SOCSCI172AW UCI Founding Continental Expansion and Early Imperialism Paper The reference page is at the end of the essay prompt, you can just copy and past

SOCSCI172AW UCI Founding Continental Expansion and Early Imperialism Paper The reference page is at the end of the essay prompt, you can just copy and paste.

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Chicago in-text citations Founding, Continental
Expansion, and Early
Soc Sci 172AW
American Identity at the Founding
• Influence of religious ideology
• Covenantal chosenness
• “We will be a city on a hill.”
• US a great experiment for demonstration of higher purposes
Ronald Reagan
• “I have always believed that there
was some divine plan that placed
this great continent between two
oceans to be sought by those who
were possessed of an abiding love
of freedom and a special kind of
Justification for Continental Expansion
• Jefferson’s “Empire of Liberty”
• Justified US continental expansion
• Manifest Destiny
• John O’ Sullivan (1845): “the right of our manifest destiny to
overspread and to possess the whole continent which providence
has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty
and federated self-government”
Mexican-American War or the US Invasion of
Mexico (1846-1848)
• Cause
• Border dispute
• US sends military into disputed territory
• US declares self-defense
• Outcome
• US gained 1 million square miles
• Mexico cut in half
By 1853, Continental Expansion Concluded
Global Developments
• Massive expansion of Western colonialism
• Between 1875-1914, 25% of the world claimed as colonies
• New theories of evolution/race
• Cultures/societies ranked
• Justified in terms of advancing civilization
• “The West” obviously superior
Spanish-American War (1898)
• 1895 Cuban rebellion
• US hesitation
• January 1898, US dispatches USS Maine
• Explosion kills 268 people onboard
• Spanish blamed
• US wins, Spain cedes Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam to US
• Cubans barred from negotiations
• Results:
• 1901: Nominal independence
• Conceded naval base indefinitely
• Right of intervention
Occupation of the Philippines
• Justified in civilizational terms:
• “What America wants is not territorial expansion, but
expansion of civilization. We want, not to acquire the
Philippines for ourselves, but to give the Philippines
free schools, a free church, open courts, no caste,
equal rights to all. This is for our interest.”
• Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden”
Violent Repression
• Between 1898 and 1902, at least 200,000 Filipinos
• 4,000 US soldiers killed
• Tactics
• Indiscriminate killing
• Torture (water boarding)
• Burning of villages
Battle of Bud Dajo (1906)
Shifting Policy Toward Latin America
• Monroe Doctrine (1823)
• Warned against European interference in Western Hemisphere
• Policy of non-intervention
• Roosevelt Corollary (1905)
• Declared unilateral right of intervention
Roosevelt Corollary (1905)
• All that this country desires is to see the neighboring countries stable, orderly, and
prosperous. Any country whose people conduct themselves well can count upon
our hearty friendship. If a nation shows that it knows how to act with
reasonable efficiency and decency in social and political matters, if it keeps
order and pays its obligations, it need fear no interference from the United
States. Chronic wrongdoing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening
of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require
intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the
adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United
States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to
the exercise of an international police power.
Cold War Interventions in the
Third World
Soc Sci 172AW
• Quiz #3 due Friday, May 24th, by 10pm
• Peer review next week, Tuesday, May 28th
• Bring to class two hard copies of your rough draft
• Rough draft must be three pages
• Include works cited page (does not count toward page requirement)
Types of Intervention
Full-scale military
invasions (war)
• Korea (1950-1953)
• Vietnam (1965-1973 [1955-1975])
Other military
• Marines: Haiti (1959)
• Bombing: Laos (1965-1973)
Covert (secret)
• Proxy wars: Greece (1946-1949)
• Assassination: Congo (1960)
• Coups: Iran (1953); Guatemala (1954)
Explanations of Intervention in the
Third World
• Emphasizes
• Emphasizes
democracy and
human rights
• Emphasizes
Case Study: Greece
Greece (Background)
• 1941-1945 Greece occupied by Germany and Italy
• 1946-1949 Greek Civil War
• Greek Communists (supported by Albania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia)
• Right-wing Greek government (supported by US and Britain)
• Truman: US should support Greece so that it can “become a self-supporting and
self-respecting democracy.”
