ENG1A Pasadena City College Educational and Racial Discrimination Essay basically i have done most of the work but i need 1 page of Historical Perspective
By studying rhetoric, we learn to organize our thoughts on a topic and present a logical, clear argument that fairly considers both sides of an issue. The purpose of this essay, your final research essay, is for you to write an argumentative essay that is well researched and supported using multiple sources, and of course, well written.
FOCUS: Write an essay (full 7 1/2 – 10 pages + Works Cited Page) in which you further explore issues (THEMES: Education, Racism, Sexism, Technology, and Media Studies etc.) prompted by one or more of your readings this semester. What relevant questions have you been asking after reading these texts? What are you interested in researching? Perhaps it might relate to your intended major, career or a hobby?
Choose a SPECIFIC THEME from above and then create a topic, one that you can research thoroughly.]
FORMAT + ORGANIZATION OF THE PARAGRAPHS
The essay format should include the basic components of an analytical essay: introduction, summary/overview of the controversy, rationale for your claims, refutation, and conclusion.
1. Introduction: 1 1/2 page: label the (Hook) (Summary) , (Transitional Sentence) and (Thesis). The thesis should follow the Sheridan Baker Model (Refutation: (While /Although) + Claim : (however,) + three Rationale ( because).
2. Historical Perspective: 1 page Label (Hist Pers): Here write about the research into the history of the conflict, writing about the different perspectives associated with the different parties to the situation. How do different people explain the events that created the current state of affairs with regards to this particular issue?
3, 4, 5. In each Body Paragraph : 1 1/2 page each body paragraph: label the Topic Sentence (TS}, ( MP #1, 2, 3) etc , (ELab1, 2, 3, ) etc and Concluding Statement (CS) at the end of each paragraph.
6. Conclusion: 1 full page: Label (Conclusion) at the beginning of the paragraph. ( VERY IMPORTANT)
7. Works Cited page: 1 – 1 1/2 pages: MLA Format: Check Heading, alphabetical order, indentation, and spacing
For the historical perspective: conduct research into the history of the conflict, making notes about the different perspectives associated with the different parties to the situation. How do different people explain the events that created the current state of affairs with regards to this particular issue?
For the body paragraphs: take a side on the issue and argue that side ONLY. Use the evidence from your research to provide relevant, credible support for your claim. Of course, you will consider the opposing arguments in your refutation; however, your job is to refute those counterarguments and convince the reader that you are right! Include a discussion of logical fallacies that the opposing side might use, and argue against them. Also, at the same time, throughout your essay, consider your audience. To what extent do they agree or disagree with your main claim? How will you address their concerns? What common ground and practical solutions can you offer to your opposition to help them understand your position? Include a discussion of the importance of this topic and argue a viable solution to the conflict
Finally,for the conclusion, restate the thesis, talk about the evidences and the conclusions you have for the rationale, and also about the future of your claim.
Works Cited page MLA formatted and MLA citation
5 quotations must follow MLA Style.
5 In-text citations must follow MLA Style.
The paper should be 7 1/2-10 pages in length, with an additional Works Cited page, which is required.
Times New Roman; Font size 12
At least 7 sources, including:
At least 1 book
At least 1 scholarly journal
At least 1 newspaper
At least 1 reputable national magazine (see below)
Reports and Studies
Documentaries and Videos relating to your topic
Only ONE source can come from the anthology.
The periodicals may be print or electronic sources (from Shatford Library’s electronic database).
Wikipedia, like other reference sources, may be used ONLY at the exploratory state to give students an overview of a subject, but may NOT be included among the sources cited in the paper. 1
Zhuo Ming Li
Educational, Racial Discrimination and Its Impact on Students
(HOOK) Outside in public, they cover themselves with smiles and use silence when
needed. (TC) Racial discrimination dominating the entire United States educational system
has led to severe negative impacts among the minority groups. (SUMMARY) In the article,
“School Segregation, the Continuing Tragedy of Ferguson,” originally published in New York
Times Magazine, Nikole Hannah-Jones narrate the life of Michael Brown and his
heartbreaking killing to explain existing racial inequality in the United States Education
system. (MP#1) Hannah-Jones starts her article by referring to the state of Brown’s
educational experience as a damming one since he attended a Normandy school district
which was considered the most discriminated and poorest in Missouri and was raked last
(Hannah-Jones 453). (ELAB) He explains how a separate but equal system of education has
led to difficulties for black families to change to better school districts in St. Louis through
the development of strategies aimed at creating housing discrimination. She further explains
that Latino and Black kids are less likely to be educated by qualified, skilled teachers and
have minimal access to technical courses. (MP#2) Even though the civil rights policies and
laws have considerably eradicated official forms of racial discrimination in almost all areas,
new ways of discrimination persist in institutional practices. (ELAB) In the past years,
scholars in education have examined, theorized and challenged how racial discrimination
shapes the schooling structure, their aim being to detect and challenge the micro and macro
aggressions that the students of color face. The current efforts, however, are geared on
varying aspects like language right, representation, educational leadership, and tracking the
cultural content. (TRANSITION) At the core of this debate is the interpretation of the size
and damage racism creates on education now and the impending damage that might be
experienced in the future. (THESIS) While fundamental principles of equality and fairness
remain central to the fight against racial discrimination, racial discrimination in learning
institutions has persisted because factors like poor academic performance, minimal social
interaction and the uncertain future of marginalized students dominates the current education
(TS) Hannah-Jones provides an important historical account surrounding the issue of
discrimination in schools. (MP#1) She points out that in 1983, the federal court order made
St. Louis on the most segregated region in terms of education without knowing. (ELAB) The
order to desegregate the schools never lasted for long due to the politicians and other
individual claims that it was too costly to effect (Hannah-Jones 457). (MP#2) Even though
the Supreme Court decided that racial discrimination in public schools was in violation of the
Fourth Amendment in the case of Brown v. Board of Education, its complex history mirrors
the United States’ challenge in overcoming discrimination in the education system. (ELAB)
While Jim Crow discrimination turned to be the law of the land after the case of Plessy v.
