Standard Progress Measurement for Integrated Cost Paper At the top of your paper provide the reference to your Journal Article. Use a scholarly source as d

Standard Progress Measurement for Integrated Cost Paper At the top of your paper provide the reference to your Journal Article. Use a scholarly source as described above. Utilizing a non-scholarly/non-peer-reviewed source will result in significant point deduction.

Introduction

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Standard Progress Measurement for Integrated Cost Paper At the top of your paper provide the reference to your Journal Article. Use a scholarly source as d
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Give a brief overview of the chapter 3 of Kloppenborg covered for the week. Be sure to cite any reference to the text. Include the text in a reference section at the end.

Summary (cite article when appropriate)

Give a summary of the article or case study.

Relevant Points (cite article when appropriate)

Identify the relevant points of the article or case study that coincide with the chapter covered for the week.

Critique

Provide a balanced criticism of the article or case study. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the study? How do the findings support the field of project management? How could it have been altered to better support the field?

Application of Concept(s)

Apply the concept(s) to your career, field, industry, etc. Provide a real world application not a general statement. This section should demonstrate how you can take the findings of this article or case study and utilize them in a practical way in your career, field or practice. Make the application specific to your own experience. Do not just provide a general overview of the usefulness of the findings. Be specific; not general.

References (this does not count toward the required paper length)

