ASU Ethical Decision-Making Model and Utility Theory Questions Using the ethical decision-making model and Utility Theory, evaluate the decision by dairy m

ASU Ethical Decision-Making Model and Utility Theory Questions Using the ethical decision-making model and Utility Theory, evaluate the decision by dairy marketing groups to fund coffee machines in high schools.…kindly open the link above and read the articleThe attached image shows the steps for the ethical decision-making modelkindly take a look at the slides attached to know what are ethical decision-making model and Utility Theory Chapter Two:
Ethical Decision
Personal and
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter Objectives
• After reading this chapter, you will be able to:
– Describe a process for ethically responsible decision making.
– Apply this model to ethical decision points.
– Explain the reasons why “good” people might engage in unethical
– Explore the impact of managerial roles on the nature of our decision
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Ethical Decision Making
It is very important to know who you are. To
make decisions. To show who you are.
Malala Yousafzai
©McGraw-Hill Education.
A Decision-Making Process for Ethics
• An initial sketch of an ethical decision-making process.
– The first step is to determine the facts of the situation.
• Perceptual differences can explain many ethical disagreements.
– A second step requires the ability to recognize an ethical decision or
issue – then identify the ethical issues involved.
• The first and second steps may be reversed in some circumstances.
• Some call the inability to recognize ethical issues as normative myopia, or
shortsightedness about values.
• Others warn of inattentional blindness, suggesting a failure to focus.
• Change blindness occurs when gradual change goes unnoticed.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2.1 –
The third step involved in ethical decision making requires
decision makes to identify and to consider all of the people
affected by a decision, the people often called stakeholders.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Insert Photo Credit Here
A Decision-Making Process for Ethics
• Once the facts are examined, and the ethical issues and
stakeholders identified, the decision maker should consider
the available alternatives.
– When facing an ethical decision, moral imagination is the ability to
envision various alternative choices, consequences, resolutions,
benefits, and harms.
• The next step in the decision-making process is to compare
and weigh the alternatives.
– The point of this exercise is to recognize when a decision is
explainable, defensible, and justifiable to all stakeholders involved.
– Some alternatives might concern principles, rights, or duties that
override consequences.
– Decision makes must also compare and weigh the effects of a decision
on their own integrity, virtue, and character.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
A Decision-Making Process for Ethics
• Once the variables are explored, the next step is to make a
– Business decisions usually mean formulating a plan and carrying it out.
• The final step is to evaluate the implications of the decisions,
to monitor and learn from the outcomes, and to modify
actions accordingly when faced with future similar challenges.
– With a normative discipline, ethics seeks an account of how and why
people should act a certain way, rather than how they do act.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2.2 – An Ethical Decision-Making Process
The ethical traditions and theories described in the following
chapter will flesh out and elaborate on this decision process.
Jump to long image description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Insert Photo Credit Here
Ethical Decision-Making
The time is always right to do what’s right.
Martin Luther King Jr.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
When Ethical Decision Making Goes Wrong
• Some stumbling blocks to
responsible decision making
are intellectual or cognitive.
– Ignorance.
– Considering only limited
– Finding comfort in simplified
decision rules.
– Selecting the alternative that
satisfies the minimum
decision criteria,
• also known as satisficing.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
• Other stumbling blocks are
more a question of
motivation and willpower.
– Sometimes it is easier to do
the wrong thing.
– Sometimes they lack the
courage to do otherwise.
– Courage is also needed when
responding to peer pressure.
Ethical Decision Making
Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if
you want to test a man’s character, give
him power.
Abraham Lincoln
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Ethical Decision Making in Managerial Roles
• Within a business setting, individuals must consider the
ethical implications of both personal and professional decision
• Some of our roles are social and some roles are institutional.
• In a business context, individuals fill roles of employees, managers, senior
executives, and board members.
• Managers, executives, and board members create and shape
the organizational context where employees make decisions.
– They have a responsibility to encourage ethical behavior and
discourage unethical behavior.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Ethical Decision Making
There are two kinds of people, those who do
the work and those who take the credit. Try
to be in the first group; there is less
competition there.
Indira Gandhi
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Appendix – Figure 2.2 – Ethical Decision-Making
Determining the facts is the first step in the ethical decision-making
process and identifying the ethical issues involved is the second
step in the process. Sometimes the first and second step can be
The third step is to identify stakeholders and consider the situation
from their point of view.
The fourth step is to consider the available alternatives, also called
using mental imagination.
The fifth step is to compare and weigh the alternatives, based on
consequences for all stakeholders, duties, rights, principles, and
implications for personal integrity and character.
