Chapter 5 Power and Leadership Discussion Complete: 6 questions total. Aim for 250-275 word answers for each of the six questions. The word count 250-275 d

Chapter 5 Power and Leadership Discussion Complete: 6 questions total. Aim for 250-275 word answers for each of the six questions. The word count 250-275 does not include the words used in your reference list entries. So the body of your answers should be 250-275 words. Aim for 4 references (total assignment) and cite source information substantively (usually 3 – 4 citations) in each question. Please use scholarly references You can cite a source more than once. No websites please used as referencesRead reference:Nahavandi, A. (2015). The art and science of leadership. Boston, MA: Pearson. Chapter
5
Power
B
E
T
H
H
E
IL
G
D
G
After studying this chapter,
you will be able to:
E
S
Mand its cultural roots.
1. Define power, its consequences,
,O
2. Apply the different sources of individual
and team power to achieve goals.
,
3. Explain the sources and process of power abuse, corruption, and destructive
A
leadership and how to prevent them.
N
B and the development of empowerment, and
4. Analyze the changes in use of power
G
explain their consequences for leadership.
E
E
T
L
H
A
THE LEADERSHIP QUESTION
E
Power is essential to leadership; but it can also be abused. How can leaders use power to
L
get things done without becoming autocratic
or abusive?
1
D
1
E
0
Power and leadership are inseparable.
M An integral part of the study of leadership is
8
understanding power, how leaders
Ouse it, and its impact on leaders, followers, and
organizations. Power is necessary
T and essential to effective leadership. Leaders
need power to get things done. S
Without it, they cannot guide their followers to
1
142
The Art and Science of Leadership, Seventh Edition, by Afsaneh Nahavandi. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Pearson Custom Edition.
ISBN 1-323-60804-4
achieve their goals. Without power, things do not get done. We expect great things
4 with wide latitude and power to accomplish
from our leaders and provide them
goals. They make decisions that 0
have considerable financial and social impact on
a wide range of stakeholders inside
2 and outside their organizations. Using their
power, department heads, CEOs, and city mayors implement strategies to achieve
T
organizational goals. They influence those around them to take needed action,
and they promote, hire, and fireStheir employees. None of these actions would
be possible without power. Along with the power granted to leaders comes great
privilege. In addition to high salaries and other financial incentives (some of the
highest in the world in the case of U.S. business executives), leaders receive many

