The Great Awakenings in America and Social Gospel Movement Discussion for this assignment please follow the instructions please use the resources,lectures and material attached
Discuss one distinctive element from the First Great Awakening, one distinctive element from the Second Great Awakening, and one distinctive element of the Third Great Awakening.
http://www.abhsarchives.org/walter-rauschenbusch-s… The Great Awakenings
4 periods of religious Christian revivalism in America
Revivalism means to renew faith
Image: George Whitefield preaching outdoors
The 4 Great Awakenings in America:
Image: open-air preaching to crowd
Roots of the Great Awakenings
What started it all
1. craving for inner spiritual connection to God
(rather than mere outer observance of religion)
2. the method of Open Air Preaching
which always existed, just became very popular
image: open air preaching to crowd
Open Air Preaching began in Wales in 1700s
with Hywel Harris
He was a popular preacher
who attracted crowds of over 20,000
So he preached outside
throughout Wales and England
There were other early outdoor preachers
Image: open air preaching
The Methodists John Wesley & George Whitefield
started using open air preaching in England
This starts Revivalism in the United Kingdom.
Revivalism then spread to America.
Images: map of England, ship at sea, map of U.S. with 13 colonies highlighted
The First Great Awakening in America 1730 – 1760
began in Massachusetts in the 1730s
with the preaching of Jonathan Edwards
He was a Congregationalist Puritan
and was educated at Yale.
Image: Jonathan Edwards
Jonathan Edwards adds to the Puritan Calvinist beliefs
John Lockes philosophy of Sensationalism
Locke said we learn through our senses
Edwards created sermons that appealed to the senses
This picture is of the philosopher John Locke
Edwards would draw a picture of how awful a sinner you were
How you were going to burn in hell
How hot the flames were
The agony to be experienced
His listeners felt what he was saying.
image: artists rendering of hell lake of fire
Then after you were convinced of your fate,
He would preach on the
Grace & majesty of God
How God was waiting
for you to turn
And be pulled up out of your misery
To the glorious beauty of the Divine.
One should be living NOW in infinite beauty.
Image: woman with birds
Jonathan Edwards woke up the senses
Many experienced conversion
Sensational, vibrant preaching was a new thing.
Image: Lucille Ball
He preached (and published)
The most famous sermon in American history:
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.
image: sermon cover of Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
b. 1714 England
Grew up poor, his mom was a widow
He was a student at Oxford
and a good actor
He joined John Wesleys Holy Club
He was a Methodist.
Image: George Whitefield (pronounced Whitfield)
He was an itinerant Preacher in the Church of England
(meaning he travelled around)
Whitfield used open air preaching
because crowds were too large.
He converted thousands in England
who then joined the Methodist movement.
Whitefield came to America 7 times preaching to thousands
He delivered 18,000 sermons.
image: George Whitefield preaching outside to a crowd
Whitefields style of preaching:
He created a drama
with scenes & characters vividly described
No hellfire like Edwards,
Whitefield preached of Gods grace and Love.
image: landscape, trees, shining heart in sky
William Tennent 1673-1746
was a Presbyterian minister
He emphasized inner conversion
He used emotion-filled preaching
He started a college for Presbyterian ministers
The first building was a Log cabin and called Log College
This became Princeton University
He led revivalism in the middle colonies (Penn, Ohio, Virginia, N.C.)
His son Gilbert Tennent was an even more popular preacher
Image: William Tennent
The effects of the 1st Great Awakening
1. Brought colonies to a revitalized religion
Church attendance grew significantly.
image: stained glass window with cabin church
The Rise of educational institutions
which were first established to educate ministers
These institutions included:
Brown University, &
The University of Pennsylvania
Ben Franklin started the University of Pennsylvania
because George Whitefield was not allowed
to preach in the Church in Philadelphia
Ben Franklin raised the funds
to construct a building
so that whoever wanted to preach, could.
This became the first building
of the University of Pennsylvania
Picture: University of Pennsylvania
3rd effect of 1st Great Awakeing: It fueled social justice
a. anti-slavery movements
b. the idea of political liberty from England
was fueled by the new revivalist Christians desire
to be free to relate to God in their own way
Not through Pope, nor King, nor formal, restrictive religion
Its about Freedom
Image: debating in Congress
1st Great Awakening summary: 1730-1760
What they preached:
Personal relationship with God, Jesus, Holy Spirit
How they preached:
Sensory, emotion-filled, vibrant preaching
Lecture by J. Corey, Victor Valley College, 2019
This lecture will focus on the 2nd Great Awakening
which occurred in America from 1800 – 1830
Traveling Protestant Preachers
Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists
gathered together for
large Camp Meetings
preaching for days
to crowds who came from miles away
and camped out listening to many preachers.
