# GEOG 391 UMICH College Students Study Abroad Data Discussion Paper The detailed writing instruction is post in the attached file. Please check. Brief requ

GEOG 391 UMICH College Students Study Abroad Data Discussion Paper The detailed writing instruction is post in the attached file. Please check.

Brief requirement :

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In this lab, you will take a look at the data you gathered from your survey, and assess its quality. You will also reflect back over the course, pulling together the different methods you have used to find answers to your research question(s).

You will:

I. Conduct reliability and validity assessments of your survey data.

II. Write up a complete report of your methods and findings from the term.

Need to answer all these questions. This is my final project, need high quality work. All datas are post in the attached file.

Our group Research question: What motivates or prevents college students from applying for and attending study abroad programs? GEOG 391 Fall 2019
Lab 9: Findings
Lab Purposes:
In this lab, you will take a look at the data you gathered from your survey, and assess its quality. You
will also reflect back over the course, pulling together the different methods you have used to find
I. Conduct reliability and validity assessments of your survey data.
II. Write up a complete report of your methods and findings from the term.
Activity I: Conduct reliability and validity assessments. In this activity, your research team will use
the online tools demonstrated in lecture to assess how well your survey instrument performed.
A. Download the data from Qualtrics. In the “Data & Analysis” page, click “Import &
let you choose whether you want to use “numeric values” or “choice text”. Using choice text
means the cells of the spreadsheet will have “Strongly Agree”; using numeric values will
instead have “7”. Choice text is easier to understand, but numeric values allow you to do
math. Note: the numeric values aren’t always intuitive: a Yes/No question may have “23” and
“24” as the responses.) Hint: it may be helpful to download data in both formats and compare.
B. Organize. Save a new version of the file. Then clean the data: delete unnecessary columns,
deal with incomplete responses, etc. If you downloaded the numeric values, make sure that
you understand what answer each value corresponds to.
C. Normalize your data. In order to interpret your data, first create new columns to un-invert
any inverted questions, as in lab 3. Then create new columns to translate weird Qualtrics data
to a normal scale. (For example, if your five-option multiple choice question has response
values of 32, 33, 34, 35 and 36, create a new column that subtracts 31, to give a range of 1
through 5.)
D. Run the reliability assessment. Use the web tool from lecture (link:
https://www.wessa.net/rwasp_cronbach.wasp) to assess the reliability of each item of your
survey. Save the table summarizing the alpha scores for Activity II.
E. Run the validity assessment. Use the web tool from lecture (link:
https://www.wessa.net/rwasp_factor_analysis.wasp) to assess the validity of your survey
questions, using a number of factors equal to the number of subtopics your team gathered
data on. Evaluate the factor loadings as in lecture. Are there any questions that your team will
need to throw out? Save the table of factor loadings for Activity II.
Activity II: Write up your findings. In this activity, each of you will summarize and report your
findings from the research project you and your team conducted throughout the term. While you all
have worked together to generate your instruments and collect data, Lab 9 is not a group project. In
other words, you will need to write your own report. Your lab report includes 4 sections/steps, each
outlined below. Use each of these steps as headers to organize your report. At the end of these lab
instructions, you will find an example outline for your report.
Lab 9
1
GEOG 391 Fall 2019
1) Introduction. The introduction of your report is the section where you introduce your project.
Begin by identifying and discussing your general topic, why your team selected that topic, and
what your specific research question was. If you developed any hypotheses, discuss those as well.
2) Methods. This will probably be one of the longer sections of your report. You will discuss the
development and conducting of the focus group and the survey (including assessment). Create
sub-section headers to separate the two.
a) Focus Groups: In discussing the focus group, articulate the process of developing the
questions. It will probably be helpful to refer to Lab 4. You will want to discuss all of the
following:
i) the brainstorming of topics and the initial question development,
ii) the team process and decision to select specific questions, and
iii) the final questions (engagement, exploration, and exit).
After you discuss the development of the focus group questions, describe the focus group
session – who assumed what role (and be sure to identify the role you played) and a general
summary of how the focus group session went. This is not when you will report results,
though.
b) Survey: Similar to the focus group discussion, in this section, you will need to articulate the
team process of developing survey questions as well as the process of transferring the
questions to Qualtrics. Remember, this process began with the focus group results. Again,
identify the role(s) you played in the process.
3) Results. This is the section where you report the results of your analysis. As with the Methods
section, create sub-section headers to separate your discussion of the results for the focus group
and the survey.
a) Focus Groups: In this sub-section, report on the focus group analysis and results. Explain the
process your team developed for conducting the textual analysis of the focus group section.
Then, provide your own summary of the focus group analysis results. Don’t simply provide the
coding and individual take-aways: synthesize the analysis and summarize the overall findings.
If the original coding/analysis from the focus groups was insufficient or incorrect, you will
need to re-code and reanalyze your data from the focus group discussion. Please include your
coded transcript in the appendix section of your lab report.
b) Survey: In this sub-section, report on the survey analysis and results. Begin with the reliability
and validity analysis from Activity I above (again refer to our in-class exercise on these
processes).
i) For the reliability analysis, clearly describe the results and report the Cronbach alpha
scores. Did you choose to remove one or more questions as a result of the scores?
ii) For the validity analysis, discuss your decision making process – what did the factor
loadings look like? What decisions did you make based on those? Did you choose to
remove any items to improve the validity?
iii) For both reliability and validity analysis, include table(s) of the results with any
notes/highlighting from your analysis process (i.e. the alpha scores and the factor
Lab 9
2
GEOG 391 Fall 2019
Remember, the reliability and validity assessments only report on the integrity of your survey.
You also need to report on what you learned from the survey. Also: if you did remove
questions, do not include those in your next analysis.
