Python 3 Programming Skills Graphical Simulation of a 2D World Assignment Program Behavior
We will provide you with several classes that implement a graphical simulation of a 2D world with many animals moving around in it. You will write a set of classes that define the behavior of those animals. Different kinds of animals move and behave in different ways. As you write each class, you are defining those unique behaviors for each animal.
The critter world is divided into cells with integer coordinates. The world is 60 cells wide and 50 cells tall. Like images, the upper-left cell has coordinates (0,0).
On each round of the simulation, the simulator asks each critter object which direction it wants to move. Each round a critter can move one square north, south, east, west, or stay at its current location. The world has a finite size, but it wraps around in all four directions. For example, moving east from the eastern-most (i.e. right) edge brings you back to the western-most (i.e. left) edge. You might want your critters to make several moves at once using a loop, but you can’t. The only way a critter moves is to wait for the simulator to ask it for a single move and return that move.
As the simulation runs, animals may collide by moving onto the same location. When two animals collide, if they are from different species, they fight. The winning animal survives and the losing animal is removed from the game. Each animal chooses one of Attack.ROAR, Attack.POUNCE, or Attack.SCRATCH. Each attack is strong against one other attack (e.g. roar beats scratch) and weak against another (roar loses to pounce). The following list summarizes the choices and which animal will win in each case.
ROAR beats SCRATCH
SCRATCH beats POUNCE
POUNCE beats ROAR
If the animals make the same choice, the winner is chosen at random.
If two critters of the same species collide, they “mate” to produce a baby. Once critters begin to mate, they stay at the same location for a set gestation period. The simulator indicates critters are in a gestation period by displaying “<3" over top of the critter. Assuming they are not killed in a fight during their gestation period, at the end of the period a new baby critter of the same type will appear in the world at a random location. Eating The simulation world also contains food for the animals to eat (represented by the period character, '.'). There are pieces of food on the world initially, and new food slowly grows into the world over time. As an animal moves, it may encounter food, in which case the simulator will ask your animal whether it wants to eat it. Different kinds of animals have different eating behavior; some always eat, and others only eat under certain conditions. After eating twice, a critter will be put to "sleep" by the simulator for a small amount of time. (Indicated by a "zzz" appearing over them in the world.) While asleep, animals cannot move; if they enter a fight with another animal, they will always lose. Scoring The simulator keeps a score for each class of animal, shown on the right side of the screen. A class's score is based on how many animals of that class are alive, how much food they have eaten, and how many other animals they have killed. Running the Simulator To run the simulator, enter the following command into your VS Code terminal. (Replace python3 with python if you are using Windows.) python3 critters.py The bottom of the screen contains controls. The "Start" button will start the simulation and continually run turns until you hit "Stop". The "Tick" button does only 1 turn and will therefore be useful for debugging. There is also a slider to control turn speed: the default turn speed is 0.1 seconds per turn but you can adjust it from 1 second per turn all the way down to 0.03 seconds per turn. The starter version of each of the critter classes all use the basic (read: boring) behavior of standing still and not eating. Therefore, before you make any changes, running the simulator will result in a pretty boring simulation filled with a bunch of "?" critters and no action. Don't worry: things will get much more interesting once you start implementing each critter type! Provided Files: Each class you'll write will inherit from a class named Critter. Inheritance makes it easier for our code to talk to your critter classes, and it helps us be sure that all your animal classes will implement all the methods we need. However, to complete this assignment you don't need to understand much about inheritance. Your class headers indicate the inheritance by adding "(Critter)" after the name of the class, as demonstrated below. class Bear(Critter): The Critter class contains the following methods, which you must write in each of your classes: def eat(self)When your animal encounters food, our code calls this on it to ask whether it wants to eat (True) or not (False). def fight(self, opponent)When two animals move