The sixth step is making the decision.
The seventh step is monitoring and learning from the outcomes.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Jump back to slide containing original image
Chapter Three:
Ethics and
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter Objectives
• After reading this chapter, you will be able to:
– Explain the ethical framework of utilitarianism.
– Describe how utilitarian thinking underlies economic and business
decision making.
– Explain how the free market is thought to serve the utilitarian goal of
maximizing the overall good.
– Explain some challenges to utilitarian decision making.
– Explain the principle-based, or rights-based, framework of ethics.
– Explain the concept of human rights and how they are relevant to
– Distinguish moral rights from legal rights.
– Explain several challenges to principle-based ethics.
– Describe and explain virtue-based framework for thinking about
ethical character.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Philosophical Ethics and Business
Integrity without knowledge is weak and
useless, and knowledge without integrity is
dangerous and dreadful.
Samuel Johnson, 1709-1784
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Ethical Frameworks
• An ethical framework is nothing more than an attempt to
provide a systematic answer to the ethical question:
– How should human beings live their lives?
• Ethics attempts to answer the question but also gives reasons
to support the answers.
– Philosophical ethics must answer the “why?” question as well.
– “why” matters because without offering reasons, it is only an opinion.
– “why” matters because superficial agreement can mask underlying
– Many people attempt to answer “why” in religious terms but religions
differ from culture to culture.
– Philosophical ethics provides justifications applicable to all people.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Ethical Frameworks
• Ethics is not comprised of a single principle or framework.
• Here, the focus is on three ethical frameworks proven
influential with practical relevance in modern business.
– Utilitarianism is an ethical tradition that directs us to decide based on
overall consequences of our acts.
– The principle-based framework directs us to act on the basis of moral
principles such as respecting human rights.
– Virtue ethics tells us to consider the moral character of individuals and
how various character traits can contribute to, or obstruct, a happy
and meaningful human life.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Philosophical Ethics and Business
A man does what he must – in spite of personal
consequences, in spite of obstacles and dangers
and pressures – and that is the basis of all
human morality.
John F. Kennedy
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Utilitarianism: Ethical Consequences
• Utilitarianism’s insight is
that outcomes matter,
– and we should consider the
consequences of our actions.
• Utilitarianism has been
called a consequentialist
approach to ethics.
– We should act in ways that
produce better consequences
than the alternatives.
• What is meant by “better
©McGraw-Hill Education.
• “Better consequences” are
those that promote human
– “the greatest good for the
greatest number.”
• Utilitarians are pragmatic
thinkers and no act is ever
absolutely right or wrong.
• The utilitarian position is
that happiness is the
ultimate good.
Utilitarianism and Business
• The free market is decidedly utilitarian.
– So, utilitarianism has a strong impact on business and business ethics.
• How to achieve the goal of maximizing the overall good?
• Some utilitarians agree with Adam Smith, claiming that free and
competitive markets are the best means for attaining the goal.
• Other utilitarians turn to policy experts who are in a position to determine
which policy will maximize the overall good.
– The dispute between the “market” and the “administrative” versions
of utilitarianism characterize many disputes in business ethics.
– Egoism is also a consequentialist theory but it focuses exclusively on
the happiness of the individual making the decision.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Challenges to Utilitarian Ethics
• Problems with the need to count, measure, compare, and
quantify consequences.
• Utilitarians determine both ethical and unethical acts by their
consequences – so the end justifies the means.
– This seems to deny one of the earliest ethical principles that the end
doe not always justify the means.
– We have certain duties or responsibilities that we ought to obey even
when doing so does not produce a net increase in overall happiness.
• Utilitarian reasons contributes to ethical decision by requiring
we consider the consequences of our actions.
– Utilitarian reasoning does not exhaust the range of ethical concerns.
• Ethical decisions also involve duties, principles, and personal integrity.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Ethics of Principles and Rights
• Some decisions should be a matter of principle, not
consequences – the ends do not always justify the means.
– Which principles should be followed?
– When does a principle outweigh producing good consequences?
• Principles are ethical rules that put values into action.
– Principles create ethical duties requiring certain actions or decisions.
• What principles or rules should guide our decisions?
– Legal rules.
– Organizational rules.
– Role-based rules.
– Professional rules.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Ethics of Principles and Rights
• Ethical duties
should be
rather than
• Could include
a professional
code of
conduct that
binds you
only if you in
©McGraw-Hill Education.
• Do not
contain this
“if” clause
• I should or
must obey a
ethical rule
no matter
Human Rights and Duties
• Are there any fundamental
or “categorical” duties?
– Immanuel Kant believed we
all have a duty to treat each
person as an end in
– And never only as means to
our own ends.
– Persons must never be
treated as mere tools.
• Human, or moral rights is
central to principle-based
©McGraw-Hill Education.
• Human rights protect
individual dignity.
• Rights imply that some acts
are “off-limits.”
• Our moral duty is to respect
the human rights of others.