iv) Drawing on the analysis you conducted in Lab 3, interpret the results of your survey.
Report on the mean and median values for the main questions; if creating an index then
calculate that indicator and report its values as well. Clearly identify the variables you are
analyzing and the results (and your interpretation of the results). Hint: create a table for
mean and median values for clear presentation of results – and don’t forget to interpret your
results.
v) Complete at least one of the two analyses (histogram or chi-square) below. (This is the
minimum analysis you should conduct; if you want to go further, that’s great!).
(1) EITHER: Create histograms for at least two of your questions (include these as figures
in your report) and describe the data distributions
(2) OR: conduct a chi-square analysis with two variables (include your null and alternative
hypotheses, critical p-value, the cross-tab table, your calculated p-value and your
interpretation) Hint: to quickly make the chi-square cross-tab table, ask your GE how to
make a pivot table in Excel.
vi) If you have any hypotheses about the correlations between questions, describe the test
you conducted and its results.
4) Conclusion. This is the section where you summarize everything. When you put together what
you learned from the focus group and the survey, what are the overall findings? Do the results
from the survey support and/or align with the focus group results? Are they different? Why?
This section should not simply be a summary of the overall process. Instead, this is where you
draw your grand conclusions. What did you learn that you were not expecting? What do you wish
5) Team Assessment. Complete the table below for each member of your group, including yourself.
For each of the six categories (collaboration, participation, preparation, input, knowledge, and
communication) please rate each member of the group, including yourself on a scale of 0 to 5,
where 5 is excellent, and 0 is no contribution. Include this table as the last page of your lab report.
Lab 9 Submission: Submit your completed lab report to Canvas. Note: this assignment is an
individual assignment. Each team member is expected to write their own analysis. We will use
VeriCite to check for independent work.
Lab 9
3
GEOG 391 Fall 2019
Criteria
Reliability analysis
Possible Points
5
Validity analysis
5
Survey data analysis
5
Lab write-up:
content
20
Lab write-up: writing
style
Team Assessment
5
Lab 9
Multiplier applied to your
the term, this may
increase or decrease your
Notes
Analysis conducted correctly, print outs
Analysis conducted correctly, print outs
Minimum analysis completed as described
above: mean and median for main questions,
at least two histograms with description of
data distribution or chi-square analysis and
interpretation
All components included (see outline below)
with sufficient detail and appendices as
needed
Write-up is free from grammar and spelling
mistakes, style is appropriate for a lab report.
Based on the tables filled out by all of your
assessment of your contribution to your
you complete the team assessment.
4
GEOG 391 Fall 2019
Name
Lab 9
Collaboration
Participation
Preparation
Input
Knowledge
Communication Total
5
GEOG 391 Fall 2019
Here’s an outline of what the report headers could look like.
Geog391 Research Findings Report
1. Introduction
Here you will state your research question and provide some background information on why
you and your team chose to investigate this topic.
2. Methods
Here you will describe the research methods you used. Start with a summary and then divide
the methods into the following sections.
A. Focus Group
B. Survey
3. Results
A. Focus Group
B. Survey
4. Conclusion
5. Appendix
A. Focus group discussion coding
B. Reliability tables
C. Validity table
Lab 9
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If I could choose how long the study abroad program (SAP) is I’d participate.
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Time Q2
I prefer SAPs that are during a time when I don’t have regular classes (summer, winter or spring break).
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5
1
1
4
1
1
3
5
1
4
1
5
1
4
2
4
4
3
4
Time Q3
I feel like I have time to study abroad if I really wanted to.
5
2
1
6
6
2
3
3
6
7
1
2
7
4
4
5
5
3
7
5
5
1
3
1
3
2
6
7
3
1
3
1
2
1
2
6
5
7
2
4
2
6
2
3
4
2
7
4
3
7
7
5
2
3
2
1
3
7
3
2
5
5
1
5
5
4
1
5
6
4
3
5
6
Time Q4
Study abroad programs take up too much time.
3
4
6
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3
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3
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2
5
4
3
1
4
7
2
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4
3
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3
4
6
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
1
7
6
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5
5
5
2
4
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3
3
5
4
2
4
5
1
4
4
3
3
6
2
2
4
5
6
4
4
4
3
4
5
6
5
4
4
2
2
4
Experience Q1
I prefer SAPs that have a service-learning component.
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2
1
1
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3
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2
2
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2
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2
1
1
4
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2
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1
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2
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4
Experience Q2
I am more likely to participate in a SAP that applies to my graduation requirements.
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2
1
1
1
1
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1
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1
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2
2
1
1
1
1
4
3
2
1
4
2
1
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2
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3
5
1
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
2
6
3
1
2
3
4
2
3
4
Experience Q3
I like SAPs that allow me to practice skills I’d use in a career I am pursing.
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
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1
2
2
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2
1
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3
1
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2
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1
1
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1
2
1
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1
1
1
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1
3
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
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2
1
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2
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1
1
4
1
1
1
3
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2
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2
2
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3
4
Experience Q4
SAPs are beneficial to my academic career.
Expense Q1
If money wasn’t a factor I’d participate in a SAP.
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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2
1
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3
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