Development in Childhood Motivation and Personality Questions Response 5 questions for only 30 minutes. will pay more 4 dollars i attached the lectures. on

Development in Childhood Motivation and Personality Questions Response 5 questions for only 30 minutes. will pay more 4 dollars i attached the lectures. once i open the quiz i will send the questions. there will be only 30 minutes Gordon Allport: Motivation and
Personality
Allport’s Life
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Career of over 40 years
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Born in 1897
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Montezuma, Indiana
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First American born theorist we are studying
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Youngest of four sons
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Mother a teacher/father a salesman turned doctor
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Very religious
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Strict mother and household rules
Allport’s life
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Not as masculine as brothers
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Did not really have friends
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Isolated life
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Allport believed healthy adults are unaffected by childhood events
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Exceled due to feelings of inferiority
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Ph.D. is psychology from Harvard
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Second in high school class
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Graduated in 1915 and went to Istanbul, Turkey
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Upon return he met Freud
Allport’s early career
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Met Freud in Vienna
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Freud immediately assessed Allport as having a compulsive
personality
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Street car example
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Allport viewed the encounter in later years as traumatic
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Wrote the book Personality: A Psychological Interpretation in 1937
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Brought personality into the mainstream
Differed from Freud
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Allport believe the unconscious was not as Freud described it
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He believed emotionally healthy people function rationally and
consciously
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He believed emotionally healthy people have control over their
personality
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He believed the unconscious was only important in the behavior of
“neurotic or disturbed individuals”
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We are not prisoners of childhood issues
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Guided more by present and view of the future
Allport’s Contributions
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He opposed collecting data from abnormal personalities and said
instead the field should be studying normal/healthy personality to
determine theory.
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Uniqueness of Person—very aligned with social work values and
ethics
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Saw each person as unique and not universal/specific
Believed inferiority are feelings of isolation and rejection and all
people deal with these to some degree
Nature of Personality
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Dynamic
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Organized
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Constantly changing and growing
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Almost two personalities—one for child; one for adult
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Psychosocial to him was personality composed of both mind and
body together as one unit
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All facets of personality activate and direct specific behaviors and
thoughts
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Believed people were rational in the decisions they made about
behaviors (rather than just impulses or uncontrolled desires)
Personality Traits
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Traits are distinguishing characteristics that guide behavior;
measured on a continuum and subject to social, environmental and
cultural influences
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1. Real and exist within each of us
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2. Determine or cause behavior
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3. Can be demonstrated
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4. Interrelated—may overlap—aggressiveness and hostility
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5. Vary with the situation—can be neat and orderly in one area but
based on situation disorderly in another
Traits
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Individual—unique
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Common—shared by many
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Personal dispositions (changed to this)—peculiar to an individual
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Cardinal trait—pervasive and influential
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Central traits—everyone has 5-10 themes that best describe
behavior
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Secondary traits—least influential traits—may display inconsistently
Motivation
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Past does not explain current behavior
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Plans an intentions play a vital role
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Differed from Freud in this way also
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We strive for what we want and that is key to understanding our
behavior
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Functional autonomy of motives—independent of childhood events
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2 levels of functional autonomy—Perservative and Propriate
Functional Autonomy
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Idea that motivations in the normal, mature adult are independent
of the childhood experience.
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Tree example
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Preservative functional autonomy—relates to low level and routine
behaviors
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Propriate functional autonomy—(proprium is allport’s term for the
psyche or ego)
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Relates to all of our values; self-image and lifestyle
Propriate Functional Autonomy
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Relates to our values, self-image and lifestyle
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We retain motives that enhance our self esteem or self image
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Direct relationship between our interests and abilities
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Organizing the energy level
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Mastery and competence
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Propriate patterning
Proprium—his term for the ego or self
Organizing functioning
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Organizing & energy level
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Explains how we acquire new motives
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Motives arise from necessity
Mastery and competence
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Refers to level at which we choose to satisfy motives
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Master new skills
Propriate Patterning
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Striving for consistency and integration of personality
Stages of development
In Childhood
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Unique Self
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Infants have no awareness of self
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Then Proprium emerges
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3 stages of proprium development
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1. Bodily Self (ages birth to 4) develops when infants begin to be aware
of own fingers/grasping/own body.