• Humans are said to have a
fundamental human right of
autonomy, or “self-rule.”
Human Rights and Social Justice
• Two rights emerged as
fundamental components
of social justice:
– liberty and equality.
– More fundamental and
persistent than legal rights.
– They are particularly
fundamental to theories of
social justice upon which
democratic and capitalist
economies have been built.
– Crucial to an understanding of
business ethics.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Human Rights and Social Justice
• Here, individual liberty is
the most central element.
• Here, equality is the most
central element.
• A just society is one in
which individuals are free
from government intrusion.
• Socialist egalitarian theories
argue for equal distribution
of basic goods and services.
• As long as they are not
harming others.
• Other theories argue the
equal opportunity is crucial.
• Ethical business pursues
profit within the law.
• Supports greater
governmental responsibility
in the economy to
guarantee equality.
• Unethical businesses do
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Human Rights and Legal Rights
• What is the difference between human rights and legal rights?
– Using employee rights as an example, there are three kinds of
employee rights common in business.
– First, there are those legal rights granted to employees on the basis of
legislation or judicial rulings.
• Minimum wage, and equal opportunity are examples.
– Second, employees have rights to entitled goods based contractual
agreements with the employer.
• Health care, pension, and paid holidays are examples.
– Finally, employees have rights grounded in moral entitlements.
• Examples include the right not to be bullied, or lied to.
• Legal rights and human rights lie outside the bargaining that
occurs between employers and employees.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Challenges to an Ethics of Rights and Duties
• There are two big challenges to this ethical tradition.
– There is disagreement about what rights truly are basic human rights.
– It is unclear how to apply this approach to practical situations,
especially in cases where rights appear to conflict.
• Critics point out that the ethical tradition of rights and duties
has been unable to provide a persuasive and systematic
account for how such conflicts are to be resolved.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Philosophical Ethics and Business
It’s better to hang out with people better
than you. Pick out associates whose
behavior is better than yours and you’ll
drift in that direction.
Warren Buffett
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Virtue Ethics: Integrity and Character
• Virtue ethics seeks a full and detailed description of those
character traits that constitute a good and full human life.
– Ethics of virtue is the goal of every parent who hopes to raise happy
and decent children.
• To understand how virtue ethics differs from utilitarian and
principle-based frameworks, consider egoism.
– There is a gap between self-interest and altruism.
– Ethics requires us to act for the well-being of others at times,
something egoism claims is not possible.
• An ethics of virtue shifts the focus from questions of what a
person should do, to a focus on who that person is.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Virtue Ethics: Integrity and Character
• A person’s character is not
independent of that person’s
• This shift changes the nature of
justification in ethics.
• Ethical controversies often
involve a conflict between selfinterest and ethical values.
• How much we act for the wellbeing of others depends on our
©McGraw-Hill Education.
• Those dispositions,
attitudes, values,
and beliefs that
popularly might be
called a
Virtue Ethics: Integrity and Character
• Virtue ethics recognizes that human beings act according to
who they are, according to their character.
– Given that character plays a key role in out behavior, and
– given that our character can be shaped by controllable factors,
– virtue ethics seeks to understand how traits conducive to, and traits
that undermine, a meaningful, worthwhile, and satisfying life.
• Virtue ethics reminds us to examine how character traits are
formed and conditioned.
• Many moral dilemmas arise when tension between who we
seek to be and the type of person business expects us to be.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Virtue Ethics: Integrity and Character
• Virtue ethics should lead us to ask questions about the
choices we make and how those choices affect our character.
• This can happen in two ways.
– First, note that each decision you make has a subtle but meaningful
impact on subsequent decisions.
• This suggests a reciprocal relationship between character and action.
• Our character affects how we act, but how we act ends up affecting our
– The second way choices affect character is through the people we
choose to associate with and the organizations we become part of.
• This has important implications for the companies we choose to work for.
• The organizational culture will inevitably change who we are, so choose
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Decision-Making Model Revisited
• This chapter introduced
three ethical frameworks.
• Understanding the
philosophical basis of ethics
enables you to:
– become more aware of
ethical issues,
– better able to recognize the
significance of your decisions,
– more likely to make better
informed and more
reasonable decisions, and
– articulately explain yourself
when asked about a decision.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
• These theories also provide
ways to develop the
decision-making model
introduced in chapter 2.
• These theories provide
systematic and
sophisticated ways to think
and reason about ethical
• The decision-making model
now has ethical theories
integrated into the
Decision-Making Model Revisited
1. Determine the facts.
2. Identify the ethical issues involved.
3. Identify stakeholders.
4. Consider the available alternatives.
5. Compare and weigh the alternatives.
Duties, rights, principles.
Implications for personal integrity and character.
6. Make a decision.
7. Monitor and learn.
©McGraw-Hill Education.

