University of Alabama Collectives & Co Production of Unintended Value Article Summary article about sales promotionhttp://web.b.ebscohost.com.esearch.ut.ed

University of Alabama Collectives & Co Production of Unintended Value Article Summary article about sales promotionhttp://web.b.ebscohost.com.esearch.ut.edu/ehost/de… You should break that report down as follows:• half page summarizing the central theme of the article.one and half pages discussing why that article is interesting to you and how it ties in with the materialfrom a particular text book chapter. You are required to cite a page number and section title for material you refer to in the text ( page 303) . In this part of the report you should include your insights, critique and demonstrate your ability to link real world situations to concepts and ideas you have learned from our text and in class. W
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Let’s Make a “Deal”: How Dea
Abstract:
Users of deal collectives coproduce “deals” that yield value beyond what a marketer
intends when offering promotions. The authors develop an understanding of how
this unintended value is coproduced through the combined actions of users in deal
collectives. Users are drawn to deal collectives by a web of motivations that include
subversive shopper feelings, which reflect a desire to outsmart firms and temporarily
upend the market power structure. Uncovered transvaluation processes show that
deal forums-due to their collective knowledge, creativity, and trust-are more
effective than individual consumers at identifying, developing, and vetting
opportunities to capture unintended value. The authors further reveal that
unintended value can stem from untargeted promotions, pricing and promotion
errors, and combinations or stacking of promotions. Strategies for monitoring deal
collectives and either discouraging or supporting their activities are offered.
[ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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Author Affiliations: Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, School of Business, University of
San Diego, USA, and Adjunct Associate Professor, Swinburne University of
Technology, Melbourne, Australia
2Eller Professor, Department of Marketing, Eller College of Management, University
of Arizona, USA
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Let’s Make a “Deal”: How Deal Collectiv…
Market
Collectives and
the Coproduction
of Value
Methodology
Field Sites
Data
Live observation
Users of deal collectives coproduce “deals” that yield value beyond what a
marketer intends when offering promotions. The authors develop an
understanding of how this unintended value is coproduced through the
combined actions of users in deal collectives. Users are drawn to deal
collectives by a web of motivations that include subversive shopper feelings,
which reflect a desire to outsmart firms and temporarily upend the market power
structure. Uncovered transvaluation processes show that deal forums-due to
their collective knowledge, creativity, and trust-are more effective than
individual consumers at identifying, developing, and vetting opportunities to
capture unintended value. The authors further reveal that unintended value can
stem from untargeted promotions, pricing and promotior errors, and
combinations or stacking of promotions. Strategies for monitoring deal
collectives and either discouraging or supporting their activities are offered.
Threads
nterviews
ata Analysis
ndings
hy Users Seek
als
Keywords: deals; micro-resistance network; promotions; subversive shopper
feelings; unintended value
Oversive
pper feelings
ondary
vations
Participates
ctives
ces of
I feel like getting a deal on stuff is just the tip of the iceberg….I’m not walking
into the store and dropping my pants…and saying, “T’ll pay anything,” which
most people do….Getting a better deal makes me feel less helpless. There’s
more justice in the world because I’m the small guy and the big guy’s not getting
away with it all the time…. Rather than feeling so helpless all the time, [deals]
makes you feel a bit better….I see behind the veil. It’s like the Wizard of Oz.
see the guy behind the curtain. (Martin)
ended Value
geted
tions
Or
BigDeals (pseudonym) is one of two consumer-to-consumer U.S. platforms we
Avamine that is devoted to creating and eynloiting nrico nromotione Publielv
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Let’s Make a “Deal”: How Deal Collectiv.
BigDeals (pseudonym) is one of two consumer-to-consumer U.S. platforms we
Ficing or
omotion errors
examine that is devoted to creating and exploiting price promotions. Publicly,
the platform describes itself as the leading and most trusted deal-sharing forum.
ombined
omotions
Attracting over 10 million monthly users, the engine of BigDeals lies in its
w Deal
forums in which millions of users collaborate to identity, improve, and vet deals
llectives
on all types of goods and services. Users of BigDeals work together to
produce
construct what they term “deals,” or opportunities to purchase products or
ntended Value
services below their listed retail price. The most desired deals are based on
al identification
pricing mistakes or loopholes in promotions that are unintended by firms. We
el improvement find that this unintended value, or value exceeding what the marketer
anticipated ([49]), is coproduced through what we characterize as organized
I vetting
persistent, yet fleeting, micro-resistance actions. Deal collectives often reveal
quality
intense antagonism toward market-dominant firms but do not try to permanently
ephemerality
alter the market.
retical
cations
nding
ledge of
ended Value
ncing
standing of
duction at
e.se
As in Martin’s quote, this resistance mission is explicit and shared among the
most prevalent posters of the two deal forums. Users are frustrated by market
dynamics that overwhelmingly favor large global brands, and users seek
fleeting power by extracting every possible source of savings or benefit from a
transaction-especially value unintended by firms. Numerous sites with the
same aims exist abroad (e.g., RedFlag Deals.com in Canada,
OzBargain.com.au in Australia, hotUKdeals.com in the United Kingdom), as
well as for more specialized domains: travel (Flyertalk.com), technology
(Anandtech.com), board games (BoardGameGeek.com), computer gaming
(cheapassgamer.com), and clothing (forum.purseblog.com). The collectives we
examine represent a new phenomenon of users extracting unintended value
from sales promotions, raising questions unexplained by existing literature.