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2. Self Identity (birth to 4) children learn their own name and see selves
as distinct from others
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3. Self-esteem (birth to 4 years) can accomplish things on their own;
become motivated to build, explore, manipulate objects
Stages of Development
In Childhood
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Extension of Self (age 4-6 years) people are part of a larger world
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Self-image—ages 4-6 years) how children see and would like to see
themselves
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Self as a rational coper (ages 6-12 years) reason and logic can be
applied to solving every day problems
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Propriate Striving (12-18 years) begins to formulate long range plans
and goals for self
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Adulthood (rest of life) autonomy; free of child hood motivations
Allport
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Placed great importance on the infant and mother bond
Healthy Adult Personality
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This grows and changes from infancy
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6 criteria for adult personalities
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1. Extended Sense of Self—people and activities beyond the self
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2. Mature adults relate warmly to other people exhibiting intimacy
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3. High degree of self-acceptance helps to achieve emotional
security
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4. Realistic perception of life—develop personal skills make a
commitment to some type of work
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5. Sense of humor and self objectification
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6. Unifying philosophy of life-directs toward future goals
Assessment
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Used many techniques due to the complexity of personality
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Personal-document technique—the study of a person’s written or
spoken records
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Jenny
Study of Values
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Allport developed a test called the study of values
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Personal values are the basis of our unifying philosophy of life
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1. Theoretical values-concerned with the discovery of truth
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2. Economic values—concerned with the useful and practical
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3. Aesthetic values—form harmony/grace
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4. Social values—human relationships, activism, and philanthropy
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5. Political values—power, influence, and prestige
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6. Religious values—deal with the mystical
Research on Allport
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Did not believe in only experimental or correlational methods
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Expressive behavior—spontaneous behavior
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Coping Behavior—consciously planned behavior
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Effects of Gender and age—women and children better at reading
facial expressions than males
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Cultural differences in facial expressions
Criticisms
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Can his theory be tested?
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Functional autonomy—how is an original motive transformed into an
autonomous one
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Not generalizable—too focused on uniqueness of person
Contributions
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Influential
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Impacted Maslow and Rogers
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Readable theory
Cattell: 16 Factor Theory
Cattell’s theory
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His theory goal was to predict how a person will behave in response
to a given stimulus
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He was not interested in taking abnormal behavior and moving to
normal behavior
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Studied normal people
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Rigorously scientific
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Utilized 50 types of measures and searched for correlations
Cattell’s Life
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Born in 1905 in England
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Married a mathematician
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Worked at University of Illinois
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In his 70’s he went to the University of Hawaii
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Noted to be very hard working
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Died in Honolulu in 1998
Cattell’s Theory
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He has success in the United states
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Defined traits as relatively permanent reaction tendencies that are
basic structural units of personality
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Common traits: possessed in some degree by all persons
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Unique traits: possessed by one or a few persons
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Ability traits: describe our skills and how efficiently we will be able to
work toward our goals
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Temperament traits: describe our general behavioral style in
responding to our environment
Cattell’s theory
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Dynamic traits: driving forces of behavior
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Surface traits: show a correlation but do not constitute a factor
because they are not determined by a single source
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Source traits: personality characteristics that are much more stable
and permanent
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Constitutional traits: source traits that depend on our physiological
characteristics
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Environmental mold traits: learned from social and environmental
interactions
Ergs and Sentiments
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Ergs—permanent constitutional source traits that provide energy for
goal-directed behavior. The basic innate units of motivation
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Sentiments—source traits that mold behavior
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SEMS—Socially Shaped ergic manifolds which may be reason for us
to continue to call them sentiments
Source Traits: Basic Factors of
Personality
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16 Traits
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See table 8.2 in text
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Developed the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
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Basic elements like atoms are the basic units of the physical world
Dynamic Traits: Motivating Forces
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Concerned with motivation
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Believed if a theory did not take motivating into account then the
theory was incomplete
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Believed in influences of Heredity and environment
Stages of Development
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Infancy—birth to 6 years-formative; influenced by parents/siblings
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Weaning/toilet training
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Security and insecurity
Childhood–age 6-14
few issues and beginning to move toward independence
Adolescence—age 14-23
troublesome and stressful
Stages of Development
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Maturity—age 23-50
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Productive; career; family creation;
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Personality becomes less flexible
Late Maturity—age 50-65
Physical, social and psychological changes
Health vigor and attractiveness may decline
Old age—age 65 to death
Loss of friends, spouses
Loss of Career
Critiques
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Some subjectivity
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Impacted the notion of a genetic influence
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The 16 PF test can’t be translated—so lack of cultural
competence/relevancy
Contributions
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Research tied to certain traits and things like marital stability and
predicting success on the job
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Variability in responses predicts different things
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Numerous written items
Eysenck
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Born in 1916 in Berlin; immigrated to Germany in 1934
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Immigrated due to Hitler’s rule
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Prolific record