onto the same square of the grid, they fight. When they collide, our code calls this on each animal to ask it what kind of attack it wants to use in a fight with the given opponent.The opponent parameter is the string representation of the critter you are fighting (e.g. "B" for bear). def get_color(self)Every time the board updates, our code calls this on your animal to ask it what color it wants to be drawn with. def get_move(self, neighbors)Every time the board updates, our code calls this on your animal to ask it which way it wants to move (assuming it is not sleeping or gestating).The neighbors parameter will be a dictionary that maps a direction (e.g. Direction.SOUTH) to a string represention of the critter in that direction (e.g. "B" for a bear). If there is no critter in that direction, the value will be None. def __str__(self)Every time the board updates, our code calls this on your animal to ask what letter it should be drawn as. This method is used for the parameters for both the fight and get_move methods. Just by writing "(Critter)" as shown above, you receive a default version of these methods. The default behavior is as follows. To never eat To always forfeit in a fight To use the color black To always stand still (a move of Direction.CENTER) A __str__() method that returns "?". If you don't want this default, rewrite (i.e. override) the methods in your class with your own behavior. For example, below is a critter class Stone. Stones are displayed with the letter "S", gray in color, never move, never eat, and always ROAR in a fight. Your classes will look like this class, except with fields, a constructor, and more sophisticated code. Note that the Stone does not need an eat or get_move method; it uses the default behavior for those operations. class Stone(Critter): """ Class that represents a type of critter known as a stone. A stone will display as a gray 'S', and will always use Attack.ROAR in a fight, but otherwises uses the default Critter behaviors. """ def fight(self, opponent): return Attack.ROAR def get_color(self): return "gray" def __str__(self): return "S" Running the Simulator: When you press the "Start" button on the simulator, it begins a series of turns. On each turn, the simulator repeats the following steps for each animal in the game: Move the animal once (calling its get_move method), in random order. If the animal has moved onto an occupied square, fight! (i.e. call both animals' fight methods) If the animal has moved onto food, ask it if it wants to eat (call the animal's eat method) After moving all animals, the simulator redraws the screen, asking each animal for its __str__ and get_color values. Creating Critters You will need to write the following classes, from scratch. Bear: Bears are always hungry, scratch when fighting, and either move north or west. Lion: Lions get hungry after they fight, they either roar or pounce, and they move in circles. Cheetah: Cheetahs have a fixed amount of food they can eat, either scratch or pounce, and move randomly. Torero: Each Torero is unique; you will decide the behavior of your own Torero! Below is a more detailed description of the requirements for each of these classes. Bear constructor: def __init__(self, location, is_grizzly) Note: Don't forget to call your parent's constructor, passing it the location you were given. Calling your parent's constructor (i.e. __init__) is discussed in Section 12.4.3 in your textbook so read that section and the corresponding code in Listing 12.5. color: "brown" for a grizzly bear (when is_grizzly is True), and "snow" for a polar bear (when is_grizzly is false) eating behavior: Always returns True fighting behavior: Always scratch (Attack.SCRATCH) movement behavior: Alternates between north and west in a zigzag pattern (first north, then west, then north, then west, ...) string representation: "B" The Bear constructor accepts a parameter representing the type of bear it is: True means a grizzly bear, and False means a polar bear. Your Bear object should remember this and use it later whenever get_color is called on the Bear. If the bear is a grizzly, return a brown color ("brown"), and otherwise a white color ("snow"). Lion constructor: def __init__(self, location) color: "goldenrod3" eating behavior: Returns True if this Lion has been in a fight since it has last eaten (if fight has been called on this Lion at least once since the last call to eat). fighting behavior: if opponent is a Bear ("B"), then roar (Attack.ROAR); otherwise pounce (Attack.POUNCE). movement behavior: First go south 5 times, then go west 5 times, then go north 5 times, then go east 5 times (a clockwise square pattern), then repeat. string representation: "L" Think of the Lion as having a "hunger" that is triggered by fighting. Initially the Lion is not hungry (so eat returns False). But if the Lion gets into a fight or a series of fights (if fight is called on it