Benedictine University Sex Discrimination in The Workplace Paper This research paper is focused on sex discrimination in the workplace. Attached are the so

Benedictine University Sex Discrimination in The Workplace Paper This research paper is focused on sex discrimination in the workplace. Attached are the sources I picked out and an outline to help guide you through it. I have started the first page and a half. When talking about minorities, people often fail to recognize a group that has
been repeatedly discriminated against since the beginning of time. Being born a woman
is automatically put as a set back in society. Since ancient times, women have carried a
gender role consisting of being housewives and mothers, while the man was supposed
to work and provide for his family. Times have changed and women are getting
degrees, working, and achieving just as much as any man. However, It is often said
that, “we expect women to work like they don’t have children, and raise children as if
they don’t work.” Society can’t seem to wrap the head around the idea that a woman
can be devoted to her family, but just as well be devoted to her work. Many woman feel
that they have to choose at a very young age if they want to go down to family route, or
work route. Because of society pressures like this, high level managers and
organizations discriminate against their woman employees, sometimes without even
realizing it. For this reason, this research is focused on analyzing the modern workplace
in America, and questioning if it has really actually improved compared to the American
workplace in the 1950s.
According to Equal Rights Advocates, for sex discrimination to be illegal, it has to
involve different treatment that negatively affects the terms or conditions of employment.
This can be shown through your job position and duties, your work schedule, job
location, pay wage and your ability to advance further in your organization. One of the
most common examples would be a woman and man that are applying for the same job
and have the same qualifications and experience, but an employer deciding on hiring
the man for the sole reason that they feel more comfortable working with a man.
Another common example is unfair pay wages. Although double income homes have
become more and more common, women don’t get payed nearly as much for the same
work their male coworkers do. Statistically, a woman makes only about eighty percent of
what men are paid, making a twenty percent wage gap. Unfortunately, this is wage gap
is considered progress compared to how it used to be. A excuse that is most often
made for this wage gap is that men are in higher demand for specific jobs. For example,
the nursing field is primarily women. However, a male nurse is still likely to make more
money than his female colleague. This is simply because there are not a lot of men in
the field, so a higher salary will entice more men to become nurses. To get a better idea
of how the workplace environment is, we need to understand where it all came from.
While little is known regarding the underlying process linking sexism to
discrimination, according to Portuguese physicist, Luís Amaral, it is probable that the
root cause of sex discrimination in the workplace and in general stems from the myths
of a woman’s role in society. In Amaral’s research article titled “Justifying Gender
Discrimination in the Workplace: The Mediating Role of Motherhood Myths”, he tests the
main hypothesis that motherhood myths are a justification that mediates the relationship
between sexism and opposition to women who work following the birth of a child.
Annotated Bibliography
1
Sex Discrimination in the Workplace
An Annotated Bibliography
Sara Khadra
Benedictine University
Annotated Bibliography
2
Journals/Artices
Verniers, C., & Vala, J. (2018). Justifying gender discrimination in the workplace: The
mediating role of motherhood myths. PloS one, 13(1), e0190657. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190657
– This journal documents the physical process involved in the persistence of gender
discrimination against working women. It calls out the myths that women’s work
threatens children and family life mediates the relationship between sexism and opposition to a mother’s career. This article goes in depth to research if this stereotype
is actually true. Written in 2018 by Luís Amaral, his specific research interests include
the emergence, evolution, and stability of complex social and biological systems. I
chose this journal because being written in 2018, it is very relevant and shows the
most accurate representation of a woman balancing work life and family life. The part
I will be using from the journal is the statistics shown that falsify the myths against
working women.