$IBQUFS r 1PXFS
143
benefits, such as stock options, company cars and planes, luxurious offices, generous expense
accounts, and access to subsidized or free housing, just to name a few. The power and privilege
are expected to encourage the leaders’ sense of responsibility for the success of organizations
and the well-being of followers.
We willingly grant our leaders power and privilege, even in a culture such as the United
States, where power distance is relatively low. However, instances of power abuse and the
development of new management philosophies such as teaming and empowerment are leading
organizations to reexamine the need for centralized and concentrated power. As a result, we are
changing the way we view power and how leaders
B use it. In addition, research concerning the
potential of power to corrupt indicates the need toEconsider and use power with caution.
This chapter examines the various approaches to power and their implications for leadT
ership. It presents the impact of power on leaders and followers, lists sources of power for
H detriments of excessive and concentrated
individuals and groups, and discusses the potential
H
power. As is the case throughout the book, we alsoE
consider the link of culture and power. Finally,
IL changes in our management philosophies.
the chapter analyzes current views of power and the
G
D
G
DEFINITIONS AND CONSEQUENCES E
S
M
The words power, influence, and authority are often
,O used interchangeably. In its most basic
form, power is the ability of one person to influence others or exercise control over them.
, of an action. The two terms are almost
Influence is the power to affect or sway the course
A the course of an action or opinion. Clearly,
synonymous, although influence refers to changing
power and influence are not exclusive to leaders N
and managers. Individuals at all levels inside
B
an organization, as well as outsiders to an organization—namely,
customers or suppliers—can
G
E
influence the behavior and attitudes of others; they
have
power.
Authority
is the power vested
E
T
in a particular position, such as that of a city mayor, CEO, or hospital administrator. Therefore,
L
H may have power to influence others, only
even though people at all levels of an organization
those holding formal positions have authority. A
E
L
1
D
1
Power affects both those who exercise it and those
E who are subject to it. On the one hand, the
0
person who has power changes in both positive and
M negative ways. On the other hand, being the
8
target of power and influence also has consequences.
O Power changes people. Having the authority
to influence others and being able to successfully T
do so transforms how one thinks about oneself
and others and how one acts (see Figure 5-1). Those
who have power tend to be more action oriS
1
ISBN 1-323-60804-4
Consequences of Using Power
ented (Galinsky, Gruenfeld, and Magee, 2003), may show more interpersonal sensitivity toward
others (Schmidt Mast, Jonas, and Hall, 2009), focus
4 on rules rather than outcomes (Lammers and
Stapel, 2009), and may become more generous (Seely
0 Howard, Gardner, and Thompson, 2007).
There may also be some negative consequences. Those with power may concentrate on retaining
2
their power and acquiring more (Magee and Galinsky, 2008), may start believing that they are
more in touch with the opinion of others than theyTactually are (Flynn and Wiltermuth, 2009), or
S
may develop an addiction to power (Weidner and Purohit,
2009). A review by Magee and his colleagues (2005) provides evidence that those who are given power lose their ability to empathize
with others and to see others’ perspectives and that they are more likely to take credit for their
followers’ success. Similarly, members of majority groups with more power are more likely to
negatively stereotype those in the minority (Keltner and Robinson, 1996). Another consequence
The Art and Science of Leadership, Seventh Edition, by Afsaneh Nahavandi. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Pearson Custom Edition.
144
1BSU* r #VJMEJOH#MPDLT
NEGATIVE
Want to acquire more
Oblivious to others’ needs
Cannot empathize
Addiction to power
Take credit
Negative stereotypes of
others
Distance from
others
B
E
POSITIVE
T
Essential to leadership
H
Essential to organizations
H
More action-oriented
E
More sensitive
IL
Focus on rules
G
More generous
D
G
E
FIGURE 5-1 Impact of Power on Power Holder S
M
,O
of power, be it legitimate and appropriately used
, or excessive and abusive, is to increase the
distance between leaders and followers. PowerAcan remove leaders from the inner workings of
their organizations. Such separation and distance
can cause leaders to become uninformed and
N
B
unrealistic and lead to unethical decision making,
as we will discuss later in the chapter.
G
E
The consequences of power on followers depend to a great extent on the source and manE
T
ner in which leaders use it. The three most typical
reactions to use of power and attempts at
L
influencing others are commitment, compliance,
H and resistance. Commitment happens when
followers welcome the influence process and A
accept it as reasonable and legitimate. Consider
E
POWER
The Art and Science of Leadership, Seventh Edition, by Afsaneh Nahavandi. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Pearson Custom Edition.
ISBN 1-323-60804-4
UIFFNQMPZFFTBU;JOHFSNBOT$PNNVOJUZPG#VTJOFTT ;$P# BNJMMJPOHSPVQPGTFWFO
L
food-related businesses built around a delicatessen
and a highly successful human resource
1
D Michigan (Zingerman’s, 2013). The company
training company, headquartered in Ann Arbor,
1
E
XBTOBNFEPOFPGUIFXPSMETNPTUEFNPDSBUJDXPSLQMBDFT
8PSME#MV JUTNBOBHFNFOU
0
practices and food products continue to draw M
much praise. The founders, Ari Weinzweig and
8
Paul Saginaw, pride themselves on being close
O to their community and customers, offering
FYDFQUJPOBMRVBMJUZBOECVJMEJOHTUSPOHFNQMPZFFUFBNTQJSJU
#VSMJOHIBN *OHSPXJOH
T
their business, they look for people who work
with
passion
and
take ownership. Weinzweig
S
1
explains, “We wanted people who had vision of their own. Otherwise whatever we did would be
NFEJPDSFu #VSMJOHIBN 5PEE8JDLTUSPN
POFPG;$P#TNBOBHJOHQBSUOFST XIP
4
gave up his own business to join the company, says,
“I
would
have come in as a dishwasher to be
0
in this environment. Working here has never felt like a job to me. I’m constantly learning about
2
managing, about food, and about myself” (66).
T
Another potential reaction to power is compliance.
In this case, although followers accept
S
the influence process and go along with the request, they do not feel any personal acceptance or
deep commitment to carry out the order. Subordinates go along with their boss simply because
they are supposed to. An example would be the imposition of unpopular new rules by a school
BENJOJTUSBUPS#FDBVTFPGUIFBENJOJTUSBUPSTBVUIPSJUZ UIFGBDVMUZBOETUBGGBSFSFRVJSFEUPJNQMFment the rules. They, however, do so without any personal commitment; they simply comply.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Chapter 5 Power and Leadership Discussion Complete: 6 questions total. Aim for 250-275 word answers for each of the six questions. The word count 250-275 d
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

