Constructing Windmills Literature Review Paper write more 3 pages about the same assignment literature review and 8 more references Re:
SOTA Literature Review
The following memo will discuss the major parts to wind resource assessment (WRA),
starting with determining whether a potential site has a potential wind asset. Once a site is
determined, the class of wind the site has will be analyzed and the proper wind turbine will be
chosen for the site. Finally, micro-siting will be applied to various locations within the site to
maximize the potential output the power plant could produce. Once the previous steps have
been achieved, production and construction of the wind power plant can begin.
2. Wind Resource Assessment
WRA is a long process that requires more time than is given for the project, requiring
long durations of measurements. Which it also requires access to equipment that is far to
expensive for our group to afford. So. our project will be a simplified version of WRA.
2.1 Site Selection
Site selection starts with looking over a map, finding a location, and going to that
location to determine if the site has a potential wind asset . However, the process has been
incredibly modernized with the use of technology, only requiring the use of wind speed data
from previous years. Though, once a few sites have been selected for a potential wind power
plant, tests have to be run on the site to determine whether the wind speed would provide a
competitive source of energy, using towers that would read the data at the desired hub height
. Although due to the fact that the area in and around Flagstaff is very mountainous, locating
a viable site could be difficult, if the only land around that is flat doesn’t have great accessibility.
A projected wind power plant on the shores of the Korean Peninsula started its WRA due to
Korea being a very mountainous country . Which, similarly applied buoys offshore to measure
the various wind speeds, air density, etc., over the past decade. Although, the hub height for the
wind turbines planned on being used are at a height of 80m, the buoys are only 5m above the
sea level, so calculations had to be applied to the various buoys to determine the same data at
80m above ground level [1-2]. However, due to the fact that the state of Arizona has no access
to a coast, it is highly important to map a few different regions to measure the wind asset that is
available, to maximize the potential output of the power plant . For the project, essentially
satellite driven data will be used and referenced, through the use of various applications
provided to the group, similar to how part of the data was retrieved in the Korean Peninsula and
along the European seas [2-3].
It is crucial that the wind power plant at the site that will be selected has a competitive
output and cost of energy to that of other local power plants . If the selected site fails to
compete with the projected cost of energy, then a new site will have to be chosen and
compared again to the other surrounding power plants. The sites selected will be compared
based off of the projected output and the cost of energy, the site with maximized output and
minimal cost of energy will be used . Although, the issue of obtaining the permitting for the
land of the potential wind power plant could turn out to be more challenging than originally
anticipated. Depending on the ownership of the land, and the permitting laws in a given state,
the process to receiving the site certificate could be a long . Another issue with the permitting
process, is the possibility that the potential wind power plant would have an impact on the
environment within and around the site by NEPA . So, another step in the site selection
process is to have a location that would have no affect on the environment, or as little as
possible, with the potential to receiving the right to the land.
2.2 Wind Turbine Selection
Though this is a short section and part of the project overall, it is a highly dependent
aspect that needs to be addressed. Depending on a few variables, percent turbulence, and
annual average wind speed, an IEC class will be given to the site and match the class of wind
turbines needed for that site . If the wrong class of wind turbine is selected for the site with a
different wind class, the output could potentially be lower than what it could be. For our own
project, a site with at least an annual average wind speed of six meters per second will be used,
meaning the wind class will be of IV and below. Along with that, Flagstaff is at a higher altitude
and temperatures get below freezing, icing could have a negative affect on the production of
the wind power plant . Dependent on the Meteorological icing, instrument icing, and percent
loss, an IEA classification will be given to the site and a wind turbine class will be assigned for
the site. Depending on the IEC and IEA classifications for the site that will be selected, the wind
turbine will be selected based off of those classes.
