ENG101 Ashford University African American Suspensions in School Paper I am back as promised. Attached you will find my feedback with  omissions and sugges

ENG101 Ashford University African American Suspensions in School Paper I am back as promised. Attached you will find my feedback with  omissions and suggestions from my TA. Due to may complaints and  misunderstandings the criteria has been changed. Here is the new  required headings

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Lit Review 2-3 pages with 3 references

Conceptual Frame work 1 page with a Bio-psycho social subheading 1 page

Methods  – Measurement section stating its a quantitative study( NO statistics)  this should be a description of each variable( Age, ethnicity, education  level and gender) African American Males ages 13-21. 1 paraphrase only. 

Under methods section there should be a Sampling and Eligibility Criteria.  This sampling should list who or what you are studying to collect the  data such. Is it secondary data analysis and how did you recruit. EG.  This a random sampling of the local school districts data base of high  school students who identify as African American males ages 13-21.

Eligibility criteria should be 3-4 sentences max and simply state how these sample qualified for this study.

Last heading should be Data Collection/Design not Conclusion. No conclusion is needed! 

It  should read something along the lines of; This cross sectional study  used data collection surveys. These surveys were completed on IPAds with  the assistance of a research assistance in focus roues of 8-10 African  American male HS students grades 9-12. A secondary data source should be  used and mentioned  2 paragraphs max. Running Head: SUSPENSION AND AFRICAN-AMERICAN OUTCOMES
Suspension and African-American Outcomes
Carolina Hausmann-Stabile
Research Informed Practice
Summer 2019
Trenessa Moses
This literature review is a paper relating to high suspension rates concerning AfricaAmerican students attending public educational institutions. The literature review indicates that
African-American students attending public schools have higher suspension rates as opposed to
those of other races. This study reveals alternatives that educational staff can conduct to decrease
the rates of African-American suspensions in school. The references that I have used consist of
case studies, quantitative research, qualitative research, and collect statistical data. The examples
of different methods that schools and administration can use to handle at-risk students and
African American students and data, shows the disproportionate suspension rates regarding those
of African-American decent while comparing the results with students who are of Caucasian
descent. The more suspension rates increase for African-Americans, the less likely they continue
with their studies and enter college. An increased chance of violent behaviors and encounters
with the law is prevalent among the African-American males given the higher rates of
suspensions and expulsions in the educational setting.
Out of School Suspensions and Impact on African-American Males
Start with your overall statistics. Include some statistics about the number of suspensions
for African American males and White males and show how different they are. Also include
some statistics about educational outcomes for African American males and White males. This
will help you establish the need for your study.
The purpose of this study is to identify the reasonings as to why African-American male
suspension rates are higher to those of the Caucasian race and what the outcomes of their
education concludes for them (Maynard, 2013). African-American educational levels become
hindered, given the high increase levels of expulsions and suspensions. There is an increased
chance for African-American males to give up on their educational endeavours due to the system
failures in educational departments and racial disparities targeting them.
Literature Review
Studies reveal that numerous emerging elements have contributed to the increased
suspension rates of African American students, including poverty, violent environments, and
between African-Americans and Caucasians, African-Americans received more than three times
the suspensions of the Caucasians (Cite). The perceptions of instructors and school climate
contribute (?) to lowering school suspension rates for African American males (Fenning & Rose,
The suspension rates have been high for an extended period in individual states across the
country. Each state has policies and regulations that school systems must obey to provide a
positive learning environment. A lot of these policies are neglected the needs of those who are
African-Americans. Smith stated that “on a national level, 1.4 million African-American students
have been suspended from a public institutional education facility in one academic year and that
nearly 56% of those were suspended in the southern states (Fisher & Hennessy, 2016). States in
the south also accounted for a high increase of expulsions concerning African-Americans (Smith
& Harper, 2018). Here is some example of states with high suspension rates Texas has 13 of
Black students enrolled 13%- 31% suspended, Virginia 24% enrolled 51% suspended
Mississippi 50% enrolled 74% suspended etc. (Smith & Harper, 2018).
There has been low support nationwide to lower school suspension rates. A growing body
of evidence has long revealed discriminatory tendencies in discipline. Like many states across
the country, the State of California is dealing with the issue of racial disparities too. Loveless
(2017) states, “The Department in the United States of America in the education’s office resulted
to a stir in the year 2014 where it revealed data that showed that African-American students are
three times more likely to be expelled or suspended than white students. This report noted that
the black students are quite discriminatorily dealt with the cruellest penalties being school
expulsions and suspensions. The rate of African stands out because for every thousand blacks’
students that had enrolled in California two hundred and thirty-five students got a suspension.
Black student’s rate of suspension is on the high side, while Asian rates are low, and Hispanics
and Whites rates are on the national average (Loveless 2017).
African American students are issued school discipline sanctions are at an alarming rate
across the country. Teachers, administrators and others that are involved in the classroom setting
can learn how to build positive relationships with Black students, and that can have a
considerable impact on the learning environment for Black students (Fisher & Hennessy, 2016).