• Result: Greek government wins
Greece (Liberalism and Realism)
• Goal: Protect democracy
in Greece
• Evidence: Communists
overthrowing elected
• Goal: Stop Soviet
• Evidence: Greek
communists supported
by Soviet allies
“Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well
or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden,
support any friend, oppose any foe to ensure the
survival and the success of liberty.
“To those new states whom we welcome into the
ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one
form of colonial control shall not have passed
merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny.”
Greece (Anti-Imperialism)
• Reason for intervention in Greece?
• Access to resources
• Fear of independent nationalism
• Evidence?
• Support for government repression
• Soviet Union not involved
Case Study: Iran
Case Study: Iran (1953)
• CIA-backed coup overthrows PM Mohammed Mossadegh
• Destabilization tactics, bribe money, logistical support
• Why?
• Claim: “Soft” on communism
• Limit power of Shah (king)
• Nationalization
Case Study: Iran (1953), cont.
• Results
Granted Shah absolute authority
Reversed oil nationalization
Embraced anti-communism
Adopted modernization program
Case Study: Guatemala
Case Study: Guatemala (1954)
• CIA-backed coup overthrows Guatemalan President Jacob Arbenz Guzman
• Armed/trained troops, bribes, air cover
• Why?
• Claim: Soft on communism
• Confiscated 400,000 acres owned by American-controlled United Fruit
Case Study: Guatemala (1954), cont.
• New military government:
• Returned the land
• Jailed or executed opponents
• Received US military aid
The Onset of the Cold War and the
Korean War
Soc Sci 172AW
Early Cold War Policies
(Mainstream Interpretation)
• “Containment” (1947)
• Idea: “Contain” the spread of world
• Prediction: Soviet world domination
Early Cold War Policies, cont.
(Mainstream Interpretation)
• Truman Doctrine (1947)
• $400 million in military/economic aid
• Idea: Assist free nations
• “[I]t must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who
are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside
Early Cold War Policies, cont.
(Mainstream Interpretation)
• Containment
• Fits with realist perspective
• Goal: Protect US security
• Truman Doctrine
• Fits with liberal perspective
• Goal: Promote freedom and democracy abroad
Cold War: Causes
• Consensus: Soviet Union at fault
• Realism
• Fear of Soviet power
• Liberalism
• Conflict between value systems
Cold War: Causes, cont.
• Anti-Imperialism
• Desire to take advantage of economic/military strength
• Strategic use of Soviet threat
• Ex: George Kennan’s Secret 1948 Policy Planning Study 23
Cold War Causes, cont.
• “we have about 50% of the world’s wealth but only 6.3% of its
population. This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and
the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of
envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a
pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of
disparity without positive detriment to our national security.”
The Korean War
Political Context for Korean War
• Soviet tests of the atomic weapon in 1949
• Soviet control in Eastern Europe
• “Loss” of China in October 1949
• Chinese Civil War (1927-1950)
• Containment? Rollback
Mainstream Narrative of the War
• After Japanese surrender, Korea divided into two zones
• US in South, Soviet Union in North
• June 25, 1950 North Korean People’s Army invades the South
• July, 1950 US troops deployed
• US troops repel North Korean troops and push into North
Mainstream Narrative of the War, cont.
