Whorls have
several variations known as central pocket, double loop and accidental. The central
pocket pattern has a very tight center, the double loop whorl has a back and forth,
snakelike pattern reminiscent of the Mississippi River as it courses through New
Orleans. The accidental whorl is a combination of at least two different patterns. Both
loop and whorl patterns contain a core-a point in the center and a delta-a triangular
Fingerprints found at crime scenes are of three types. Patent is where the print is
visible to the naked eye as a result of contact with a substance like grease or ink, perhaps
blood. These are clear enough to forgo any other processing. Plastic, or impression,
prints are found on soft, pliable surfaces, like wet clay or Play Doh® and can be used as
found. Latent prints are not visible to the naked eye, at least not clearly enough to
determine patterns sufficiently. These are the ones that need to be processed with
physical, chemical, or special illumination methods. Physical methods include powder
dusting or magnetic powders. Chemical processing includes silver nitrate (archaic),
iodine fuming, and ninhydrin, and cyanoacrylate esters (Super Glue®). These last three
work with vapors that can adhere to the fingerprint to make them visible. Special
illumination methods include oblique lighting which may be considered physical
because it is merely applying light at an angle that makes the print visible. Other light
methods include laser, bright (xenon arc) light These extremely bright white lights may
be used with special filters that alter the wavelength and provide better contrast.
James, S. H., Ph.D., J. J., Bell, S., & Williams, L. J. (2014). Forensic Science: An Introduction
to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, Fourth Edition. Oxfordshire, England:
Taylor & Francis.
Carla Benjamin posted Jul 3, 2019 3:00 PM
In forensic science, fingerprints are primarily used to help locate, identify, and
eliminate suspects in criminal cases (James, Norby, and Bell, 2014, pg.328)
There are three distinct fingerprint patterns that recognized: arch, loop, and
whorl. The arch is easily identified, as the shape which is usually plain or
tented. The loop is identified depending on the slope of the print pattern,
whether it is in the direction of the radius or ulna (James, et al, 2014). These
fingerprints can also be identified by the core or a delta. Finally, the last
fingerprint and the most complex is the whorl. The whorls are identified as
spirals with a core in the center. However, depending on the pattern of the
whorl, individuals can have a center pocket, double loop, or accidental whorl.
In order to obtained these fingerprints from a crime scene, the investigators
must be able to retrieve them in order to be presented as evidence and
compared. These three types of evidentiary fingerprints are patent, plastic, and
latent prints. The patent fingerprint is usually the easiest to identify
considering that it reveals itself as a fingerprint. This type of print can be
rendered from any type of substance, i.e. grease or blood and does not require
any additional processing. The plastic usually referred to as an impression, is
usually retrieved from a surface where the fingerprint has been captured,
leaving behind a three-dimensional characteristic. The last evidentiary
fingerprint is latent. The latent print is the most complex print considering that
it requires additional processing in order to be used for comparison by the use
of development, enhancement, and visualization (James, et al, 2014).
James, S. H., Nordby. J. J., & Bell, S. (Eds.). (2014). Forensic science: An
introduction to scientific and investigative techniques (4th ed.). Boca
Raton, FL: CRC Press
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