While consumare are known to ho doal nrana 130l) and inclined to narticinate in
ling
nistic Use
tions
cing Micro-
ince
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Let’s Make a “Deal”: How Deal Collectiv…
introducing Micro-
Resistance
from sales promotions, raising questions unexplained by existing literature.
Networks
While consumers are known to be deal prone ([30]) and inclined to participate in
Marketing
deal collectives, existing research only recognizes use of promotions
Implications
specifically targeted for other consumers as a way of creating unintended value
Understanding
([49]; [56]). Research does not show how collective processes operate to
Deal Collectives
coproduce unintended value. We examine two popular deal forums to answer
as a Double-
Edged Resource the following questions: (1) Why are consumers motivated to participate in deal
Managing Deal
collectives? and (2) How do consumers collectively coproduce and leverage
Collectives
unintended value through sales promotions?
Carefully monitor
Deter
Resist
Encourage
Enable
Limitations and
Future Research
Our data show that unintended value can arise from any firm mistake or
promotional loophole that enables consumers to gain valuetunplanned by the
marketer, not just from mistargeted promotions. This value is cocreated within
deal collectives, which, because of their crowdsourced nature, makes them
especially adept at identifying, refining, and vetting deals through pooled
knowledge and shared trust. We identify a new form of consumer collective
operating in these deal collectives, a micro-resistance network, with a core user
base centered on antagonistic coproduction of promotions that provide short-
term power in the marketplace. Users derive subversive shopper feelings
uniquely from gaining value at the expense of firms. Our findings suggest a new
dark side to promotions, coproduction, and consumer collaboration while
offering advice on when deal collectives may be beneficial to firm interests and
when firms should act defensively.
Conclusion
Footnotes
References
Market Collectives and the Coproduction of Value
market collective is any group of consumers related in some way to goods or services that are traded.
Given their group nature, all market collectives create coproduced value ([44]), although the form of value
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MARKETI… https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/bla…
Let’s Make a “Deal”: How Deal Collectiv…
A market collective is any group of consumers related in some way to goods or services that are traded.
Given their group nature, all market collectives create coproduced value ([44]), although the form of value
they create varies and can be considered in four broad ways. Collectives can create value before purchase
by designing or helping create a product or service (e.g., [28]; [43]). Likewise, collectives can coproduce
value after purchase by altering or shaping consumption (e.g., [50]; [60]). While the examples we provide
only sample from the rich set of research available on collective value creation before and after purchase,
the present study focuses on different forms of collective value creation.
In addition to coproducing before or after purchase, collectives can coproduce value at the moment of
purchase ([11]; [19]). Research on this form of value creation remains limited and focuses on the positive
role of collectives. For instance, consumers are identified as using collectives to educate and acculturate
foreigners on American retail practices ([45]). Coproduction at the moment of exchangt is also present in
the practice of pay-what-you-want pricing. Pay-what-you-want pricing occurs when a firm invites a
consumer to set any price-including zero-that a seller then cannot refuse ([25]). While on the surface this
practice may seem risky, research finds that norms of fairness, impression management, and potential
social disapproval cause consumers to pay fair prices and protect firms ([ 2]; [10]; [17]; [31]). Research has
yet to explore collectives that coproduce value at the moment of purchase in a way that is antagonistic to
firms.
Finally, collectives can coproduce value by acting to alter the broader market in which goods or services
are traded. This can occur when a collective organizes to reshape (e.g., [5]; [15]) or even protest and close
(e.g., [40]; [18]) a market. To date, research in this area focuses on what are termed “movements.”
Consumer movements refer to collectives that are organized in pursuit of clear, macro-level ideological or
institutional change in markets ([18]; [27]; [59]), such as PETA’s effort to stop animal testing in cosmetics.
Movements create value by pressuring institutions to make specific changes through large-scale collective
action. Absent in the literature is research on collectives that protest the broad market rather than specific
market actions or institutions and do so through micro- rather than macro-level actions,
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T
Methodology
We examined two deal forums, engaging in naturalistic and participant observation, in-depth interviews with
forum participants and forum administrators, and discourse analysis of forum content. The observational
data allow us to access and catalog ongoing behaviors and the practices they scaffold. Interviews provide
users’ rationales for their behaviors, which helped us understand the meanings behind the behaviors as
well as the norms and order the practices enable. Our observation, interviews, and archived content form a
robust corpus of data ([26]).
Field Sites
Our investigation focuses on online deal collectives. We examine two of the largest online sites devoted to
deal hunting in the United States: BigDeals and JumboSaver (both pseudonyms). Both feature deal forums
in which consumers actively collaborate to identify, vet, and combine promotions, forving deals across a
wide array of products and services. We primarily address the “Hot Deals” subforum, though both sites
feature dedicated subforums on more niche products and services. The forums are public; however, to post
on the sites a person must register as a user. Message threads can be rated either positively or negatively;
self-reported purchases are tallied; and user statistics, such as number of postings and tenure, are visible
to the membership
Data
Live observation
Forum observation, naturalistic and participant, allows us to witness what is happening on the forums. Each
type of observation provides unique insights. The first author is emic to the phenomenon, participating in
the deal forums for 11 years and visiting between 1 and 20 times a day. In 2015 he identified himself as a
researcher examining the forum as market behavior. He maintains field notes of his experiences and
interactions with users. The second author performed naturalistic observation; although she did not engage
in deal construction, discussion, or vetting, she logged 156 hours on the sites and kept a set of field notes.
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