$IBQUFS r 1PXFS
145
The third possible reaction to power is resistance. The target in this case does not
agree with the attempt at influence and either actively or passively resists it. Examples of
resistance to a leader’s authority abound in our institutions. The most dramatic ones occur in
the labor–management disputes, when employees who typically either accept or comply with
management’s requests refuse to do so and take overt or covert action against management. The
m /BUJPOBM )PDLFZ -FBHVF MPDLPVU BOE UIF /#” EJTQVUF JO UIF 6OJUFE 4UBUFT
represent such overt action.
As a general rule, a leader’s power increases when employees are personally commitUFE BOE BDDFQU UIF MFBEFST JEFBT BOE EFDJTJPOT B
BT JT UIF DBTF JO ;$P# #BTFE PO ‘JFEMFST
Contingency Theory that we reviewed in Chapter E
3, power based on simple compliance does not
really increase the leader’s power. Similarly, some research shows that managers who lead with
T
a firm hand may actually encourage deviant behaviors in their employees (Litzky, Eddleston,
H this assertion, leaders may come to rely
and Kidder, 2006). Despite much evidence supporting
H
E quicker to simply order people to do someexcessively on compliance because it is easier and
IL it. As you will read in this chapter, reliance
thing rather than persuade them that they should do
G
on compliance alone can lead to dire consequences.
D
G
E
S
M
,O in a few positions. Authority is vested in
Traditional organizations typically concentrate power
Distribution of Power
formal titles and in managers, and all others are given limited power to make decisions. Their
, Despite the vast amount of publicity about
role is primarily implementing the leaders’ decisions.
A
the use of empowerment and teams and their potential benefits, not many organizations around
N
the world rely on such methods. Democracy, power
B sharing, and trust are even less common
in business and other types of organizations than G
Ethey are in political systems, despite research
E
TVQQPSUGPSJUTCFOFGJUT %FVUTDI4BMBNBOBOE3PCJOTPO
)BSSJTPOBOE’SFFNBO
T
Interestingly, even before empowerment and teaming
became a business trend in the late 1980s,
L
H
research about the effect of the distribution of power
in organizations suggested that concenA
E
USBUFEQPXFSDBOCFEFUSJNFOUBMUPPSHBOJ[BUJPOBMQFSGPSNBODF
5BOOFOCBVNBOE$PPLF
The more equal the power distribution is throughout
L the organization, the higher the performance of the organization. At the other extreme, 1
much research indicates that being powerless
D
IBTNBOZOFHBUJWFDPOTFRVFODFTGPSCPUIUIFJOEJWJEVBMBOEUIFPSHBOJ[BUJPO
FH #VOLFSBOE
1
E
#BMM 4XFFOFZ 8IFOJOEJWJEVBMTGFFMQPXFSMFTT
UIFZBSFMJLFMZUPCFDPNFSFTFOU0
Mretaliate. Overall, research points to the need
ful, may become passive-aggressive, and may even
8
O
to distribute power as evenly as possible within organizations.
ISBN 1-323-60804-4
Power and Culture
T
S
1
Culture at the national, group, and even organizational
level impacts our perception and use
4
of power. For example, employees in the United0 States respond well to managers they like,
CVU #VMHBSJBO FNQMPZFFT GPMMPX EJSFDUJPOT XIFO UIFJS NBOBHFST BSF WFTUFE XJUI MFHJUJNBUF
2
power or authority (Rahim et al., 2000). Nancy McKinstry, CEO of Wolters Kluwer, has
T
learned that people in different countries react differently
to their leaders. According to her,
S
in the Netherlands you must “… invest a lot of time upfront to explain what you’re trying to
accomplish, get people’s feedback, then when they do say yes, the time to implementation is