Hultin, M. (1998). Gender Differences in Workplace Authority: Discrimination and the
Role of Organizational Leaders. Acta Sociologica, 41(2–3), 99–113.
https://doi.org/10.1177/000169939804100201
Annotated Bibliography
3
– This journal article examines to what extent discrimination accounts for inequalities in
authority exertion between women and men in the Swedish labour- market. This article
was published by Mia Hultin, from the Swedish Institute for Social Research in Stockholm. Authority attainment are focused in terms of human capital and family responsibilities as well as of the horizontal sex segregation in the labor-market. The analyses written in the article are based upon data from the 1991 Swedish Level of Living Survey
and the 1991 Swedish Establishment Survey on a sample of 2017. The part I found
most useful was comparing the working conditions in 1991 to 2017, and comparing the
results to see if much has improved since then.
Kurniawan, Y., Nurhaeni, I., Mugijatna, & Habsari, S. K. (2017). Gender Bias in the
Workplace: Should Women be Marginalized in Engineering Job? IOP Publishing. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757899X/306/1/012132#references.
-IOP Publishing is the publishing company of the Institute of Physics. The website I
used is the part of the publishing company that focuses on science and research related
journals and articles. It provides journal content with scientific research that has been
distributed worldwide. The founders, The Institute of Physics, is a scientific charity that
works to advance physics education, research and application. This website provides
journal and article publications and the latest news on research related topics. When
looking for a journal or article, it includes a brief description of what it is written about,
the author, and the year it was written to help someone narrow down how relevant the
Annotated Bibliography
4
journal is to their topic. The journal article I have chosen is the most relevant to my paper because it is fairly new so it best reflects the workplace in present day.
Websites
Sex Discrimination At Work. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.equalrights.org/legalhelp/know-your-rights/sex-discrimination-at-work/
– This website, Equal Rights Advocates, is an organization thats main focus is protected and expanding economic and educational access and opportunities for women
and girls. It updates people on different bills and movements that will help enforce
gender equality in all aspects. It has transformed the law for hundreds of thousands
of women and girls for over four decades through impact litigation, advice and counseling, and policy reform. This website features the different challenges they have
faced, and are still continue facing, including sex discrimination in the workplace. The
part of the sex discrimination page that I will be using for my paper are the basic facts
about sex discrimination that are stated, to have a better understanding to explain in
my paper.
Annotated Bibliography
5
Parker, K., Funk, C., Parker, K., & Funk, C. (2017, December 14). 42% of US working
women have faced gender discrimination on the job. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/12/14/gender-discrimination-comes-in-many-forms-for-todays-working-women/
– The Pew Research Center is a nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization that provides free data and analysis on the social issues, public opinion, and demographic
trends shaping the United States and the world. It features a “Fact Tank” that is a realtime platform dedicated to finding news in the numbers. It covers issues U.S. Politics,
media & news, and global issues, to socials trends, religion, internet & tech, and science. Fact Tanks draws on Pew Research Center’s own data as well as other reputable
data sources. The part of this website I will be using for my paper is the one that focuses solely on gender discrimination. I chose this website because it has no bias views
on the topic, just facts and statistics that will be useful for my paper.
Books
Liautaud, M. (2016). Breaking through: Stories and best practices from companies that
help women succeed. Hoboken: Wiley.
-This book is a good reference for my paper because it gives an idea of how encouraging and mentoring women to become leaders in their workplace will ultimately help their
Annotated Bibliography
6
workplace strive. Gender equality has made huge strides in the US and Western Europe, but this progress is only apparent in the junior levels of the workplace and not in
the higher levels of management. The author, Martine Liautaud, is an international financial executive and entrepreneur who has been an active advocate for the mentoring
of women in the business world. Her profession makes her a viable source for writing
this book because she can explain how the economy as a whole can benefit from diversifying higher level management in organizations. While the parts of the book explaining
how to mentor women entrepreneurs into becoming high level managers can be helpful,
the only parts that will be used to write my paper will be the section explaining how exactly the economy and organizations will benefit as a whole from female executives.