Every paper typed in this course should be in APA formatting (title page, reference page, NO abstract page, in-text citations, running head, page numbers, Times New Roman 12 font, 1 inch margins, double-spacing, etc…). Knowledge-Based Standard Progress Measurement
for Integrated Cost and Schedule Performance Control
Youngsoo Jung, A.M.ASCE1; and Seunghee Kang2
Abstract: Though the progress of construction projects is most often used as a critical index for effective project management, the
method, structure, data, and accuracy of detailed progress measurement may vary depending on specific characteristics of a project. This
situation can lead to misinterpretation of the project status, especially under a multiproject management environment. It is also a daunting
task for the inexperienced engineers to formulate and monitor the project-specific work packages. At the same time, maintaining very
detailed and highly accurate progress information requires excessive managerial efforts. In order to address this issue, this study proposes
the concept of standard progress measurement package. Issues for standardization of the work breakdown structure that can embody
distinct characteristics of different construction projects are investigated. The proposed methodology facilitates automated formulating of
work packages by using a historical database and also automates the gathering of progress information through the use of standardized
methods and tools. A case-study project is evaluated in order to examine the practicability of the proposed system.
DOI: 10.1061/?ASCE?0733-9364?2007?133:1?10?
CE Database subject headings: Cost control; Scheduling; Integrated systems; Information systems; Project management;
Knowledge-based systems; Automation; Standardization.
Introduction
Cost, schedule, and quality are the three major indicators for construction project performance. Accordingly, integration of cost
and schedule control systems has been an issue of great concern
for researchers and practitioners as these two important control
systems are closely interrelated, sharing numerous common data
?Rasdorf and Abudayyeh 1991; Jung and Gibson 1999; Jung and
Woo 2004? in their controlling processes.
In recent efforts to systemize construction management
processes, standard methods and procedures coupled with information technology have been widely adapted. The earned value
management system ?EVMS?, which integrates cost and schedule
control, is a good example. Two important features of EVMS are
the combination of two different construction business functions
?i.e., cost and schedule? into a unified perspective and the provision of highly detailed standard methods and procedures so as to
compulsorily maintain data integrity among many different
project participants ?Jung and Woo 2001?.
The progress ?or earned value? is key information in the integrated cost and schedule control as it provides a baseline for
comparison with the planned schedule and/or actual costs. However, the method, structure, data, and accuracy of detailed
1
Associate Professor, College of Architecture, Myongji Univ., Yongin
449-728, South Korea. E-mail: yjung97@mju.ac.kr
2
Ph.D. Candidate, College of Architecture, Myongji Univ., Yongin
449-728, South Korea. E-mail: kshcju@mju.ac.kr
Note. Discussion open until June 1, 2007. Separate discussions must
be submitted for individual papers. To extend the closing date by one
month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Managing Editor.
The manuscript for this paper was submitted for review and possible
publication on December 19, 2005; approved on July 10, 2006. This
paper is part of the Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 133, No. 1, January 1, 2007. ©ASCE, ISSN 0733-9364/2007/
1-10–21/$25.00.
progress measurements may vary depending on the characteristics
of a project, organization, or location. Regardless of the variation
in the methods utilized, in terms of accuracy, ideally the progress
data should be analyzed and maintained in a highly detailed form.
Nevertheless, the excessive workload required to manipulate very
detailed progress data is also a critical issue ?Deng and Hung
1998; Rasdorf and Abudayyeh 1991; Jung and Woo 2004? for
effective cost and schedule control.
No previous research or professional practice has comprehensively addressed the issues of standard progress measurement
methodology in terms of its practicability, accuracy, efficiency,
and potentiality for automation. In this context, the purpose of
this study is to develop an effective progress measurement system
utilizing standard progress measurement packages ?SPMPs?, as
depicted in Fig. 1. A prime objective of developing SPMPs is to
identify manageable work packages with reliable progress measurement ?enhancing accuracy?.
Even though those are not addressed in detail, this study also
discusses applying standard measures and procedures to as many
projects as possible so as to attain a corporate-wide index ?making
standards?, facilitating the process of work breakdown structure
?WBS? formulation by using a prestructured historical database
?alleviating workload?, and accommodating self-evolving features
of standard packages by analyzing the changes of managerial
policy under an ever-changing business environment ?sustaining
adaptability?.
A case study is used throughout this paper in order to illustrate
and examine the proposed methodology. The case-project is a
research center constructed by a case-company. The research center is basically comprised of an eleven-story office building ?two
stories underground and nine stories above ground? and a laboratory. Specifics of the project include: 17,087 m2 of total floor
area, 19-month project duration. A general contractor’s viewpoint
as a case-company is applied in this case-study, and the architectural work alone is analyzed excluding earthwork, mechanical,
10 / JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT © ASCE / JANUARY 2007
Fig. 1. Objectives and issues for SPMPs
Table 1. Details of Case-Project
Description
Specifics
?a? Case-project outlines
Main use
Location
Project delivery method
Contract type
Construction duration
Site area
Building area
Number of stories
Total floor area
Structure
Construction budgetb
Number of subcontract packagesb
Percent of subcontractb
Number of staff members on siteb
Remarks
a
Research center
Suwon City, South Korea
Design-bid-build
Lump sum and unit price
January 19, 2000 to July 31, 2001 ?19 months?
481,264 m2
2,347 m2
2 ?underground? +9 ?above ground?
17,087 m2
Reinforced concrete
Precast steel reinforced concrete
$12,500.000
27
70%
8
An office building and a laboratory
At Sungkyunkwan University
With a third party supervisor
Composite precast members used for the superstructure
in the office building
Construction only
Civil and architectural 21, electrical 1, mechanical 5
Amount of subcontracts/total budget
General contractor only
?b? Progress measurement package evaluation outlinesc
Number of standard PMPs
131
SPMP?office
Number of standard budget items
6,157
SMPM?office
Number of PMPs
61
Case-project, without locators
Number of PMP activities