SFBMMZGBTUu #SZBOU B 0UIFSSFTFBSDITVHHFTUTUIBUCFDBVTFPGDVMUVSBMGBDUPST EFMFHBtion and power sharing may not be as effective in some Middle Eastern cultures (Pellegrini and
Scandura, 2006).
The Art and Science of Leadership, Seventh Edition, by Afsaneh Nahavandi. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Pearson Custom Edition.
146
1BSU* r #VJMEJOH#MPDLT
Power
Distance
Organizational
Culture
Uncertainty
avoidance
Power
CLT-Team
orientation
B
E
T
Group
CLTCulture
H
Participation
H
E
IL
FIGURE 5-2 Culture and Power
G
D
Several cultural factors impact power (seeGFigure 5-2). First is power distance. For example,
E
based on research we reviewed in Chapter 2 regarding
different cultural values, the United States
S
M
tends to be a low- to medium-power distance culture. The differential of power between the
,
highest and lowest levels of the organization isOnot great (although the salary differential is one
of the highest in the world). The low-power distance
allows employees in the United States, and
,
A
in other low-power distance cultures such as Australia, to call their bosses by their first name,
interact with them freely, and express their disagreement
with them. In such cultures, employees
N
B
do not expect their managers and leaders to know
all the answers and accept the fact that leaders,
G
E
too, can make mistakes (Adler, 1991; Laurent, 1983). Low-power distance further facilitates the
E
T other power-sharing management techniques.
implementation of participative management and
In cultures with high-power distance, such asL
HThailand and Russia, employees have limited
A
expectations for participation in decision making
E and assume leaders to be somewhat infallible
The Art and Science of Leadership, Seventh Edition, by Afsaneh Nahavandi. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Pearson Custom Edition.
ISBN 1-323-60804-4
FH )PVTFFUBM 1FMMFHSJOJBOE4DBOEVSB
L factor that may affect power. French, Italians,
Uncertainty avoidance is another cultural
1
and Germans are relatively high on uncertaintyDavoidance, which may lead them to expect their
1
E
managers to provide answers to questions and problems
(Laurent, 1983). The Eiffel Tower model
0
of organizational culture, used by the French asM
presented by Trompenaars, for example, concen8
trates power at the top of the organization. French
O managers report discomfort at not knowing
who their boss is. They also place less emphasis
T on delegation of responsibility (Harris, Moran,
BOE.PSBO 5IFOFFEGPSBDMFBSIJFSBSDIZJTMJLFMZUPNBLFJUNPSFEJGGJDVMUGPSUIF’SFODI
S
1 in a leaderless, self-managed, team environthan for Swedes or North Americans to function
ment. In other countries such as Japan and Indonesia,
people value clear hierarchy and authority.
4
For example, Mexican workers may be less comfortable
with taking responsibility for problem
0
solving (Randolph and Sashkin, 2002). The Mexican culture, with a family type of organization
2
culture, its strong paternalistic tradition, and the presence of the machismo principle, expects leadT like powerful fathers, must provide answers,
ers to be strong, decisive, and powerful. Leaders,
S
TVQQPSUUIFGBNJMZ BOEEJTDJQMJOFNFNCFSTXIPTUSBZ
5FBHBSEFO #VUMFS BOE7PO(MJOPX
5IF(-0#&$-5T DVMUVSBMMZFOEPSTFEMFBEFSTIJQUIFPSZ; see Chapter 2) further influence how
power is viewed and used in organizations. Countries where team orientation and participation are
valued, for example in the Nordic and Anglo clusters, power is distributed more evenly, employees expect to contribute to decisions, and consider such inclusion to be part of effective leadership.