A focus on teachers learning how to build relationships with others and providing involving
instructions may be useful for the welfares of students who are in the danger of having
unfriendly interaction with teachers. For instance, one study showed that in the elementary
school’s teachers tend to connect poorly and less degree of warmness in their interactions with
the Black students as compared to white students (Gregory, Hafen, Ruzek, Mikami, Allen, &
Pianta, 2016). Relating to African American students, the teachers and administrators should do
their best to keep African American students in the classroom. Research studies have shown that
every suspension that is given to an African American student decreases their odds of graduation
from comparing to their friends, these suspended youths have a very high chance of interacting
with the juvenile criminal justice system from adolescence and possibly into their adult years
(Gregory et al., 2016).
Barriers and Limitations of Current Research
During the Literature Review, we have covered the high rates of school suspension of
African American students. The comparison of these numbers is extremely high compared to
Caucasian students in the public-school system. There have been many studies showing factors
for the school suspension on both the white and black students based on their circumstances. One
can say that the socioeconomics cause African-American students to get suspended more than
white students, but there is no data to support that hypothesis. So, what are the factors that cause
Black students to get suspended in the public-school system? Those elements consist of the
communities and neighborhoods in which the students are involved and living in, the school
suspension rates for the given institution, the family structure and income level, as well other
contextual elements that directly and indirectly affect African-American males. However, these
elements do not hold a strong validity in explaining high rates of suspension of African
American students compared to Caucasian students (Ganaon & Silvestre, & Glenn, 2013).
Ganao et al. (2013) stated that those findings showed the factors found in the family,
models at community levels and individual are a good indicator in predicting for the school
suspensions for the white student, a few of the findings are good at predicting of black student
suspension. This is in terms of age grade level, the individual of the level model, physical abuse,
friend’s problems were relevant for the white race; whereas, for the Blacks, neglect was the only
relevant predictor of suspensions in schools” p.405). The drop-out rate of African American
students and Caucasian students is another component that is connected with school suspension
rates. Studies have identified variables that contributing to dropout gap. Variable such as gender,
several suspensions, the family composition, time spent on doing homework, and parental
engagement as discrimination factors between various racial groups (Ganaon & Silvestre, &
Glenn, 2013).
Among the different suspensions, variables and being held back and parental engagement
most accounted for creating a small gap between black and Caucasian student bodies. (Suh,
Malchow, & Suh, 2014). The task of lowering the suspension rate in the school system is a
daunting task. There are many conventional and unconventional alternatives to lower the
suspension rate. In Delaware, the school districts are focusing on the changes made regarding the
perceptions of the teachers and on how they view teaching and how they view their students. The
student’s outcome in class can be connected to the teacher’s perception of school climate and
their job satisfaction. Teacher’s know-how of the school environment can be directly like their
given job fulfilment burnouts and retention rates. (Bear, Yang, Pell, and Gaskins 2014).
When a teacher is happy, they tend to communicate and build strong relationships with
their students and that action can lower the rate of teachers writing up students for discipline
problems. The Delaware School System created a Likert Scales questionnaire to gather the
information that it is made up of 24 items with seven subscales. Furthermore, four of these
subscales are aligned almost close with the dimensions of social wellbeing: like student to
student relations (are four items), teacher to student relations (are three items), diversity respect
(three items) and Teacher–Home Communications (are five items) (Bear et al., 2014).
By creating this survey, Delaware School systems gather information about the school
climate relating to teacher and implemented plans to create a better environment for teachers,
raise the job morality of teachers and directly or indirectly that can lower the suspension rate.
Another method that has been implementing around the country to lower suspension rates of
African American students is the creation of community based alternative suspension programs.
These programs increase social connectedness, reduced re-suspension rates, resilience among
youth (Henderson, & Green, 2014). Henderson et al., 2014) stated that by use of open-ended
interviews from a nested sample of participants who were youths, qualitative data were collected.
This was to talk about the goals of the study, several questions brought up in the research
process: (1) was there an effect from the program in which it affected the youth from baseline to
post-intervention in social connectedness and resilience among the youth? (2) Are social
connectedness and resilience significant in predicting if the youth were not being re-suspended
three months after their experience in the program? (3) Its impact on their lives, how the youth
describe their experience in the program.
This program was designed to offer an alternative space for these suspended youths and
maintain their engagement in activities that benefit the community such as recreational activities
and other activities to strengthen their social and critical thinking skills to decrease that students
from getting suspended again. Henderson et al (2014) stated that the results from the study
revealed that there were immediate benefits for youth who had engaged in communities-based
alternative-to-suspension programs and demonstrated how CBOs, like the YMCA, had continued
to address a variety of the developmental needs of the youth and acted as “safe places” for these
youth (p.19).
After your lit review, you need a conceptual framework. If you are having a difficult time
coming up with one, we can talk about it more. A potential framework you could use is the
biopsychosocial framework – how a biopsychosocial / ecological perspective gives insight into
