Five components of physical fitness

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Five Components of Physical Fitness

Sharlene Nordquist

“Physical fitness refers to the capacity of the heart, blood, vessels, lungs and muscles to function at a high level of efficiency. One who is physically fit has an enhanced functional capacity that allows for a high quality of life.”

Five Components of Physical Fitness:

1)Muscular Strength: The maximal force a muscle or muscle group can exert during contraction.

2)Muscular Endurance: The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force against resistance over a sustained period of time. Muscular endurance is assessed by measuring the length of time (duration) a muscle can exert force without fatigue, or by measuring the number of times (repetitions) that a given task can be performed without fatigue.

3) Cardiovascular or Cardio Respiratory Endurance: (sometimes referred to as aerobic fitness). The capacity of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs to deliver nutrients and oxygen to the working muscles and tissues during sustained exercise and to remove the metabolic waste products that would result in fatigue. Efficient functioning of the cardio respiratory system is essential for optimal enjoyment of various physical activities, such as running, swimming, and cycling. The performance of regular, moderately intense aerobic exercise is the key to developing and maintaining an efficient cardio respiratory system.

4)Flexibility: The ability to move joints through their normal full range of motion. (ROM). An adequate degree of flexibility is important to prevent injury and to maintain body mobility.

5.Body Composition: Body composition refers to the makeup of the body using the concept of two-components, lean body mass and body fat. The lean body mass consists of the muscles, bones, nervous tissue, skin, blood and organs. These tissues have a high metabolic rate and make a direct, positive contribution to energy production during exercise. Body fat or adipose tissue represents that component of the body whose primary role is to store energy for later use.

(ACE, Aerobics Instructor Manual, 1987)

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