Saudi Arabia current trends in the healthcare industry I would like to write one page about the current trends in the healthcare industry in the world and focus after that in Saudi Arabia and future opportunities. I would like to mention that healthcare in Saudi Arabia is in a transition from the government sector to the private sector within “Vision 2030 ” and there will be a lot of opportunities to develop the workforce and provide more jobs. Media & Culture
FINAL TERM PAPER
Part 1: Please post your term project topic to the Week 7 discussion board by the end of that week.
Part 2: Your final paper is due at the end of Week 9. Please also post a summary of your findings to the
Week 9 discussion board and share your thoughts.
Your paper should be 10-15 pages (plus Works Cited page) in Microsoft Word format and MLA style, per
Hacker. WORD COUNT (excluding Works Cited page) should be a minimum of 2500 words. Please use MLA
formatting (including in-text citations) as explained in Hacker to set up your pages and a Works Cited page
(which is NOT a bibliography, but instead a list of sources that you specifically cite in the text of your paper).
In developing your paper, remember that the focus of the course and the paper is media and culture: how media
both reflects and shapes culture. The paper will be a combination of primary and secondary research, and will
use a cultural studies approach (looking at political economy, audience reception, textual analysis per Kellners
explanation) as well as Silverblatts keys to media literacy. You may also, of course, cite Rapailles theories
regarding the culture code, Gerbners concepts of cultivation theory, etc.
What to Include:
-Qualitative primary research (your own observations and analysis of your
chosen media text) is essential to this paper.
-Briefly cite secondary academic resources (such as Silverblatt, Gerbner, Kellner) and scholarly articles to
support your position and explain your analytical approach. (TIP: use only short quotes and paraphrases
from your secondary sources; avoid quoting long passages from secondary sources.)
-If appropriate, include statistics from credible polls, quantitative or qualitative studies, surveys that
support your ideas. Sources such as Pew Center, Nielsen and Harris Polls can provide excellent context to
-When appropriate, include quotes from the media communicators themselves, explaining their ideas and
goals (you can often find this via interviews with the news media, information from the media
communicators websites, etc.).
For your thesis, choose a narrow focus and an arguable position that you can support and address in a paper of
10-15 pages. Be sure to use theories of media literacy and cultural studies as part of your analysis.
Be sure to include an introduction, which can be several paragraphs long and that is ended with a CLEAR
THESIS STATEMENT; you must also clearly state that your paper is an indicative (rather than comprehensive)
analysis. Explain what theories you are using in your analysis and cite them as you go along. Be sure to include
a conclusion/summary that restates your thesis and conclusions.
Feel free to draw on the work youre doing for other assignments in this course to define media literacy and
cultural studies and use them as tools of analysis for your topic. I encourage you to choose a topic that you would
enjoy exploring, that will help you in your career goals, and that you are passionate about.
I am available to answer questions and help with any bumps along the way. Feel free to contact me if you need
some extra help. Also, if youre new to academic writing or an ESL student, I recommend that you plan ahead of
time to work with the Writing Center (by appointment).
Choosing a Topic and Research Questions:
Choose a topic exploring some form of media (films, TV, music, magazines, social media, Internet, video games,
advertising, reality TV, e-books, etc.) and develop a research proposal involving the relationship of this form or
genre of media with culture. Submit a paragraph with this proposal by week 7.
Here are a few possible topics and related research questions:
*Films, TV shows, and music from the United States dominate world markets, but other nations, particularly
those in Asia, are competing more successfully today than in the past for their home audiences. What are the
financial implications of current trends in these industries? What has been the impact of American films/TV on
other cultures and how is that changing today? How are international people and places portrayed in American
entertainment media and what are the effects of these often stereotypical portrayals? How do American
characters interact with international characters? To what extent is American culture presented as a dominant
culture? How is that changing and what implications does it have for the future? How do American films affect
relationships and understanding between U.S. culture and other cultures?
*Reality TV is often rude and raunchy, showing people at their worst. Closely examine at a least three episodes
of one or more reality shows. What trends are apparent? How does product placement effect content and
audiences? What is the dominant culture portrayed? Are there any examples or instances of alternatives to
dominant culture? Why does reality TV thrive on bad behavior? What do the media communicators get out of
promoting reality TV? What does audience response research suggest about the effects of the particular show?
*There is often a sharp contrast between U.S. and world news coverage of major events with global interest, such
as natural disasters, economic crisis, election, or military crisis. Compare the content, ideology, messages, and
culture reflected in coverage generated by American journalists (including citizen journalists) and news sources
from at least two other cultures. Be sure to use theories of media literacy and cultural studies as part of your
*A new report by Pew Research says: The Internet is now deeply embedded in group and organizational life in
America . It becomes clear as people are asked about their activities that their use of the internet is having a
wide-ranging impact on their engagement with civic, social, and religious groups. What are the implications of
this development on American culture? Will we soon have to take back our cultural mythology from Facebook
instead of TV? How else is the Internet including social media affecting our culture and our window on the
Your thesis statement needs to go beyond saying that you are analyzing a topic using theories of media and
culture. Instead, you need to take a specific stand or position on a debatable issue and then support it using the
keys as your guide. In other words, you are doing an analytic research paper in which your thesis statement
reflects your findings.
