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Response Guidelines

Read the posts and respond to one. Support your suggestions with references to the course readings, using proper APA style.

Main Post-Kamille Mitchell

Theories help us conceptualize how and why people behave the way they do, as well as helps us to understand the contextual nature of behavior (Robbins, 2012).Theories can focus on individuals, families, or small groups while others can focus on structures on how individuals operate (Robbins, 2012).

The social cognitive theory explains human behavior in a three-way, dynamic, reciprocal model in which personal factors, environmental influences, and behavior continually interact (Glanz, 2001).The health belief model, states individuals, are likely to take preventative measures if they know the threat of a health risk is serious (Laranjo, 2016).Next, the social ecological model considers the complex interplay between individual, relationship, community, and social factors (cdc.gov).It breaks down the range of factors that will put people at risk or behaviors or protect them from experiencing behaviors (cdc.gov).Last, the transtheoretical stages of change model is a model that focuses on intentional change.It is a decision-making model that operates on the assumption that people will not change their behaviors quickly and decisively, but will instead, change behaviors over time through a cyclical process (LaMorte, 2019).

In the scenario of a researcher understanding how the availability or lack of ability condoms can play a role in risky sexual behavior among teenage girls in order to design an intervention, the health belief model may be a good model to use in researching and designing an intervention.This model was chosen because it states individuals are likely to take preventative measures if they are aware of the health risks involved and know they are dangerous (Laranjo, 2016).

Response Guidelines

Post a response. Offer any ideas that would be helpful, an additional article that may be pertinent, and any resource you would consider of benefit if you had it in your own community to use with youth.

Blanche Mur

Being a mother of three teenagers, I am consistently bombarded with concerns, pressures, and influences that may severely effect their mental health and ability to cope. As of late, the biggest concern has been on the effects of isolation and lack of socialization due to the COVID 19 pandemic. While I am happy to spend more time with them creating bonds and knowing that they are safe, I understand the importance of healthy psychosocial development that is developed within the social context of interaction (Rew, L. , Tyler, D. , Fredland, N. & Hannah, D. 2012).

My daughter, was set to graduate from high school this year and was excited about asserting her independence by trasitioning from dependence on parents. This was haulted by the closing of schools and many jobs which now she feels has put her in limbo with no social outlet and no time frame near in which to look forward to. According to adolescent health experts, this period of psychosocial development may be accompanied by concerns about conflicts with parents, peer relationships, academic pressures, expectations of parents, and making plans for future education and career (Rew, et al., 2012).

Research suggest that Being at home with less face-to-face interaction increases the risk of media related depression and cyberbullying (Doukrou, M., & Segal, T. Y. 2018). The sense of isolation and lack of social support can also lead to suicide or suicidal ideation. At current, online resources are being developed to treat mental health concerns through telehealth services. The school has also been doing well to provide information on mental health, allowing social activities through zoom meetings, and providing needs such as food and toiletries to families in need.Taking the time to talk to youth and offering helpful advice can empower them to take responsibility for their health and seek assistance when needed ( Doukrou, 2018.).

In Illinois, an adolescent who threatens suicide may be isolated for further assessment. In some instances they are referred to the psychiatric hospital for immediate intervention which sometimes requires medication and boarding. My role in the profession is to insure safety by removing any harmful items or subjects that may exacerbate the situation, conduct an assessment of basic needs or concerns, and facilitate referrals to the appropriate resources.

As a leader in the human behavior field, providing a wrap around approach to treatment can improve accessibility, accountability, and coordination among professionals and agencies in service delivery. Leaders meet to discuss headways or referrals and follow ups are routine amongst leaders to assert progress before discontinuance of any service. Provisions such as The Suicide Prevention, Education and Treatment Act has been created in Illinois, to allow for public, private, and government facilities to collaboratively work together on issues regarding suicide and the improvement of mental health treatment (Suicide Prevention. (n.d.) 2020). This is also a great means to network and learn about the different agencies and practices available to provide a particular service.

Craig Cochran

A concern of adolescents in society today is that of a death of a peer. This learner frequently works with young people who have dealt with the loss of a friend. Adolescent grief may involve mourning that comes and goes, and the overall process may extend over a long period (Malone, 2012). Adolescent girls are more likely than boys to experience peer death within a one-year time. Many of these deaths are typically sudden, unexpected, and often violent and are typically viewed as preventable, and thereby can complicate the grief reactions of adolescent girls. Girls of minority race/ethnicity and adolescents from households with lower incomes are at the greatest risk for experiencing peer death (Malone, 2012). Recent studies estimates of adolescents who report past-year death of a friend range from 20% with earlier studies showing that 40% of adolescents experienced the death of a close friend, and that 87% of adolescents experienced the death of a peer (Malone, 2012). Girls are more likely than boys to experience a prolonged and intense grief reaction. Negative outcomes associated with adolescent girls who experience the death of a peer include school problems, depression, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation (Malone, 2012).