233
Case-project, with locators
Number of budget items
433
Case-project, without locators
Case-project, with locators
Number of budget items allocated
1,290d
Accuracy score ?PAI?
717
Out of 10.00
a
The same case-project is also used in Jung and Woo ?2004?, where details for a workload evaluation are presented.
b
Descriptions are represented from the general contractor’s viewpoint.
c
Further details are described later in this paper.
d
Some assumptions are applied for the purpose of simulation.
JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT © ASCE / JANUARY 2007 / 11
and electrical. Details of the case-project are summarized in
Table 1.
Progress Measurement in Construction
By definition, “progress” refers to the “advance toward a specific
end.” The degree of “advance” for a construction project can be
determined in many different ways. In their study for measuring
construction productivity, Thomas and Mathews ?1986? assert
that the “progress in terms of work unit completed” and “the
associated cost in terms of man-hours or dollars” are typically
tracked in order to measure productivity. For the purpose of construction payment, progress can be explained as the “percentages
of direct cost incurred plus a portion of overhead and profit”
?Stokes 1978?. From the viewpoints of cost engineers or scheduling engineers, somewhat different considerations for progress
may also be inferred.
Nevertheless, the most commonly perceived concept of
progress implies the “work completed” and the “associated cost.”
Therefore, progress in this study is defined as the “actual work
completed in terms of budgeted cost.” This definition is identical
to the meaning of “earned value,” or budgeted cost for work
performed ?BCWP? in EVMS.
Progress in Earned Value Management
Benefits from integrating cost and schedule control ?EVMS? have
been asserted by numerous researchers and practitioners since this
idea was first promoted in the 1960s. The basic concept utilizes
the focal point for the integration of scope, cost, and scheduling
?Rasdorf and Abudayyeh 1991; Fleming and Koppleman 1996?.
According to a document of the American National Standard
Institute ?ANSI? for EVMS, a “control account” ?CA? as the focal
point acts for “a management control point at which budgets and
actual costs are accumulated and compared to earned value for
management control purposes” ?EIA 1998?.
The progress ?earned value, or BCWP? is used as a baseline to
which the planned schedule ?budgeted cost for work scheduled,
BCWS? and the actual cost ?actual cost of work performed,
ACWP? are compared in order to measure the schedule
performance and cost performance, respectively. The results of
performance variances and indices are used for further analysis,
including estimating cost at completion, identifying latent risks,
and replanning for remaining work packages.
The level of progress measurement packages is a critical issue
in terms of the “workload” ?i.e., manageability? required to maintain the control system and the “accuracy” of the packages ?Jung
et al. 2001?. In other words, it is ideal if very detailed progress
data can be gathered and analyzed for any project. However, this
situation may require an excess of managerial effort with limited
usage of the data. At the same time, it is very likely that less
detailed packages would provide more inaccurate information. In
order to address this issue, the level of detail for progress measurement should be carefully selected as a trade-off between the
workload and accuracy, incorporating strategy, objectives, and
management policy of construction projects.
Progress Measurement Workload
The most significant part of workload is collecting and maintaining data that is generated throughout the project life cycle. In
particular, EVMS requires more complex data structures and additional management efforts as it integrates two different aspects
of business functions ?cost and schedule?.
Therefore, optimizing ?or minimizing? the workload is the
critical success factor for practical implementation. This optimization can be achieved ?1? by automating data acquisition; ?2? by
reengineering the cost and scheduling control processes; and/or
?3? by adjusting the level of details ?Jung 2005?.
Automating data acquisition can be obtained by applying such
data acquisition technologies as RFID, GPS, or 3D laser scanning
?Navon 2005? or by electronically interconnecting databases from
relevant business functions ?e.g., material management or daily
work report?. However, utilizing IT is less specific to a project or
a company. Rather, it is industry-specific, as similar tools and
methods can be generally applicable to any type of project ?P1 in
Fig. 1?. On the contrary, the scheme of reengineering varies extensively depending on the organization ?Jung et al. 2000?. Practical solutions are very different for each company, as they are
organization-specific ?P2 in Fig. 1?. Finally, adjusting the level of
detail is a project-specific issue ?P3 in Fig. 1?. Basically, the level
of detail is determined by the managerial requirements of each
project. However, common characteristics within the same type of
facilities in a company can be identified in order to effectively
utilize the standardized methods.
The three schemes discussed previously should be deliberated
in a comprehensive manner, because they complement each other.
However, this paper focuses on “adjusting the level of details” by
using standardized progress measurement packages that can alleviate the workload for initial WBS formulation ?planning?, data
entries ?controlling?, and historical data retrieval ?reusing?. This
usage is depicted as U1, U2, and U3 in Fig. 1.
Progress Measurement Accuracy
Several different progress measurement methods are developed
and used in construction projects. Definitions and classifications
may vary slightly. This study utilizes three major types of measurement methods categorized by Thomas and Mathews ?1986?:
estimated percent complete method, earned value method, and
physical measurement method. As listed in Table 2, each method
has strengths and weaknesses.
Among these three measurement methods, the earned value
method may utilize various techniques for different type of work
packages. Fleming and Koppleman ?1996? specify seven techniques including percent complete estimate, weighted milestones,
fixed formula by task, percent complete and milestone gates,
earned standards, apportioned relationships to discrete work, and
level of effort. Note that Fleming and Koppleman categorize “percent complete estimate” as one of the earned value techniques
whereas Thomas and Mathews ?1986? separate it, as described in
Table 2.
Standards Making
Standardization of WBS or CA seems extremely difficult in practice, because each construction project is unique and has different
managerial requirements. However, this standardization would
significantly contribute to reduce the workload and enhance the
accuracy of the progress measurement if properly applied.
In their research exploring a process model of standardization
in the information and communication technology ?ICT? industry,