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Wrote many books and astonishing 1097 journal articles
Behavioral Genetics
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Study of relationship between genetic/hereditary factors and
personality traits
Dimensions of Personality
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Critic of factor analysis
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Created the Eysenck Personality Inventory
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Three dimensions
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E—extraversion versus introversion
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N—neuroticism versus emotional stability
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P—psychoticism versus impulse control (superego functioning)
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See table 8.4 (p 227) in text
Extraversion
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Oriented to outside world
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More pleasant emotions and happier with the world
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Certain careers perform better
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Introverts shy away from excitement
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Extraverts have lower levels of cortical arousal thus they seek
excitement
Neuroticism
Characterized as anxious, depressed, tense, irrational and moody
Largely inherited—genetics
Increased satisfaction with work and social relationships lead to lower
levels of neuroticism and higher extraversion
Higher scored lower in verbal abilities
Psychoticism
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High are aggressive, antisocial, tough-minded, cold and egocentric
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Insensitive to the needs of others
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Can be highly creative
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Tends to be more male
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Society needs a variety of all three of these personality dimensions
Role of Heredity
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Eysenck believed primarily determined by heredity
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Also believed environmental and situational influenced personality
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Research on twins
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Cross cultural support
McCrae and Costa
5 Factor Model
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Used factor analysis but varied the number
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Just measured traits differently
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Believed Eysenck had too few and Cattell had too many
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Both still alive
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McCrae born in 1949; Costa born in 1942
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Developed using a variety of assessment tools
5 Factor
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Study of twins noted four of the five factors have a higher heredity
component
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Neuroticism; Extraversion; Openness; conscientiousness
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Agreeableness was found to have a stronger environmental
component
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Cross cultural implications
Gender Differences
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Women report higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion,
agreeableness and conscientiousness than men
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People tend to view selves as more neurotic and more open to
experiences
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Tend to see others as higher in conscientiousness then they see
selves
Predicting Changes over time
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Preschool teachers asked to predict 3-6 year old behaviors
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What behaviors do teachers and parents promote? Reinforce?
Emotional correlates
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Extraversion has been linked to emotional well being
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Neuroticism has been negatively linked to emotional well being
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People high in extraversion and low in neuroticism are predisposed
to be emotionally stable
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Some studies have shown high extraversion links to ability to cope
with life
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Extraversion has also been linked to happiness, optimism and life
satisfaction
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Persons high in agreeableness and conscientiousness showed
greater emotional well being than persons low in those traits
Emotional correlates
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Distress has been linked to high scores of neuroticisms as well as
prone to depression, anxiety, substance abuse and self blame
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Those high on neuroticism and openness had greater risk for suicide
Behavioral Correlates
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High in openness tend to have wide range of intellectual interests
and to seek challenges
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More likely to change jobs and try different careers
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Extraverts are more likely to be active in later years
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People high in conscientiousness tend to be reliable, responsible,
punctual, efficient, and dependable and earn better grades
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Also more organized, self-disciplined and achievement oriented
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Agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness correlated to
academic performance in college
Behavioral Correlates
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Some ties to healthier and living longer for high conscientiousness
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Wear seat belts and take fewer risks
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Low in conscientiousness had tendency to be heavy users of
alcohol and drugs
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Extraversion leads to more friends
Michael Ashton and Kibeom Lee
HEXACO—Six Factor Model
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Proposed a six factor model of personality in 2007
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Two of the factors are similar to the five factor model
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Extraversion
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Conscientiousness
Ashton and Lee continued
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Other factors are
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Honesty/humility
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Emotionality
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Agreeableness
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Openness to Experience
HEXACO
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60 items HEXACO inventory
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Some links to certain traits but not overly proven yet
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See table 8.6 (p 239) in text
Paulhus and Williams
Dark Triad of Personality
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From University of BC
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Includes the following:
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Narcissism—extreme selfishness, inflated sense of one’s abilities and
talents and the constant need for admiration
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Machiavellianism—need to manipulate others, characterized by
cunning, deceit and unscrupulous behaviors
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Psychopathy—callous, insensitive, egocentric, antisocial, takes
advantage of other people using great charm and often violence
Assessing the Dark Triad
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Dirty Dozen Scale (see p 240)
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Those who score high in all 3 tend to be more antisocial
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Strong sense of self-promoting
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Short term exploitive sexual relationships
Personality Theory and the internet
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Five factor model
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Links to traits and can predict some internet use
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More facebook friends
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Introverted tend to use it more
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College students high in conscientiousness, agreeableness and
emotional stability were far less likely to post on facebook about
personal matters
Relationship to Social Work
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Person in Environment (see this with Allport)
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Takes social and cultural influences into account
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Has a very heavy focus on heredity
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Does use empirical information
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Tests have been found to be valid and reliable

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