one or more times), it becomes hungry. When a Lion is hungry, the next call to eat should return True. Eating once causes the Lion to become "full" again so that future calls to eat will return False, until the Lion's next fight or series of fights. Cheetah constructor: def __init__(self, location, hunger) color: "red" eating behavior: Returns True the first hunger times it is called, and False after that fighting behavior: If this Cheetah is hungry (if eat would return true), then scratch (Attack.SCRATCH); else pounce (Attack.POUNCE) NOTE: Based on your code, calling eat() may change the hunger status. So it is not wise to call eat() to check if the cheetah is hungry. movement behavior: Moves 3 steps in a random direction (north, south, east, or west), then chooses a new random direction and repeats (a discussion of how to generate random numbers is found below) string representation: The number of pieces of food this Cheetah still wants to eat, as a string (i.e. "4"). The Cheetah constructor accepts a parameter for the maximum number of food this Cheetah will eat in its lifetime (the number of times it will return true from a call to eat). For example, a Cheetah constructed with a parameter value of 8 will return true the first 8 times eat is called and false after that. Assume that the value passed for hunger is non-negative. The __str__ method for a Cheetah should return its remaining hunger, the number of times that a call to eat would return true for that Cheetah. For example, if a new Cheetah(5) is constructed, initially that Cheetahs __str__ method should return "5". After eat has been called on that Cheetah once, calls to __str__ should return "4", and so on, until the Cheetah is no longer hungry, after which all calls to __str__ should return "0". Recall that you can use the str() function to convert a number to a string. Torero constructor: def __init__(self, location) (must NOT have any other parameters!) All other behavior: you decide! (see below): color: string representation: fighting behavior movement behavior eating behavior Requirement: Your Torero must be visually (when you play the game) distinguishable in some way from the other critters (at least SOME of the time). We need to be able to see if you are winning! Also: your __str__ method should return only a single character (e.g. "T" is fine but "Ole" is not).All of your behaviors (other than color and string representation) must be unique and non-trivial. You will not receive credit it you simply copy the behavior of other critters or if you make only a trivial modification. You will decide the behavior of your Torero class. Part of your grade will be based upon writing creative and non-trivial Torero behavior. The following are some guidelines and hints about how to write an interesting Torero. There are additional instance variables that each critter can use through inheritance from the Critter class. Your Torero may want to use these instance variables to guide its behavior. None of these below are needed for Bear, Lion, or Cheetah. self.x, self.y: The x and y location of the critter in the world. self.world_width, self.world_height: The width and height of the world. Your Toreros fighting behavior may want to utilize the parameter to the fight method, opponent, which tells you what kind of critter you are fighting against (such as "B" if you are fighting against a Bear). Your Torero can return any single character you like for __str__ (e.g. "T" or "=") and any color from get_color (e.g. "blue"). Each critter's get_color and __str__ are called on each simulation round, so you can have a Torero that displays differently over time. The __str__ text is also passed to other animals when they fight your Torero; you may want to try to fool other animals. Generating random numbers In this assignment, at least for the Cheetah class, you will need to generate random values. Python's random module makes this easy. You may want to use one of the following functions of the random module: random.randrange(start, stop, step): Same basic operation of range except that is chooses a random value from the range. For example random.randrange(0, 10, 3) will pick a random number from 0, 3, 6, and 9. random.random(): Returns a random floating point number between 0.0 and 1.0. random.choice(sequence): Randomly picks one of the items from the given sequence (e.g. a list). For example random.choice(["foo", "bar", "meow"]) would randomly return either "foo", "bar", or "baz". Using this function with a list of [Direction.NORTH, Direction.SOUTH, ...] could be very useful. Testing/Grading You can test your Critters by running them in the Critter coliseum. To do this, simply run the following command from your VS Code terminal (replacing python3 with python if you are using Windows):: python3 critters.py We will be releasing a detailed testing script.
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