In this learners community there are a myriad of resources available to promote well-being in youth sometimes the difficulty is ensuring people are aware of these services that are offered. We have School Based Youth Services programs in 5 local high schools and one middle school. These programs provide a vast array of services including individual and group counseling, recreational activities, a medical component, consisting of a part time doctor and nurse who provide pregnancy testing, physicals immunizations, asthma care and other non-surgical procedures. The Traumatic loss coalition is another program that promotes well-being in youth. This program sends certified professionals in trauma into schools whenever there is a death of a student or teacher and provides crisis counseling and stabilization. Members of this coalition will also go into schools to provide education around topics such as suicide, and other traumas youth face and also present to community members.

This learner would develop a multi-disciplinary team of community and school professionals to meet monthly to share resources and develop a resource manual that could be disseminated to the community. Another responsibility of this team would be to look at access and address ways of providing opportunities for all community members to obtain services. Component of this group would be to provide education to schools and community members.

This learner when working with students who threaten suicide is bond by law as a mandated reporter to notify the young person’s parents. As a licensed clinician I am able to assess for suicide risk by utilizing the Columbia Suicide tool. A student deemed in need of further evaluation would either have his parents come to the school to pick them up and take them to the hospital or if parents could not be reached they would be taken by ambulance for a medical and psychological evaluation. This procedure happens anytime a student makes a threat of suicide. This learner has found many times students want help from a problem that cannot resolve.

Response Guidelines

Respond to this post sharing insight you have about peers’ prevention plans and working within ethical and legal boundaries from the literature and your own experience.

Molly May

Substance use disorder is nothing new. Unfortunately, in the last decade, there has been a significant trend of adolescents using harder drugs earlier in their lives. There are some identified risk factors that predict who may be at a higher risk for adolescent substance abuse. Undiagnosed mental health issues, a lack of positive peer socialization, and family ideals about substance use disorder are just a few risk factors to consider when discussing teen substance abuse (Flemming, Eisenberg, Catalano, Kosterman, Camrbon, Hawkins & Watrous, 2019). These are considered risk factors because they capitalize on socialization and influence. Many teenagers who are struggling with depression or anxiety find it difficult to fit in with their peers. They become increasingly isolated but driven by the desire to fit in often find themselves in peer groups where the only expectation is to use substances. Additionally, if family norms include the regular consumption of alcohol or marijuana, then the adolescent is socialized in a manner that may not identify the risk of this substance use. However, for every risk factor, there is a protective factor. Protective factors align themselves around positive socialization. Those who tend to have a supportive peer group, parents who hold effective boundaries, and an understanding of how substance abuse may impact their lives tend to be less likely to engage in substance abuse (Flemming, Eisenberg, Catalano, Kosterman, Camrbon, Hawkins & Watrous, 2019).

Flemming, Eisenberg, Catalano, Kosterman, Camrbon, Hawkins and Watrous (2019) identified that there has been efforts to improve cessation and prevention programs since the ill-fated attempt of DARE. Because the issue of substance abuse is rarely the only issue, it is suggested that programs geared towards healthy socialization and early identification of other mental health issues may have a higher success rate (Flemming, Eisenberg, Catalano, Kosterman, Camrbon, Hawkins & Watrous, 2019). Additionally, their study suggests that peer groups around other risky behavior in teenagers may help with substance use cessation and prevention as well (Flemming, Eisenberg, Catalano, Kosterman, Camrbon, Hawkins & Watrous, 2019).

There are always ethical and legal concerns to consider when working with adolescents. In many states, Florida for example, the legal age of consent is eighteen. This means that in order to consent for treatment, a person must either be over the age of eighteen or have a guardian co-sign their consent. However, in Pennsylvania, the legal age of medical consent is fourteen. This posed some unique issues for me as a former adolescent substance abuse therapist, specifically when it came to signing consents to disclose for parents. If one of my students did not want their parents to be informed of treatment, which would often occur if a patient relapsed, then I was legally bound to not disclose information. This often would prevent me from advancing patients to higher levels of care when necessary.One way I navigated this was by attempting to get parents engaged in their children’s treatment early.

Craig Cochran

Adolescence is a high-risk period for development of both depressive and substance use disorders. These two disorders frequently co-occur in adolescents and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality (Uma, 2006). Their co-occurrence is also associated with significant added psychosocial and economic burden. Information obtained from adult community samples indicated that the highest hazard rates for the onset of major depressive disorder as well as alcohol and drug dependence are between 15 and 19 years of age (Uma, 2006). Protective factors against substance abuse include; treatment in the form of therapy for depression, positive social supports, being active in school, access to programs that provide education around substance abuse and positive coping strategies (Uma, 2006).

The Too Good for Drugs curriculum by the Mendez Foundation is an evidenced by program my program currently uses with youth in high school. Skill development is at the core of Too Good for Drugs, a universal K-12 prevention education program designed to mitigate the risk factors and enhance protective factors related to alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use. The lessons introduce and develop social and emotional skills for making healthy choices, building positive friendships, developing self-efficacy, communicating effectively, and resisting peer pressure and influence. Too Good for Drugs teaches five essential social and emotional learning skills, which research has linked with healthy development and academic success: setting reachable goals, making responsible decisions, bonding with pro-social others, identifying and managing emotions, communicating effectively.

Youth in New Jersey who over the age of 14 are able to consent to counseling services without consent from their parents. Therapists working with them must still keep confidentiality unless the young person is suicidal or homicidal (Hasking, Tatnell, & Graham, 2015).

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