Ferguson in 1896, the white southern leaders opposed the maintenance of education among
the blacks leading to minimal funding in discriminated schools. In the 1930s, Charles
Hamilton Houston comes up with several civil rights laws with the aim of ending
discrimination in public schools and Universities. Houston won the majority of the cases until
his death in 1950 (McArdle and Acevedo-Garcia 37). Historically, public schools admitted
students irrespective of their class. With the emergence of voucher programs and Charter
schools; however, there has been inequality in the education system. (CS) While we might
appreciate Brown’s, demand to stop racial discrimination in learning institutions, the initial
role of Brown is uncompleted and its legacy remains complex.
(TS) Hannah-Jones, claims that the school where Brown attended had initially
advertised itself as an area characterized by underpayment, unpreparedness and unmotivated.
(MP#1) She points out that as per the statistics gathered by the Education Department,
African American students were Least likely to be taught by experienced teachers. (ELAB)
Eliminating racial segregation is vital in ensuring that all students gain access to a quality
education that would lead to successful graduation and lifelong success. Even though there
has been numerous recorded historic efforts to level the ground for minority students, the
effort has been rendered insignificant. Monica Allen in her article, “Urban Education
Research and Policy Annuals,” points out that in the 1970s; various scholars examined the
issue of racial segregation in the United States using the Critical Race Theory (15). She
divides the critical race theory in education into two district groups, higher education, and K12 education. She comes up with several themes including, teaching and learning, pedagogy
and curriculum and financial and community engagement. (MP#2) In an ideal world,
equivalent opportunity in learning institutions would enable students from the marginalized
community to access equal education system, facilities, and funding as their white
counterparts. It is unfortunate, however, that we thrive in an imperfect world where the
prevalence of racial segregation can be traced throughout the K-12 continuum. (ELAB)
According to Allen, the Critical Race Theory offers educators with vital tools to trace these
matters (18). Discrimination based on social, economic, race, and sexuality aspects, pose
huge negative encounters in the education system among the non-white than the White
students. The majority of them are mainly found in special education programs, lacks the
basic resources, records poor academic results and high dropout rates, and has minimal
engagement in programs for talented and gifted students. (CS) The impact of racial
segregation on the society and to the nation at large cannot, therefore, be overlooked
considering that the persistence of this vice will lead to a loss of a generation of talented
(TS) Students subjected to racial discrimination from teachers and peers may respond
with anger, which may further prompt strict discipline and frustration. (MP#1) The rate of
suspension among the Black Americans and poor students in the institution of learning is
alarming as compared to their non-poor and white peers. Disparities in the leaning institutions
are therefore contributed by discriminatory punishment imposed on the different students for
similar behavior. (ELAB) Nathan et al., in their article “Discipline Disparities and
Discrimination in schools,” points out that the chances of being suspended among the Black
students are twice as compared to the white students (16). They demonstrate the magnitude of
the issue by giving a practice example; they claim that when black students engage in a fight,
they are given extended suspensions (Nathan et al 18). Similarly, Neil Schenherr, In his
article, “Impact Of Religion And Racial Pride On Classroom Discrimination,” explains that
African American students are subjected to harsher disciple than justified as per the research
done by the National Association of School Psychologists. The research maintained that
black American male students are three times likely than Caucasian students to be suspended
or expelled (Schenherr 16). (MP#2) Students who attend segregated schools are estimated to
end up being less successful in life. Hannah-Jones points out that in a study done in 2014 by
the University of California, showed that these students are at a higher risk of being jailed,
and have minimal chance of graduating from high school, and university. She maintains that
they are also likely to continue living in the same neighborhood, which would be the same for
their children (463). (CS) It is, therefore important to accept that the problem exists and
develop effective measures to track, monitor, research, and attend to these disparities.
