An Ideal Ethical Organization Foundation Of Economics And Business look at file below. needs to follow the prompt directly. I have a good amount of reading

An Ideal Ethical Organization Foundation Of Economics And Business look at file below. needs to follow the prompt directly. I have a good amount of readings that I can send if you think that would help. I will attach a few. thank you. need it by sunday 5/19. thank youone of the books that must be used is “The Ethical Executive: Becoming Aware of the Root Causesof Unethical Behavior” 1-20 for the traps mentioned at the end of the assignment. Jessica Imanaka, PhD
Ethical Reasoning in Business
Spring 2019
Due: Tue May 21, 2019
Worth: 20% of final grade, scaled out of 20
Objective: Envision an ideally ethical
organization, and articulate a responsible, pragmatic
action plan for implementing that vision.
Please read these paper
instructions carefully, and do not
hesitate to contact Dr. Imanaka
with any questions!
Topic: Write a paper that responds to the
questions: (1) What would an ethical organization
look like? (2) How can concepts and examples from
the Ethical Organizations Unit1 be applied to the creation of an ethical organization? (3)
What justifications establish your organization as an ideally ethical one?
A
ssignment: Your paper should perform the following tasks:
(1) Depict an ethical organization: Imagine an ideally ethical organization,
Have fun
starting with a description of your role in that organization. What
and be
kind of organization is it (business, non-profit, academic…)? What kind of
products / services does it provide? Are you the entrepreneur, manager, executive, creative!
or do you have some other role? Does the organization have a mission statement
You are free
and set of core values? What is its authority structure? Is it privately owned or
to draw on
publicly traded? What institutional policies, procedures, and practices are in place
any of the
to promote ethics? Is it a socially responsible company?
course
(2) Explain relevant textual concepts and examples: Identify a set of concepts and
material
examples from this unit that are relevant to your vision. Explain the concepts in
and/or
depth and show how they relate to components (1) and (3). Select examples of
conduct
either ethical or unethical institutional practices and then explain what lessons you
additional
derive from those practices as they pertain to components (1) or (3). Elaborate,
research
expand, or innovate.
(3) Articulate and justify your view of ethics: Articulate your view of ethics and
explain why your organization is ideal. Here you must reflect on what ethics
means in the context of organizations and justify your commitment to that
ethical framework for your organization. Your argument will need to apply a
theory (or theories) from the Theoretical Framework unit.
Format: 5 pages
Times New Roman
Double Spaced
Hint: Exercise your imagination and intellect courageously!
12 point Font
Correctly Cited
1
Please be sure to discuss some of the traps discussed in the book:
Robert Hoyk and Paul Hersey, The Ethical Executive: Becoming Aware of the Root Causes of Unethical
Behavior: 45 Psychological Traps That Every One of Us Falls Prey To (Stanford, CA: Stanford University
Press, 2008).
Incorrect Citation: -2.0 points
Exceeds Page Limit: -2.0 points
Page 1
Jessica Imanaka, PhD
Ethical Reasoning in Business
Spring 2019
Grading Criteria
Superior
A
18.0-20.0
Introduction Clear and
succinct
(2 points)
statement of
the paper
questions
followed by a
clear, well
organized
roadmap of
the paper
Depiction of Imaginative,
an Ethical
detailed,
Organization compelling
description
(5 points)
that shows
how a range
of
institutional
dimensions
foster an
ethical
organization
Explanation
Clear, wellof Relevant
organized,
Textual
nuanced,
Concepts and thorough, and
Examples
accurate
explanation
(5 points)
of relevant
concepts and
examples
from both
books; a
compelling
application of
these ideas to
your vision of
an ethical
organization
Incorrect Citation: -2.0 points
Exceeds Page Limit: -2.0 points
Good
B
16.0-17.75
Clear
statement of
the paper
questions (that
may be either
too elaborate
or too brief),
with a
barebones
roadmap
Imaginative,
detailed, or
compelling
description
that shows
how some
institutional
dimensions
foster an
ethical
organization
Adequate
C
14.0-15.75
Unclear or
tangential
statement of
the questions
with an
incomplete
roadmap of
the paper
Poor
D
12.0-13.75