$IBQUFS r 1PXFS
147
Group and organizational culture further impact how people perceive and implement
power. As we discussed in Chapter 2, research indicates that women are more participative than
men. Additionally women are often perceived as having less power and, as a result, are limited
in regards to the styles and tools they can use to influence their followers. Organizational culture
also influences how leaders use power. In some organizations, power is centralized; in others, it
is distributed more broadly. As we discussed earlier, Zingerman is reputed for being democratic
and open. D.L Rogers Corp, presented in Chapter 3, is at the other extreme with the leader holding a great deal of power.
Understanding the culture, at any level, can
B help leaders use power appropriately and
thereby be able to influence their followers. One aspect
E of appropriately using power is selecting
a source of power, a topic discussed in the next section.
T
H
H
SOURCES OF POWER
E
I
Alan Greenspan, who was the chairman of the U.S.LFederal Reserve (Fed) from 1987 to 2006 for
G
D the most powerful executives in the United
an unprecedented 19 years, was considered one of
G
4UBUFT #MJHIBOE)FTT “TDIBJSNBO (SFFOTQBOXBTBCMFUPTFUQPMJDJFTUPTVTUBJOMPX
E
S
to moderate economic growth, ensuring that the U.S.
M economy expanded but did not overheat,
thereby avoiding high inflation. In a 1996 survey ,of 1,000 CEOs of the largest U.S. companies,
O
96 percent wanted him to be reappointed as the leader of the Fed (Walsh, 1996). Greenspan
held considerable power with which to chart the,course of the U.S. and world economies. He
A
is a well-known economist, is a consummate relationship builder, and is described as low key
and down to earth. He stated once that he learned N
to “mumble with great incoherence” (Church,
B
1997). Consider that Greenspan held no executiveG
Epower, could not implement a single decision,
and employed only a small staff. Nevertheless, he
was powerful and had considerable authorE
T other members of the Fed board, and the
ity. He was able to convince presidents, the Congress,
L
financial markets that his policies were devoid ofH
politics and in the best interests of the United
A
States. Where did Greenspan get his power? He relied
E on individual and organizational sources
of power.
ISBN 1-323-60804-4
L
1
D
Sources of Power Related to Individuals
1
E
0
One of the most widely used approaches to understanding
the sources of power comes from the
M
8
classic research by French and Raven (1968). They
propose
five sources of power vested in the
O
JOEJWJEVBMMFHJUJNBUFQPXFS SFXBSEQPXFS DPFSDJWFQPXFS
FYQFSUQPXFS BOESFGFSFOUQPXFS
T
(see Table 5-1 for a summary). The first three sources
of
individual
power—legitimate, reward,
S
1
and coercive—are position powers. Although they are vested in individuals, the individuals’
access to them depends on the position they hold.4In the case of legitimate power, most managerial or even supervisory titles in organizations 0
provide the ability to influence others. People
with formal titles also typically have access to both rewards and punishments. They can give
2
raises and assign perks, and demote or fire. All three of these sources of individual power depend
T who holds them. Once the access to t…
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Homework On Time
Calculate the Price of your PAPER Now
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Top quality papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional academic writers

We have hired a team of professional writers experienced in academic and business writing. Most of them are native speakers and PhD holders able to take care of any assignment you need help with.

Free revisions

If you feel that we missed something, send the order for a free revision. You will have 10 days to send the order for revision after you receive the final paper. You can either do it on your own after signing in to your personal account or by contacting our support.

On-time delivery

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & confidential

We use several checkers to make sure that all papers you receive are plagiarism-free. Our editors carefully go through all in-text citations. We also promise full confidentiality in all our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

You are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper. Our academic experts will gladly help you with essays, case studies, research papers and other assignments.

Admissions

Admission help & business writing

You can be positive that we will be here 24/7 to help you get accepted to the Master’s program at the TOP-universities or help you get a well-paid position.

Reviews

Editing your paper

Our academic writers and editors will help you submit a well-structured and organized paper just on time. We will ensure that your final paper is of the highest quality and absolutely free of mistakes.

Reviews

Revising your paper

Our academic writers and editors will help you with unlimited number of revisions in case you need any customization of your academic papers