YOU DO NEED TO CITE THEORISTS specifically and properly throughout your paper. (You may find it
helpful to pretend that the reader is not familiar with the text or theorists.)
WHAT TO AVOID:
–the use of I; instead, refer to yourself as this author or this paper
–long quotations from secondary sources (in this class, its YOUR analysis I want, not someone elses).
–in-text citations dropped in without clear SIGNAL PHRASES that prepare the reader for cited material and
create a transition. As Hacker explains, Introduce most summaries and paraphrases with a signal phrase that
names the author and places the material in the context of your argument (114).
To develop your paper, please keep the following in mind:
Cite the source of the theories (Silverblatt, etc.) that you apply in your paper using in-text citations
and a properly formatted Works Cited page. (See Diana Hacker for formatting guidance in MLA
Example: One Students Term Paper Proposal and Response/Comments
(students proposal in bold; my responses in italics)
The topic for my term paper will be on the impact of for-profit education
commercials and advertising through various media, including online and
Great topic; you are exploring how media messages help shape culture. I know
after reading your last paper that you are also addressing how these media
messages reflect cultural trends. Reminder to class: Our focus is how media reflects
and shapes culture.
The potential questions include:
1. What type of demographics do these commercials attract?
Good question: WHO is the target for the ads? How do you know (find
substantiation via research, not conjecture)? Why are these individuals targeted?
What Keys apply to these commercials In other words, which of Silverblatt’s keys
(tools/guidelines) for analysis apply best to your research area? Note to Class:
Please avoid suggestions in your papers that the media communicators are
themselves “using” the keys to create more persuasive and successful messages;
this is NOT the concept of the keys–Silverblatt is teaching us how to critically
analyze media messages, not how to create them. The keys are provided for us as
the audience, the consumers and the researchers to help us become media literate.
The fact that we also learn how to better do our jobs as professional communicators
more effectively, more responsibly and more ethically is, of course, another big plus
of studying media & culture as well as media literacy.
2. What cultural impact do the commercials play on education and the
financial impact they have on society?
These are important and timely issues. You’ll need statistics and data to show what
has been happening in education and to these students. You should also be able to
find some comments from graduates of these programs.
Potential Thesis Statement and Organization:
For-profit educational institutions’ commercials specifically target
underprivileged, stay at home parents, women in general, and the
unemployed population by airing questionable advertising about the
quality and value of education offered at these for-profit institutions. The
paper will be constructed in a way that shows that shows the impact of
for-profit education on the potential student as well as on society as a
whole. I will construct my paper to show the negative impacts and the
question the value of the education obtained from these types of
educational facilities. I will support my opinion/argument with academic
sources, statistics, and from personal experiences as I have worked for
two for-profit institutions during my educational career. I will also
evaluate the demographics of these schools including, Sanford-Brown,
Devry, University of Phoenix and Everest College. I will show examples of
the commercials and the potential impact they have on viewers who are
not familiar with the educational world.
Excellent approach. For your final, specific thesis statement, summarize in 1-2
sentences the position you are arguing.
Perhaps something like this after a detailed introduction: Based on this
author’s research using Silverblatt’s keys and a cultural studies approach,
this paper will explain how and why the advertising by some for-profit
educational corporations has developed; what has made it so effective in
attracting students despite a dismal job placement record and cost/benefit
ratio; and why it ultimately is having such a negative effect on America’s
educational culture and our views regarding the value to society of higher
One way to approach this organizationally to make it simpler to write and review
would be to use the above segments (or something similar) as subheads in your
paper. For example:
First page-introductory paragraph or two, ending with your specific thesis
statement. (no subhead necessary).
First subhead: How and Why For-Profit Advertising/Marketing Has Developed
the Current Concepts for Commercials
Second subhead: Analyzing the Messages (manifest and latent)
Third subhead: What Has Been the Impact on Students, Education, Culture?
Conclusion: restate your thesis statement and how you’ve supported your
February 23, 2018
Media and Culture: Apocalypto
The film Apocalypto, directed by Mel Gibson, is a story of the Mayan kingdom
during the peak of power and opulence but the empire is beginning to fall as a result of
poor societal norms. To prevent this, the leaders resolve to sacrifice more people and
building more temples. A peaceful hunter, Jaguar Paw, is seized along with his village to
be sacrificed until he decides to escape to get to his family. However, Paws survival
comes when his entire community is destroyed on orders from the ruler and this changes
his life completely. This film captures a contemporary depiction of the Mayan culture and
its civilization. The films director utilized cinematographic aspects to produce a film that
attempts to critique the governments abuse and tyranny. Gibson explains that the film
demonstrates both the cultural and social realities of America as it strives to deal with
economic crisis, terrorism, and migration: factors threatening the countrys global
A closer look at Apocalypto presents the idea that America struggles to hold up its
national identity about its race, conservative theological roots, militaristic culture, and
imperialist history. This film is effective since it presents social and cultural concerns that
reflect modern American society and all other societies across the globe as well. Using
textual analysis as well as audience research as tools for analysis, this paper will
demonstrate that a civilization or society which is unable to uphold its traditions,
spirituality, and beliefs is destined to crumble.