why these higher rates of suspension for African American males exist.
Methods of Research
Variables were classified as two. Dependent variables include the number of days in out
of suspension, which ranges from 1 to 20 days. The other dependent variable is the cause of
suspension which could be fighting, disruption or truancy. The other analyzed dependent
variable is the punishment that was given following the punishment which included court
referral, alternative school placement, etc. on the other hand independent variables used in this
research were race and gender. Data were obtained from a database with approval of data access
by the district’s research committee. This was an official source and had a large variety of
variables. Other different sources were also used, such as the UCLA report and the civil rights
Data Collection Survey. Comparing to their Caucasian counterparts’ black boy are
approximately three times more probable to receive a suspension. This CDSR of 2013-2014
looked at 16,758 school districts that had 50,035,744 students in 95,507 schools. For our case
study school with low African-American enrollment, e.g. elementary and K-8 schools had a low
percentage (6%) on the suspension rates. According to the CRDC survey, black students in grade
K were 3.8 times compared to the Caucasian counterparts more likely to get at least one out-ofschool suspension. Breaking this down to race and gender 18% black boys compared to 10% of
black girls while the Caucasian counterparts were 5% for the Caucasian boys as well as 2% for
the Caucasian girls. For preschoolers, black kids were 3.6 more times likely to get out-of-school
suspension (one or more than) compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Out of these
percentages, black boys suspended made up of 45%of the 19% of male enrollment while for the
African-American girls, 54% were suspended out of the 20% of female enrollment.
Although the suspension rate has decrease generally among all ethnic groups, the racial
disparities associated with suspension rate has not changed (Told son et al., 2015). Our study
calculates suspensions rates in terms of the number of suspensions which involve a specific race
which is then divided by the total number of enrolled students from that race. In 2015, the
national full suspension rate for African-American was 17.8%. This meant that out of 100
African-American students, there were 17.8 suspensions. Compared to the same research
Hispanics were 5.2%, Caucasians were 4.4%, and the Asians 1.2%. Schools that were associated
with these high rates were middle schools, schools that had a higher percentage (i.e. 16%) of
African-American students’ enrollment and large schools especially those that had a population
of more than 1300 students.
There are five major themes in the literature review concerning the high rate of
suspension of African-American students in the public-school system. Those elements consist of:
the suspension rates of African American students and the states have the high African American
suspension rate, the racial disparities relating to school suspension, comparison of African
American students versus Caucasian American Students relating to school suspension, and the
different methods schools are using to lower suspension rates. Research indicates that African
American are receiving unfair treatment with it come to being disciplined in the school system.
The research will show that African American students suspension rated is high across
the United States, and that is not by chance either. African American students are getting
suspended as many two times as much as their racial peers. Also, the research showed the
adverse effects of out of home suspension on African American mental, social and emotional
development. Overwhelmingly, many quantitative and qualitative research articles speak on
behalf of the rate of suspension among African-American students in the public-school setting.
This topic and these articles provide the data that reflects on the severity of this topic. Research
solutions are provided in these articles and all the school systems across the country must do is
try in implementing the right solutions to fit their school culture and that will indirectly or
directly solve the problem of African American suspension rate.
Bear, G.G., Yang, C., Pell, M., Gaskin, C. (2014). Validation of a brief measure of teachers’
perceptions of school climate: relations to student achievement and suspensions.
Learning Environ Research (2014) 17: 339. https://doiorg.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1007/s10984-014-9162-1
Ganao, J. S. D., Silvestre, F. S., & Glenn, J. W. (2013). Assessing the differential impact of
contextual factors on school suspension for black and Caucasian students. The Journal of
Negro Education, 82(4), 393-407. Retrieved from
Gregory, A., Hafen, C. A., Ruzek, E., Mikami, A. Y., Allen, J. P., & Pianta, R. C. (2016).
Closing the racial discipline gap in classrooms by changing teacher practice. School
Psychology Review, 45(2), 171-191. Retrieved from
Henderson, D. X., & Green, J. (2014). Using mixed methods to explore resilience, social
connectedness, and re-suspension among youth in a community-based alternative-tosuspension program. International Journal of Child, Youth & Family Studies, 5(3), 423suspensions. (1). Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Retrieved from ProQuest
Central; Social Science Premium Collection Retrieved from
Loveless, T., (2017). Brown center report on American education: Race and school suspensions.
(1). Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Retrieved from ProQuest Central; Social
Science Premium Collection Retrieved from
Marbouti, F., Diefes-Dux, H., Madhavan, K (2016). Model for early prediction of at-risk
students in a course using standards-based grading. Computer& Education. 103(1), 1-15
Owen, J., Wettach, J., Hoffman, C.K., (2015). Instead of Suspension: Alternatives Strategies for
Effective School Disciple. Duke University Journal of Education, 10(4), 1-55.
Public Schools of North Carolina. (2017). 2016-2017 Consolidated Data Report, 2016-17 Annual
Report of School Crime & Violence Annual Report of Suspensions & Expulsions.
Retrieved from
Smith, E. J., Harper, S.R (2018). The disproportionate impact of K-12 school suspension and
expulsion on black students in southern states. Penn GSE Center for the Study of Race
and Equity in Education. (1), 1-92 https://equity.gse.upenn.edu/SouthernStates
Suh, S., Malchow, A., & Suh, J. (2014). Why did the black-Caucasian dropout gap widen in the
2000s? Educational Research Quarterly, 37(4), 19-40. Retrieved from
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