Tangential,
confusing, or
absent
statement of
the questions
with no
roadmap of
the paper
Somewhat
clear
description
that partially
discusses
institutional
dimensions
that may
foster an
ethical
organization
Brief
description
that
somewhat
pertains to
the issue of
an ethical
organization
Clear, accurate
explanation of
mainly
relevant
concepts and
examples from
both books; a
straightforward
application of
these ideas to
your vision of
an ethical
organization
Explanation
of somewhat
relevant
concepts or
examples,
with
inadequate
emphasis on
either the
book; cursory
application to
your vision
Partial
explanation
of tangential
or irrelevant
concepts and
examples,
that focuses
on only one
book; no
application to
your vision
Failing
F
0
Did not
attempt
assignment
Page 2
Jessica Imanaka, PhD
Articulation
and
justification
of your view
on ethics
(5 points)
Conclusion
(2 points)
Spelling,
grammar,
and diction
Ethical Reasoning in Business
Clear,
credible
articulation of
the meaning
of ethics in
your
organization,
followed by a
compelling,
logical
argument for
this view on
ethics; the
argument
applies ideas
from the
Theoretical
Framework
unit
accurately,
appropriately,
and with
subtlety
Clear,
compelling
summary of
the paper that
opens the
door to future
discussion
Eloquent; no
spelling or
grammatical
errors
(1 point)
Incorrect Citation: -2.0 points
Exceeds Page Limit: -2.0 points
Clear
articulation of
the meaning of
ethics in your
organization,
followed by a
reasonable
argument for
this view; the
argument
applies ideas
from the
Theoretical
Framework
accurately and
with some
degree of
relevance
Spring 2019
Articulation
of the
meaning of
ethics in your
organization,
followed by
an
introductory
argument that
applies a few
ideas from
the
Theoretical
Framework
Partial
articulation
of the
meaning of
ethics in your
organization;
no argument
or one that
neglects to
apply the
Theoretical
Framework
unit
Clear summary Paragraph
of the paper
makes
statements
for which the
essay does
not provide
an argument
Minor
Clumsy
blemishes of
phrasing;
style; a few
some spelling
spelling errors and
grammatical
errors
Confusing,
tangential, or
absent
conclusion
Clumsy
phrasing;
grammatical
errors,
meaningless
sentences,
many
misspellings
Page 3
Re-Thinking the Anthropological and Ethical Foundation of Economics and Business:
Human Richness and Capabilities Enhancement
Author(s): Benedetta Giovanola
Source: Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88, No. 3, 15th IESE International Symposium on
Ethics, Business and Society Business and Management: Towards More Humanistic Models
and Practices (Sep., 2009), pp. 431-444
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40295010
Accessed: 11-09-2018 23:37 UTC
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© Springer 2009
Journal of Business Ethics (2009) 88:431-444
DOI 10.1007/sl0551-009-0126-9
Re-Thinking the Anthropological and
Ethical Foundation of Economics and
Business: Human Richness and Capabilities
Enhancement
Benedetta Giovanola
ABSTRACT. This article aims at showing the need for
a possible to provide an ethical and anthropoIs it
sound ethical and anthropological foundation oflogical
eco- foundation for economics and business? And,
nomics and business, and argues the importancemore
of a
specifically, is ethics internal to economics and
correct understanding of human values and human nature
business or is it just a kind of deus ex machina that
for the sake of economics and of businesses themselves. It
enters the scene ex post, to “correct” negative
is suggested that the ethical-anthropological side ofexternalities?
ecoAre the anthropological descriptions and
nomics and business can be grasped by taking Aristotle’s
prescriptions about the behavior of economic agents
virtue ethics and Amartya Sen’s capability approach (CA)
and business actors consistent with the way in which
as major reference points. We hold that an “Aristotelian
people do behave and ought to behave as human
economics of virtues”, connected with the CA’s notion
beings? Or is there a conflict between acting as an
of human richness, can promote the shift to the concept
economic agent (or as a business actor) and acting as
of personhood, and can lead to a more “humanized”
a human being?
business, by fostering human flourishing, the enhance-
Leaving these questions in the background, this
ment of human capabilities, and the pursuit of a more
humane development for each and every person.