(TS) In the case of Brown v. Board of Education, the Court decided that dividing
schools in terms of the race were in violation of the United States Constitution. (MP#1)
Despite this ruling, the predominant narrative among the activists in this matter has magnified
in the last decades. (ELAB) In the contemporary United States, it is approximated that 11.7
million students, which is 26 percent of the entire population in school go to district schools
in which over 74 percent of the students, are non-whites who gets intensely thimblerig on the
school-funding front (Schenherr 20). Most of the racially dominated non-white districts are
also characterized by low-income. (MP#2) Hannah-Jones explore in detail the division that
exists between the white and the non-white neighborhood. (ELAB) She points out that five
miles from Normandy, lays a wealthy county seat. The Clayton public school in this area is
dominated by the white which is most of the time ranked among the 10 percent in the state,
and that more than 96 percent of the students see to their graduation day (Hannah-Jones 563).
According to Edwin Seventh’s research, poor, black American districts school comprises of
approximately 20 percent on all Black. By contrast, while 25 percent of the black American
student goes to district schools where over 75 percent of the students are made up of the
whites, less than 5 percent goes to schools in racially concentrated, white, poor districts. He
further points out that racially dominated black American districts obtain merely $12, 5863
per funding per student as compared to $12, 892 for racially dominated white districts. (CS)
From his findings, it is clear that nonwhite school districts are given approximately $ 23
billion a lesser amount than the other district, in spite of attending to an equal number of
(TS) Segregated learning institutions are probably the most influential channel
through which segregated neighborhoods affects children. (MP#1) Hannah-Jones argues that
black families have minimal freedom of shifting to excellent school districts and that Housing
segregation is blamed for keeping these families out of society with quality education.
(ELAB) Her claims are backed up by Nancy McArdle and Dolores Acevedo-Garcia., in their
article, “Consequences of Segregation for Children’s Opportunity And Wellbeing,” saying
that children are most likely to develop a separation at a very tender age when adopting racial
bias outlooks (McArdle and Acevedo-Garcia 35). The types of programs they undergo divide
preschool kids. These kids come from wealthy backgrounds and attend center-based
preschools, which Hispanic families are disproportionately less likely to attend. McArdle and
Acevedo-Garcia explain that in a study done in a 28,000 preschool setting, it was established
the over 50 percent of black and Hispanic students went schools that are at least 90 percent
children of color (20). (MP#2) Why should a quality education be maximized to students from
a wealthy background? Learning institutions in underprivileged regions across the United
States lack resources that are usually at a richer school. (ELAB) Kendice Sumner in her TED
Talk Video, “American’s Public Schools Keep kids in poverty,” argues that we should flip
the paradigms and language in which we use to address the issue of discrimination in the
education system. She argues that “this issue is not an achievement gap, but an educational
debt for all the forgone scholarly resources that were never invested in the education on the
black and brown child over the years” (Sumner 3:50). The single recognized clandestine in
U.S history when it comes to matters of education segregation is that the one institution
established specifically for individuals of color is the Slavery Trade. The public learning
institutions in America was established, bought, and sold through the profits obtained from
the slave labor. (CS) As the Blacks were incarcerated and forbidden from obtaining the
education, their labor founded the very institutes from which they were excepted and ever
since then, all court cases, reforms, schooling policies has been an effort to modify the
structure rather than just ending and recognizing that we had it all twitted from the start.
(TS) The escalating wage discrimination isolates minority and poor students in
underprivileged schools. (MP#1) This is an issue of concern because students of color make
up a larger portion of school enrollment in the majority of the public schools. (ELAB)
Seventh, Edwin. In his book, The American Jewish Year Book, says that “in 2014, white
students comprised less than half of the public school enrolment down from 79 percent in
1970, while Hispanic students make up more than a quarter of enrollment” (113) . This is a
clear reflection of how the black and Hespanic students are becoming increasingly isolated
due to the altering racial structure. (MP#2) Nevertheless, income segregation has been
widening due to the growth in income inequality. (ELAB) Edwin estimates that, “between
1990 and 2010, between-district income segregation increased by more than 15 percent to the
families whose kids attended public schools” (117). (CS) The relationship between race and
income, therefore, makes it clear that the Hispanic and black student is frequently divided on
the basis of racial discrimination and high-poverty schools.