(Hartman & Desjardins, 2008)
Apply any ethical theory to the following framework
Step 1
Determine the facts in an unbiased manner
Step 2 Identify the ethical issue at hand
Step 3
Identify stakeholders impacted by our decision
Step 4 Consider all available alternatives (use moral imagination)
Step 5 Consider how the decision will affect the stakeholders
Step 6 — Discuss the pending decision with relevant others
Step 7
Make the decision
Step 8 ned Monitor and assess the quality of the decision

Purchase answer to see full

Homework On Time
Calculate the Price of your PAPER Now
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Top quality papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional academic writers

We have hired a team of professional writers experienced in academic and business writing. Most of them are native speakers and PhD holders able to take care of any assignment you need help with.

Free revisions

If you feel that we missed something, send the order for a free revision. You will have 10 days to send the order for revision after you receive the final paper. You can either do it on your own after signing in to your personal account or by contacting our support.

On-time delivery

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & confidential

We use several checkers to make sure that all papers you receive are plagiarism-free. Our editors carefully go through all in-text citations. We also promise full confidentiality in all our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

You are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper. Our academic experts will gladly help you with essays, case studies, research papers and other assignments.


Admission help & business writing

You can be positive that we will be here 24/7 to help you get accepted to the Master’s program at the TOP-universities or help you get a well-paid position.


Editing your paper

Our academic writers and editors will help you submit a well-structured and organized paper just on time. We will ensure that your final paper is of the highest quality and absolutely free of mistakes.


Revising your paper

Our academic writers and editors will help you with unlimited number of revisions in case you need any customization of your academic papers