Fomin et al. ?2003? define three recursive activities of “design
?creating and choosing design alternatives?, sense-making ?attach-
12 / JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT © ASCE / JANUARY 2007
Table 2. Progress Measurement Methods ?Adapted from Thomas and Mathews 1986; Fleming and Koppleman 1996?
Method
Techniquesa
Advantagesb
Disadvantagesb
Estimated percent complete • Percent complete estimate Simple
Relying exclusively upon an individual’s ability
• Percent complete
Relatively small effort required
and milestone gates
Suitable for straightforward items
Earned value
• Weighted milestones
Greater detail and objectivity than the Not detailed as the “physical measurement method”
“estimated percent complete” method
• Fixed formula by task
• Earned standards
• Apportioned relationships
to discrete work
• Level of effort
Physical measurement
The most detailed and reliable
Lack of timely information
Relatively objective
High cost of data collection
Easy to audit
a
The techniques are defined by Fleming and Koppleman ?1996? and regrouped here by the writers.
b
The advantages and disadvantages discussed by Thomas and Mathews ?1986?.
ing meaning to design alternatives?, and negotiation ?agreeing between designs, fixing the actor network?,” which can be a good
point of departure for construction WBS standardization.
Managerial similarity within a specific type of construction
project ?e.g., office buildings? or within a company makes it
possible to develop reasonable standard progress measurement
packages ?“design”?. An ever-changing business environment and
construction technology may require seamless modification of the
standards ?“sense-making”?. Finally, the standards must incorporate conflicting interests between different projects and different
actors ?“negotiation”?. Again, conflicting interests simultaneously
occur between the workload and accuracy in terms of
effectiveness.
Standard Progress Measurement Package
In order to incorporate different interests ?the workload, accuracy,
and standards issues discussed previously?, the SPMP proposed in
this study pursues corporate-wide standard packages which are
self-evolving. Major features of the proposed methodology are
illustrated in the following, and the conceptual components are
depicted in Fig. 2 and Table 3.
Alleviating Workload
A work package or a CA is typically composed of two major
properties ?e.g., first-floor concrete work?; one is the classification
of commodity breakdown ?budget accounts?, and the other is arrangement of physical breakdown ?locators, e.g., facility, space,
or element?. Therefore, a small increase in the number of CAs or
budget accounts ?BAs? under integrated control systems can
cause enormous expansion of workloads. In addition, physical
breakdown is generally more project specific than commodity
breakdown ?Jung and Woo 2004?.
In order to effectively address this issue, this paper defines a
progress measurement package ?PMP? as “a major work package
composed of assigned budget accounts.” A PMP with a physical
breakdown ?a locator? is then defined as a “PMP activity,” which
is used as an activity for the CPM schedule or as a CA for EVMS.
For example, a commodity group of budget accounts ?e.g., concrete, reinforcing bars, and forms? constitutes a PMP ?e.g., con-
Fig. 2. Components of a SPMP
JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT © ASCE / JANUARY 2007 / 13
Table 3. Structure of a Progress Measurement Package
Attribute
PMP title
Assigned budget
accounts
Budget
weighting
?W?
Locator type
Duration type
Complexity type
Measurement
method
Measurement
algorithm
Measurement
DAT
Example
Value
c
a
Formwork ?BC3020?
Wood Form, Material ?7411?
Steel Form, Material ?7430?
Formwork, labor—Wood
form ?7412?
Formwork, labor—steel
Form ?7431?
Sum of the four
above mentioned items
?7411, 7430, 7412, 731?
By one floor: ?50?
Less than 1 week ?1?
One major work item,
partial progress
not accepted ?Al?
Weighted milestone ?5?
4 items
from the predefined standard PMPs in order to reduce the workload. A flexible WBS concept ?Jung and Woo 2004? is adopted to
easily reduce the total number of PMPs. Finally, the standard
earned value measurement method described in Table 2 is also
widely adapted in the case-study.
Enhancing Accuracy
11.49%
One floor
D ? 1 week
A1
Workers’ locationsb
GPS technology
for tracking
movement of workersb
PMP scores
SW—budget
5
weighting score
?type: above 5%?
SD—duration score
1.0
?type; 1?
SC—complexity score
10
?type; A1?
SA—accuracy
10
score= SD? SC= 1.0? 10
SAw—weighted accuracy score
114.9
score= SA? W = 10? 11.49
Other
Relevant information
information
including:
dates ?ES, EF, LS, LF, AS, AF?;
earned value; costs
progress curve
?planned versus actual?; and others
a
The letters and numbers in parentheses indicate the code numbers of a
relational database.
b
For an advanced example, the concept of automated labor monitoring
?Navon and Goldschmidt 2003? is introduced.
c
The complete list of 61 PMPs for the case-project and meanings of the
values are presented in Tables 3 and 4.
crete work?. The group of budget accounts assigned to a specific
locator ?e.g., first-floor? forms a PMP activity ?e.g., first-floor concrete work?. Therefore, many PMP activities can stem from each
PMP ?e.g., ten PMP activities for a concr…
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Homework On Time
Calculate the Price of your PAPER Now
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Top quality papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional academic writers

We have hired a team of professional writers experienced in academic and business writing. Most of them are native speakers and PhD holders able to take care of any assignment you need help with.

Free revisions

If you feel that we missed something, send the order for a free revision. You will have 10 days to send the order for revision after you receive the final paper. You can either do it on your own after signing in to your personal account or by contacting our support.

On-time delivery

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & confidential

We use several checkers to make sure that all papers you receive are plagiarism-free. Our editors carefully go through all in-text citations. We also promise full confidentiality in all our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

You are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper. Our academic experts will gladly help you with essays, case studies, research papers and other assignments.

Admissions

Admission help & business writing

You can be positive that we will be here 24/7 to help you get accepted to the Master’s program at the TOP-universities or help you get a well-paid position.

Reviews

Editing your paper

Our academic writers and editors will help you submit a well-structured and organized paper just on time. We will ensure that your final paper is of the highest quality and absolutely free of mistakes.

Reviews

Revising your paper

Our academic writers and editors will help you with unlimited number of revisions in case you need any customization of your academic papers