Image: kids camping
The first revival of the 2nd Great Awakening
was in 1800 in the Presbyterian Red River Meeting House
in Logan County, Kentucky
This was followed by a larger revival
with thousands attending
at Cane Ridge, Kentucky 1801
image: camp worship meeting
The Camp Meeting Revivals
were emotion-filled experiences.
There was singing
people being slain in the spirit
which means physically collapsing.
Camp meeting revivals
spread from Kentucky
to Tennessee and Ohio
Picture: map of U.S. with Kentucky highlighted
as Circuit Rider preachers
started churches west of Kentucky
The Methodist Church was the largest church
in America by 1850.
Image: Circuit Rider
grew as well,
creating the Bible Belt
throughout the southern states.
image: map of U.S. highlighting locations of Baptists
New Christian denominations were also formed
in the 2nd Great Awakening
1. Disciples of Christ
3. eventually 7th Day Adventists
The most famous preacher of the2nd Great Awakening
was Charles Finney
Image: Charles Finney
was from Connecticut
He was the youngest of 15 children
and a Presbyterian
Finneys style of preaching
was to shift the emphasis from Christ
to the individual,
to change their mind
and heart toward Christ.
Finney used a sinners bench.
An individual came forward in the camp meeting
who was thinking about
changing their life
and sit on the bench
while others prayed.
Finney preached and worked for
1. child labor laws
2. womens rights
He had women on stage praying
3. prohibition of alcohol
4. against slavery
He refused communion to slave holders!
Image: bread and chalice
Besides his preaching,
he became President of Oberlin College (in Ohio)
Oberlin was the first in America
to allow women into its Theology program
It was also well known for advocating against slavery.
Early on, Finney preached in western New York
with other preachers
which has been called the Burnt Over District
because the fire of evangelism spread throughout it.
New religious and social movements
which started in the Burnt Over District include:
Church of Latter Day Saints (Mormons)
The Millerite Millennial Movement which led to Seventh Day Adventists
American Spiritualism séances
Womens Movement – Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
Effects of the 2nd Great Awakening:
The camp meetings fire things up
New Christian Denominations began
(the word denomination means to be named)
Churches expand west and south
The Anti-slavery movement gets fueled
Womens Rights movement
Finney fires things up.
Images: tent and campfire
Lecture by J. Corey, Victor Valley College, 2019
The 3rd Great Awakening
1880 – 1900
Image: one man helping another
The 3rd Great Awakening
was about the Social Gospel Movement
The Social Gospel Movement was a
Protestant Christian movement
which sought to reform society
by applying Christian principles
to social, economic, and political structures.
image: handing bowl of soup to another
Areas of reform:
Social Gospel Movement Theologians:
Washington Gladden advocated for workers rights
Walter Rauschenbusch advocated for the poor
They wrote books which spread the message
that America needs to address these issues
Images: Gladden, Rauschenbusch
An important event in the Social Gospel Movement
was the Haymarket Riot of 1886 in Chicago.
Chicago labor unions went on strike
seeking an 8 hour work day.
This event awakens many more Christians
to get involved in social activism
Image: figure in bed with alarm clock
The Social Gospel Movement was also
a reaction against Pre-millennialism
Pre-millennialism is the belief
that Christs 2nd coming will be soon
Jesus will come back and fix everything.
Image: handy man with tools
Preachers of the Social Gospel Movement said
we should clean up our own mess in society
Take care of the poor (New Testament: Matthew chapter 25)
Do unto others as you would have others do unto you
(New Testament: Matthew 5, Luke 6)
Image: homeless man on sidewalk with figure of Jesus
In the Social Gospel Movement
one does not just believe in Jesus
one follows in the model of Jesus
(This agrees with the theology of St. Paul and St. Mark in the New Testament)
Motto of SGM:
He works for God who works for man
Image: homeless children
What would Jesus do?
coined by Charles Sheldon
a Congregationalist minister
Images: Charles Sheldon upper right, and Sheldon from Big Bang Theory lower left
Christians became leaders & advocates in social reforms
such as Public Education
was the first state to require
mandatory education for every child.
Other states soon had mandatory education laws.
The last state to pass a compulsory education law was . . .
Images: child laborers
were established to improve conditions in poor neighborhoods
providing education, food, health care
Example: Hull House by Jane Addams
Image: Hull House
Christian social reformer and congressman Samuel Barrows
worked for prison reform and Womens Rights
Methodist reformer Dorothea Dix
advocated in many states for psychiatric hospitals
Before this, the insane were in prisons
The effect: the establishment of state hospitals for the insane.