article argues the need for a sound ethical and
anthropological foundation of economics and busiKEY WORDS: Amartya Sen, Aristotle, business, ness,
capa-and shows that a correct understanding of
bility approach, economics, virtue ethics, Martha Nusshuman values and human nature is crucial for both
baum, richness, personhood, philosophical anthropology,
economics and businesses themselves. The central
rationality
conviction is that only an ethical-anthropological
A preliminary version of this article was presented at the 15th
‘International Symposium on Ethics, Business and Society”
held by IESE Business School (Barcelona, May 16-17,
underpinning can help us to rise above the major
shortcomings of economics and business. The ethical
aspect of this underpinning will show the need to
question the mainstream notion of economic rationality and to reconnect economic rationality with
the ethical dimension of the human being and hu-
Benedetta Giovanola, Ph.D. is Researcher in Moral Philosophy
man fulfillment. The anthropological dimension will
be based on the need to criticize the standard notion
and Assistant Professor at the University ofMacerata (Italy),
of homo oeconomicus and to provide a “richer” and
2008).
where she teaches “Ethics and Economics” and “Ethics and
Communication”. Her scientific research mainly focuses on
philosophical anthropology and applied ethics, especially
social and economic ethics, business ethics and public
ethics. She is the recipient of the Helen Potter Award 2005,
for her article ‘Personhood and Human Richness. Good and
Well-Being in the Capability Approach and Beyond’, Re-
view of Social Economy 63(2), 2005, 94-107.
more complex idea of human being, and thus of
economic agents and business actors too. Both
dimensions are strictly interconnected, since the
notion of rationality prescribes how agents ought to
behave, and such prescriptions, in turn, cannot be
separated from an underlying idea of human beings’
basic features.
This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Tue, 11 Sep 2018 23:37:49 UTC
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432
To
Benedetta
date,
Giovanola
there
1995,several
1996; Van Staveren,
2001, 2007;
have Meikle,
been
important
investigations
Vranceanu,
2005).
aimed
at
overcoming
c
the
The most influential
attempt
to apply an Aristoeconomics and business.
With
regard
to ec
telian approach in inquiries
addressing contemporary in
ecotheory, very important
the
nomic
matters
and
to
reconnect
economics
with
experimental and cognitive economics hav
ethics of
is seen cognitive
in the research carried onbiases
by Amartya
to highlight the role
at
economic
choices
2000; Kahneman et al., 1982; Simon, 1982, 1997,
Sen and Martha Nussbaum, and
who developed
an
(Kahneman
Tversk
“Aristotelian-informed” approach, namely, the
2000). Their findings undermine some basic
capability approach (hereafter, CA).
assumptions of economic theory, such as its notion
of rationality. These considerations also tie in with
renewed attention to the importance of the emotional dimension at stake in economic choices (e.g.,
Slovic et al., 2002). Another criticism of the flaws of
In this article, I will try to show that the CA can
offer additional insights into both economics and
business and can lead toward the sound, ethical and
economics is motivated by the attempt to re-embed
economics in the social context (Hirsch, 1976) and
In order to support this claim, the next section
pursues a critique of the standard notion of eco-
to re-establish the connection between economics
nomic rationality and argues in favor of a connection
anthropological foundation of economics and business that we are searching for.
economic rationality and ethical rationality.
and ethics (Sen, 1977, 1985, 1987a, b, 1999a). Asbetween
we
Furthermore, this section demonstrates that such a
shall see below, these approaches also entail a sharp
connection is strictly linked with the elaboration of
criticism of the notion of rationality as it is underan anthropological model that is much more complex
stood in economic theory. Despite their heterogethan homo oeconomicus.
neity, the different approaches and criticisms are all
very important in acknowledging that cognitive,The following section suggests that the ethical and
anthropological side of economics can be grasped by
ethical, and social limits are always present when
taking
Aristotle’s virtue ethics as a major reference
agents (and thus, economic agents too) make
a
choice.
point: an Aristotelian perspective on economics Similar criticisms have also been turned upon namely an “economics of virtues” – is elaborated to
business, analyzing decision-making within organi- show that economics is} and ought to be, about human
zations. The problem here consists in seeing how values and that it can foster human flourishing.
individual and collective choices are limited or enThe third section starts by considering the influhanced by ethical, cognitive, and social elements that
ence of Aristotle on the CA and engages
play a fundamental role in a company’s organizationAmartya Sen’s version of the approach as a theoretical
and activity. In this case as well, the central question framework aimed at re-establishing the connection
is whether an organization provides an environmentbetween ethics and economics and at highlighting
conducive to human growth and fulfillment andthe importance of a plurality of capabilities to do and
whether good corporate policy can encourage and to be. This section also dedicates specific attention to
nourish individual growth, by fostering the oppor-Sen’s redefinition of the anthropological model
tunities for all the employees to develop their talents underlying economics, by focusing on the notion of
and potential. These concerns have been explicitly anthropological richness. Here it is argued that this norecognized by management studies and form the tion can provide a foundation for a different
basis of “humanistic management” (Mêlé, 2003),anthropological model and can promote the shift
whose inquiries tackle the issue of the relationship from the notion of egoistic individual to the concept
between business and management, on the oneof personhood.
hand, and the human condition on the other.