• November, 1950 China enters the war
• Push UN forces back past 38th parallel
• Cease-fire in July, 1953
• Divided at 38th parallel
Mainstream Explanations of the War
• Realism
• Protect credibility
• Evaluation: Did not achieve all its aims
• Liberalism
• Stark choice between good and evil
• Evaluation: Successfully defended South Korea from tyranny
Anti-Imperialist Perspective
• Put focus back on US actions and their consequences
• Three areas of US violence
1) Support for South Korean repression/violence
2) Indiscriminate bombing and shelling of North Korea
3) Killing civilians
Support for South Korean Repression
• Allowed creation of Republic of Korea in South
• Foreclosed peaceful alternatives
• Severe violence/repression under Syngman Rhee
• Crush opposition
• Rebellions brutally put down
• Murder of political prisoners
Bombing of North
• US strategy
Destroy dams and hydroelectric
Use napalm bombs on Pyongyang
Destroy villages and towns
purportedly harboring or
sympathetic to the enemy
Civilian Deaths
• Official policy to target civilians
• Refugees north of front lines to be considered enemies
• No Gun Ri
• 400 refugees killed in 3 days
United States military
• ~ 34,000
of Korean
• ~ 500,000
South Korea
• 415,000 killed or MIA; 500,000-1,000,000
North Korea
• ~ 1.5 million military/civilian combined
The Vietnam War
Soc Sci 172AW
Vietnam War (1955-1975)
Vietnam War: Background
• French colonization beginning in 1880s
• Japanese occupation (1940-1945)
• French efforts to recolonize Vietnam after Japanese defeat
• US supported French efforts
• Opposed by Viet Minh
Vietnam War: Background, cont.
• 1954 Geneva Accords
• Divided North from South
• Promised elections by 1956 to reunify country
• Leader of South (Ngo Dinh Diem) declared sovereign state and
rejected elections
Early Phase of US Involvement: 1954-1963
• US supports oppressive Diem regime
• Re-education camps
• Failed land reform
• Clampdowns on press
• 1960 National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) formed
• US supports counterinsurgency effort
Major Combat Phase: 1965-1968
• August, 1964, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
• 1965? 160,000 US troops shipped in
• Pacification of population in the South
• Bombing of the North
• 1968 Tet Offensive
Final Phase:
• 1969 Nixon inaugurated
• Increased bombing
• Gradual withdrawal of
ground troops
• Nixon Doctrine
• War ends in 1973
• Communist victory in
Tactics (South)
• Search-and-destroy
missions in villages
• Evacuated villages
declared free-fire zones
• Agent Orange
My Lai Massacre
Tactics (North)
• Bombing campaign killed and wounded civilians
• Causes: high level flights, targets close to civilian areas, random jettison
of bombs
• 100,000 civilians killed in North Vietnam
Reasons Given For Intervening (1950s)
• Eisenhower’s domino theory
• 1952 National Security Council memo
• “Southeast Asia, especially Malaya [Malaysia and Singapore] and
Indonesia, is the principle world source of natural rubber and tin,
and a producer of petroleum and other strategically important
commodities. The rice exports of Burma and Thailand are critically
important to Malaya, Ceylon [Sri Lanka] and Hong Kong and are of
considerable significance to Japan and India, all important areas of free
Reason For Intervening (1960s)
• Consensus: protect US credibility
• Assistant Secretary of Defense James McNaughton (1965):
“70% ? To avoid a humiliating US defeat (to our reputation as a guarantor).
20% ? To keep SVN [South Vietnam] (and then adjacent) territory from Chinese
10% ? To permit the people of SVN to enjoy a better, freer way of life.
ALSO ? To emerge from the crisis without unacceptable taint from methods used.”
Estimates of Vietnam War Deaths
• American military deaths
• ~ 54,000
• Vietnamese civilian deaths
• 1-2 million
• Continuing casualties
• Since 1975, 40,000 deaths from unexploded ordinance
• Birth defects
Vietnam War: Current Interpretations
• Criticize on pragmatic grounds
• Not worth cost
• Shows danger of morality in FP
• Going to war
• Fighting the war
Vietnam War: Current
Interpretations (Liberalism)
• Context: global conflict
• Overall: A tragic but well-intentioned mistake
• Legitimate goals
• Poor execution
• US defeat
Vietnam War: Current
• Criminal and immoral
• No right of intervention
• Achieved real US goal

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