Image: Dorothea Dix
Quakers led the movement for
Image: Turn of the century womens rights march
Summary: The 3rd Great Awakening
emphasized the Social Gospel Movement & Social Reform
Lecture by J. Corey, Victor Valley College, 2019
The 4th Great Awakening – 20th century (1900s)
2 conservative religious movements
Images: Billy Sunday, Charles Parham, William J. Seymour, Billy Graham
was the most popular preacher in early 20th c. America
A former professional baseball player
and a conservative,
he preached about sin and hell.
He favored big business and Republican politics.
He said no to novels, dancing, movies.
He converted millions through the radio.
Image: Billy Sunday
He promoted the 18th amendment
which prohibited the manufacture & sale of alcohol
Image: dumping out beer
There were 2 new movements which arose in the early 1900s
had its roots in the Holiness Movement
Image: white dove
The Holiness Movement began in 1836,
by a Methodist, Phoebe Palmer
She held mid-week bible meetings
in her home in New York City
for the promotion of holiness
Images: Phoebe Palmer
Concepts of the Holiness Movement
1. a re-birth experience
2. Entire sanctification purified by Holy Spirit
3. Assurance of salvation
4. Live a holy life by following in the model of Christ
experienced entire sanctification
and others in her bible meetings did also.
Image: man and light beams
Phoebe wrote a book
entitled The Promise of the Father published in 1859
in which she promoted the idea of women preachers
image: book cover for The Promise of the Father by Phoebe Palmer
Others in her group
wrote books, taught & preached
spreading the holiness idea.
The Holiness Movement spread to England.
Phoebe preached and converted thousands
stems from the Holiness Movement
It is named from the event in Acts 2 in the New Testament
when Jesus followers began speaking in tongues.
The 2 founders of Pentecostalism:
1. Charles Parham (1873-1929)
2. William J. Seymour (1870-1922)
Images: Charles Parham and William J. Seymour
visited other churches, then
started his own church in Topeka, Kansas in 1890s
called Bethel Divine Healing House
where miraculous healings occurred.
Images: Charles Parham
Later, Parham founded
Bethel Bible College in Topeka, Kansas 1900
students began speaking in tongues
Some other small churches had this happening all along
According to the bible there are 2 meanings of speaking in tongues:
1. Speaking foreign languages
2. Speaking in the language of angels
Parham formulated the doctrine of Speaking in Tongues:
Speaking in tongues was, he said,
evidence of Baptism by the Holy Spirit
called Baptism by Fire
Parham published a newsletter:
The Apostolic Faith where he
described many miraculous healings.
Image: figures in worship with white bird above
Parham went to Houston, Texas
and held meetings on holiness
William J. Seymour, a preacher attended
Images: map of U.S. with Texas highlighted and William J. Seymour
In 1906, Seymour moved to Los Angeles, CA
He started the
Apostolic Faith Mission Church on Azusa Street
Images: map of U.S. with California highlighted and Apostolic Faith Mission Church on Azusa Street
Seymour held worship services
7 days/week for 3 years
This became the
Azusa Street Revival
1. Holiness sanctification (from Phoebe Palmer)
2. Speaking in tongues (from Parham)
3. African American worship styles
(lively singing and dancing)
Thousands were converted
and spoke in tongues
Pentecostal Churches include:
The Apostolic Faith Mission Church
The Church of God
Assemblies of God
The Pentecostal Holiness Church
The Foursquare Church started by Aimee Semple McPherson
Image: Aimee Semple McPherson
In 1920, Curtis Lee Laws
wrote an article in a Baptist publication
promoting what he saw as
the 5 fundamentals of Christianity
The 5 fundamentals
1. inerrancy of scriptures
2. divinity of Jesus
3. virgin birth
4. Jesus death as substitution for the sins of all humanity
5. Jesus bodily resurrection & imminent 2nd Coming
Fundamentalism came up against public education
in the Scopes Trial of 1925
John Scopes, a biology teacher in Tennessee
went to trial against Fundamentalists
because he was teaching evolution.
A Tennessee law banned teaching
any theory of creation that was different
than that presented in the Bible.
Scopes lost the trial
but won the war.
In 1967, Tennessee finally revoked their law
In 1968 the Supreme Court ruled
in Epperson v. Arkansas that such a law
contravened The Establishment Clause in the Constitution.
The first amendment to the constitution
states that government shall not establish any religion.
The state of Tennessee was, in effect,
establishing fundamentalist Christianity as the state religion.
In the 2nd half of the 20th c. Billy Graham
became Americas foremost revival preacher
He was a fundamentalist Southern Baptist.
Image: Billy Graham
He used radio and tv to convert millions.
He preached: Jesus as personal savior
and that the End of the world is coming soon
Summary of the 4th Great Awakening:
3 Billys: Billy Sunday, William Seymour, Billy Graham
3 Ps: Phoebe, Parham & Pentecostalism
5 Fundamentals, Scopes Trial, Supreme Court
Lecture by J. Corey, Victor Valley College, 2019
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