The last section applies the “Aristotelian-inAs will be argued later in this article, some of the formed” CA’s ethical-anthropological reflection to
most interesting attempts to conceive economics andbusiness to argue for a more “humanized” business
business in connection with the fostering of humanand to show that economics and business theory can
fulfillment assume Aristotle’s theories as a startingbe compatible with ethics, the fostering of human
point (Collins, 1987; Crockett, 2005; Koehn, 1995; values and the enhancement of human capabilities.
This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Tue, 11 Sep 2018 23:37:49 UTC
All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms
Re-Thinking the Anthropological and Ethical Foundation of Economics and Business 433
One of the major obstacles to the interrelatedness
preferences can be represented by ordinal utility
functions, and his or her choices maximize utility
(Hausman and McPherson, 2006).
between ethics and economics is linked with eco-
It is thus clear that economic theory does not offer
Beyond the homo oeconomicus
nomic theory’s claim to be as scientific as the natural any specific prescription regarding the nature, consciences. According to this claim, economic theory tent, or value of preferences, whose rationality is
studies human choice behavior under resource
assured by two purely formal conditions: completeness,
constraints; in contrast to ethics, it does not deal
according to which it is possible to express a prefor a rational indifference among all the posdirectly with ends, but only with the meanserence
to
sible alternatives; and transitivity, according to which,
realize given ends (Robbins, 1932).1
if option A is preferred to B and option B is preHowever, as has been rightly noted, the possito C, then option A is preferred to C too; this
bility of a purely positive economic inquiry can ferred
be
that preferences for A, B, and C are not on
questioned, for every inquiry is led by some values means
the same level, but are hierarchically ranked. These
even those of scientific inquiry – and some specific
formal conditions have also been defined in terms of
values play a fundamental role in determining which
“internal consistency of choice”, which is at the
questions should be asked (Hausman and McPherbasis
of the so-called “weak” form of rationality
son, 2006).
(Sen, 1977).
Moreover, it is also important to note that the
moral obligations of economic agents can be both aSuch an understanding of rationality, however,
does entail some serious flaws. In particular, the
cause and a consequence of important economic
possibility of ranking all the preferences in a hierphenomena, because on the one side moral obliga-
archic and transitive way presupposes perfect
tions can influence the agents’ decisions and their
knowledge of all the possible alternatives to make a
behavior in economic processes, and on the other
rational choice, that is, a choice that maximizes
hand economic phenomena can have an impact on
The requirement of perfect knowledge, toagents’ motivational structure, by enhancingutility.
or
gether with that of self-interest maximization, delimiting their “moral” preferences; at the same time,
fines the so-called “strong” form of rationality (Sen,
economic phenomena are influenced by the way
1977), which leads to very serious shortcomings. In
they are described and evaluated by economic agents
fact, its fundamental assumptions are particularly
and economists (Hausman and McPherson, 2006,
problematic, especially if we analyze choice behavior
p. 306 f.). Still, human behavior (including eco-
in conditions of risk or uncertainty, since our
nomic behavior) is influenced by a wide range of
normative and ethical considerations.
rationality, far from being unlimited, is a bounded
rationality,3 as Simon (1982, 1997, 2000) has shown
However, how is it possible to draw this conin an excellent way.
clusion? In order to answer this question, we need to
focus on the notion of rationality, which is a central Furthermore, research on cognitive biases in
experimental economics and experimental game
issue of economics. Now, what does rationality
theory has shown that human behavior frequently
mean in economics?
According to mainstream economic theory, deviates from rational choice theory.4 This is why
rationality consists in maximizing one’s utility Kahneman and Tversky (1979, 2000) and Kahn-
function (which is expressed in terms of individual eman et al. (1982) argued for the need to abandon
preferences hierarchically ranked) under a resource “folk psychology” – on which the standard n…
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