(TS) Even though there exist racial segregation in the education system in the United
States and a Persistent racial variance in test scores between the whites and AfricanAmericans has been an issue of controversy. (MP#1) Minimization of the black-white test
score gap is a primary target of public policy. (ELAB) African Americans have been pinned
by the test score gap for many years and thus concentrating on it now would correspond to
treating a symptom while disregarding the illness. Should we consider remedying the
structures or racial discrimination and let test scores handle themselves? Recent research
conducted by the National Assessment of Educational Progress found out that the breach
between the white and the black children’s reading, science and mathematics achievement
scores narrowed by at least 30 percent between 1971 and 1989 (The black-white test score
gap 67). The closing of the test score gap has been associated with the fact that black parents
made enormous comparative gains in their educational attainment than their white parents’
counterparts during the period of study. While black parents are considered to have less
academic qualifications, they overtook the white parents in their educational advancements
during this period of study. (CS) And as they make these advancements, the test score for
their children rose.
(TS) At the core of the disagreement is the federal government data findings given by
the UCLA Civil Rights Project on the 60th anniversary of Brown v Board of Education.
(MP#1) The findings report a huge change of the country’s school population from the civil
right era with a 32 percent decline in white students and close to the quintupling of Latino.
(ELAB) “The country’s two largest areas currently have a majority of the marginalized
groups considering that whites are only the second largest in the west. The south, which is
considered a home for most black students, now comprises of more Latinos than black and is
a profoundly tri-racial region” (McArdle and Acevedo-Garcia 32). (MP#2) This data,
however, seems to be having some loophole in its interpretation. (ELAB) This is because
when we decide to measure discrimination by the number of students attending majoritywhite schools, it is wise to acknowledge that white individuals are now a smaller percentage
of the US population. On the other hand, McArdle and Acevedo-Garcia applies this data to
claim that discrimination in learning institutions is not getting worse despite the fact that it is
not possible to make such conclusions when considering the facts on the ground. They uses
Stanford sociologist Seen Reardom and USC sociologist Ann Owens that argues that
discrimination in school have not changed much in the last years to support his claims. Owen,
however, points out that the two ways to measure discrimination are, “Exposure or isolation,
which looks at whether students attend schools with a high or low proportion of a given racial
group and Unevenness, which measures how evenly distributed students of a given racial
group are”(55). McArdle and Acevedo-Garcia uses the “unevenness” structure. (CS) They
fails to acknowledge that school discrimination has not worsened considering that there is
still uneven distribution on the contemporary world as it was in the 1980s.
(CONCLUSION) While fundamental principles of fairness and equality have not
succeeded in eliminating racial discrimination in learning institutions, closing the
achievement gaps that exist between various groups remains the central focus for most civil
rights associations in the 21st century. The damaging effects of racial segregation in schools
cannot be underestimated. The existing achievement gaps, punitive forms of discipline,
funding inequality, and racial tension dominance should be eliminated in the learning
institutions to give every student an equal opportunity to pursue their desired academic
achievements. The blacks were never considered right from the time the system of education
was developed. With the assistance of philosophical white individuals, the whites developed
their own learning institutions, claiming that education was separate but equal. The Brown v
Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in 1954 declared the legal separation of schools
illegal, but very few individuals paid attention to it. The current system of education is
segregated than it ever been and our public school system has never done right to the nonwhite kids. We focus so much to the end, test results and getting frustrated that things never
turned out well as expected due to the income gaps, the achievement gaps, the incarceration
rates, and other social-economic disparities and forget this is a problem we created for
ourselves. It is important, therefore, to acknowledge that the quality of education is directly
proportionate to access to college, jobs, and the future. While it is impossible to cover all the
groups undergoing racial segregation, it is essential however that we comprehend how
systemic racism, both current and past still dominates the majority of the institutions and
rigorously limits the opportunities afforded to many students of color in the United States.
Until we thrive in a world where every student gets a high-quality education no matter his/her
background, and color of the skin, this practice will continue and will be handed down to
Works Cited Page
Allan, Monica. “The Relevance Of Critical Race Theory: Impact On Students Of
Color,”. Urban Education Research And Policy Annual, 2016, pp. 10-20.,
https://journals.uncc.edu/urbaned/article/view/575/568. Accessed 20 July 2019.
Darling-Hammond, Linda. “Unequal Opportunity: Race And Education”. Brookings, 2010,
pp. 1-15., https://www.brookings.edu/articles/unequal-opportunity-race-andeducation/. Accessed December 3rd 2019
Hannah-Jones, Nikole. “School Segregation, The Continuing Tragedy Of Ferguson”. New
York Times Magazine, 2013, pp. 452-467., December 3rd 2019.
McArdle, Nancy, and Dolores Acevedo-Garcia. “Consequences Of Segregation For
Children’S Opportunity And Wellbeing”. A Shared Future: Fostering Communities
Of Inclusion In An Era Of Inequality, 2017, pp. 25-39.,
regation_for_children.pdf. December 3rd 2019.
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