Turk, K. (2016). Equality on trial: Gender and rights in the modern American workplace.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
– This book focuses on the political and social changes of gender rights in the modern
American Workplace, from 1865 to present day. The author, Katherine Turk, is an associate professor of history and adjunct associate professor of women’s and gender studies at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. This book is a good reference for the
paper because it shows how far we have come in diversifying our workplaces, but how
much farther we need to go. In 1964, as part of its landmark Civil Rights Act, Congress
outlawed workplace discrimination on the basis of personal attributes, one including
sex. Published in 2016, this book gives an accurate description of how the workplace is
present day, since not much has changed in the last three years. Although the sections
Annotated Bibliography
regarding religion and race discrimination would be useful in understanding discrimination in the workplace as a whole, the sections focusing solely on sex equality and sex
discrimination in the workplace will be the most useful.
7
FORMAL OUTLINE
THESIS STATEMENT: Claim + Reasons
I.
METHODS
Mode: Evaluation
Quantitative (survey)
1- Reason
2- Demographic & Number
3- Information
II.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
-Facts on sex discrimination; what is it?
-Facts on women in the workplace (when it started becoming common for people to work)
source: “https://www.equalrights.org/legal-help/know-your-rights/sex-discrimination-at-work/”
III.
FIRST MAJOR TOPIC
– Talk about the root cause of sex discrimination in the workplace.
A. FIRST SUBTOPIC
– Address the myths about working women who have families
1.
FIRST MINOR POINT
– Address the arguments those same working women have
2.
SECOND MINOR POINT
– Share the statistics shared by the journal article in “motherhood myths”
B. SECOND SUBTOPIC
– Question if a woman is less likely to get a job if she is at an age to start a family
1.
FIRST MINOR POINT
– Show a real life example
2.
SECOND MINOR POINT
– Share real life statistics
IV.
SECOND MAJOR TOPIC
– Explain how the workplace was back then
Source: “Equality on Trial”
A. FIRST SUBTOPIC
– Explain the society roles of men and women
1.
FIRST MINOR POINT
– What a man was expected to do
2.
SECOND MINOR POINT
– What a woman was expected to do
B. SECOND SUBTOPIC
– Explain laws that were put out to prevent sex discrimination in the workplace, if any
1.
FIRST MINOR POINT
-If a woman accused her workplace of discrimination, what would be the consequence?
2.
SECOND MINOR POINT
– Share the percentage of women that were high level managers
V.
THIRD MAJOR TOPIC
– Explain how the workplace is in present day
Source: book “Equality on Trial: Gender and rights in the modern American workplace”
A. FIRST SUBTOPIC
Explain the society roles of men and women
1.
FIRST MINOR POINT
– What a man is expected to do
2.
SECOND MINOR POINT
– What a woman is was expected to do
B. SECOND SUBTOPIC
Explain laws that were are put out to prevent sex discrimination in the workplace, if any
1.
FIRST MINOR POINT
If a woman accused her higher level managers of discrimination, what would happen?
2.
SECOND MINOR POINT
– Share the percentage of women that are high level managers
Talk about organizations like the one from “equalrights.org”
VI.
FOURTH MAJOR TOPIC
A. FIRST SUBTOPIC
1.
FIRST MINOR POINT
2.
SECOND MINOR POINT
B. SECOND SUBTOPIC
1.
FIRST MINOR POINT
2.
VII.
SECOND MINOR POINT
FIFTH MAJOR TOPIC
-How to improve the workplace environment for the present day woman
Source: “Breaking through: Stories and best practices from companies that help women succeed.
Hoboken: Wiley.”
C.
FIRST SUBTOPIC
-How to help women succeed
3.
FIRST MINOR POINT
-Encourage there to be more high level managers
4.
SECOND MINOR POINT
– Give ideas on how to balance work and family life
D. SECOND SUBTOPIC
-Address the laws that are made
3.
FIRST MINOR POINT
-What laws should be improved?
4.
SECOND MINOR POINT
-What laws should be made?
•
This is a preliminary outline to start the first draft of your paper, and you can expand it subsequently as
needed.
•
List the sources you plan to use in connection with each topic listed in your outline.

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