Textual analysis in cultural research studies addresses the analysis and close
reading of cultural messages and how these messages shape and affect society (Grossberg
et al. 21). In this case, textual analysis of the film, Apocalypto, explores the rituals,
cultural messages, and meaning. According to Kellner, textual analysis corresponds
measurement methodologies such as content analysis surveys and also experiments. It
includes methodologies such as framing research that focuses on recurring media
structures. The film anticipated addressing most countries insatiable for power through
portraying the downfall of the Mayan society. This choice had one problem; it reinforced
not only cultural insensitivity but also racist epithets.
Multiculturalism advocates disagreed with the extent of racism in the film. In
viewing Apocalypto, with its graphic detail and imagery, one is likely to conclude that
the people were savage. The Yucatec Maya language used in the film was effective in
presenting the authenticity of the Mayan population and the film. Immigration debates, in
America, have pushed multiculturalism to take a hit. Many Americans in recent years
have protested over the ever increasing number of immigrants who take over the jobs that
are meant for them. The immigrants cause increased population and reduce wedges. As
Golash-Boza and Maria (2015) explain, to control this, debates to enhance border
security are in place to resolve the issue without severing the American culture (12).
The film also presents the idea of racism which is also Americas cultural
preoccupation. Despite the victories in Americas civil rights, the issue of racism still
exists today. Racist Americans actively go against the legislation that prompts racial
equality and stand firm to their position. The media is filled with a right-wing advocate
who goes against multiculturalism and does not support affirmative action. Racism and
the idea of disregarding multiculturalism threaten the culture of any nation across the
world thus risking its prosperity. The film also presents instances that glorify Christianity
after the Mayan community undergoes chaos and nonstop violence thus expressing the
idea of Christian conservatism. This is presented in the film when Spanish missionaries
occur toward the end as if to liberate Paw together with his tormented tribe. This
Christian conservatism that the film demonstrates embodies the religious convictions of
individuals in all societies. The films view in this that the Mayan civilization was
overwhelmed due to their ungodliness and blood-thirstiness. This expresses the idea that
extreme struggle between spiritual and moral issues often results in the downfall of any
given society. This is because religion serves the critical message of controlling the use
of too much power. Therefore, failure to uphold the spiritual aspect of the society results
in society or an entire country to fall.
According to Grossberg, et al. (1992), religion in most films serves as a reminder
that all social ills of most societies today are basically as a result of the society forgetting
its fundamental spirituality and the vital role that it plays in society. The absence of
religion and spirituality leads to fading in morality, and it is replaced by both wickedness
and decadence which are the social ills that corrupt and destroys any contemporary
society and an entire nation.
Also referred to as reader-response research, audience studies emphasize the
manner in which the audience interpret and utilize cultural information. As Kellner and
Cvetkovich (2018) note, audience studies as an analytic tool narrow its research to the
audience for the text and the responses of the audience about the text and not necessarily
the text itself (p. 4). In the article, Mel Gibsons Apocalypto: a painful experience, David
Walsh assessed the views of the films fans on cultural information through analyzing
secondary sources. To begin with, Walsh explored the general impression that the film
had to the public, and in this case, he argues that the films unique features such as the
Mayan language and culture provided a connection with the viewers thus making the
audience attached to it.
Walsh studied some secondary sources on the reviews of the film and the major
ideologies presented by in the sources. He, therefore, argued that the film Apocalypto
expresses a horrific and violent society destroyed by the inability of the leaders to sustain
the culture and spirituality which is the foundation of a sane society. Walsh emphasizes
on the fact that the violent Mayan society which was once a peaceful village, was also as
a result of economic and multiple historical factors. These ideologies that the audience
presents sums up the idea that the film brings out the brutality and cruelties, including the
lack of religious spirituality that led to human sacrifice, that occur in many other societies
today. As a cultural study, the work of the author was not grounded on scientific terms,
but the findings that were presented generalized the basic elements that led to the
downfall of the Mayan society. In close interpretation, the same elements that led to the
downfall of the Mayan society could affect any contemporary society across the world.
Textual analysis and audience research as analytical tools have provided insights
in the understanding of the film, Apocalypto, and demonstrated that it is fundamental for
nations and societies to preserve their traditions, spirituality, and beliefs. A textual
analysis of the film depicts the cultural and social preoccupations such as Christian
conservatism, race, and multiculturalism among others that societies face today and as a
result, it cultivates evokes discussions concerning the basic societal norms that hold the
society together. On the other hand, audience research also provided insights to the fact
that any society that does not consider its norms, beliefs as well as religion and
spirituality could fail to uphold societal norms and could crumble and subjects its citizens
to suffering and even death.
Douglas Kellner and Cvetkovich, Ann. Articulating the global and the local:
Globalization and cultural studies. Routledge, 2018.
GIBSONS, M. E. L. “Apocalypto.” (2006).
Golash-Boza, Tanya Maria. Immigration Nation: Raids, detentions, and deportations in
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