Micro-siting is a process that occurs within the selected site, in which each area where a
wind turbine would be placed is analyzed to maximize the efficiency of the individual wind
turbines . Depending on the landscape of the site, the locations of each wind turbine will be
selected in such a way that they cascade in the direction of the average wind direction. This will
allow for the maximum area of the wind turbines to face the wind directly, allowing for a higher
output. For a superior wind power plant with a higher efficiency, micro-siting is divided into two
subprocesses, which are turbine arrangement and production optimization . In which the
turbine arrangement will not affect the speed and direction for the rest of the wind turbines.
Production optimization has to do with the desired hub height and the wind speeds/density at
the site and that height, essentially looking for high values for both. Overall, micro-siting will either
have a positive affect on the project if done properly, allowing for a competitive source of energy.
WRA is crucial for an effective wind power plant, without it, wind turbines would just be
placed anywhere with no concern on the potential output. Overall, the selected site will affect the
next two steps directly, with the provided information that are necessary to complete them. So,
the measurements required to be taken at each site are crucial to help calculate a potential power
output, then determining the power plants cost of energy, and compare it to local competitors.
The selected wind turbine class for the IEC and IEA classes will also allow for the maximum power
output, assisting in a lower cost of energy. Along with effective micro-siting, the power output
could be increased to a point where the cost of energy would lead local competitors. The project
involves a lot of analyzing, and a few calculations, when done right, will end with a high-quality
wind power plant.
 Michael Brower and Bruce H Bailey, Wind Resources Assessment: A Practical Guide to
Developing a Wind Project. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2012.
 Ki-Yong Oh, Ji-Young Kim, Jun-Shin Lee, and Ki-Wahn Ryu, “Wind resource assessment around
Korean Peninsula for feasibility study on 100 MW class offshore wind farm,” Renewable Energy,
vol. 42, pp. 217-226. 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2011.08.012
 A. Sempreviva, R. Barthelmie, and S. Pryor, “Review of Methodologies for Offshore Wind
Resource Assessment in European Seas,” Surveys in Geophysics, vol. 29(6), pp. 471-497. 2008. DOI:
 Thomas L Acker, Susan K Williams, Earl P.N. Duque, Grant Brummels, and Jason Buechler, “Wind
resource assessment in the state of Arizona: Inventory, capacity factor, and cost,” Renewable
Energy, vol. 32(9), pp. 1453-1466. 2007. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2006.06.002
 Timothy L. McMahan, Peter D. Mostow, The Law of Wind: A Guide to Business and Legal Issues,
Chapter 2: Siting and Permitting Wind Projects. Stoel Rives, LLP, 2005.
 Research Gate. (2015, May) Wind Classes According to IEC [Online]. Available:
 Anna Balmaceda and Carlos Maynez, Wind Turbines : Types, Design, and Efficiency.
Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013.
 Matthew Huaiquan Zhang, Wind resource assessment and micro-siting : science and
engineering. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015
 Dongxiao Niu, Zongyu Song, Xinli Xiao, and Yuwei Wang, “Analysis of wind turbine micrositing
efficiency: An application of two-subprocess data envelopment analysis method,” Journal of
Cleaner Production, vol. 170, pp. 193-204. January 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.113
Final SOTA Literature Review
Wind power stations used to produce electric energy. The hundreds of turbine
unites are participate in this process. Wind power under the second generation of
renewables. It successfully works approximately 98% with correct availabilities
. Wind farms provide a lot of benefits for the community and environment. The Kansas
Waverly wind farm provides 237 full-time equivalent jobs during construction as well as 12
permanent jobs . Choose a location for a wind power station is challenging. Site evaluation
and need evaluations are the most important factors to justify before starting a wind farm . In
order to that after analyzing the client’s needs engineers have to make multiple-goal statements to
satisfy their needs. Before starting to build wind power station engineers and site selectors have
to focus on numerous directions. This review demonstrates three major factors, site selection,
turbine selection, and microsite.
In our design process main goal is the site selection. Flagstaff is a city that has higher
elevation and clients want to find a field within a 100-mile radius of Flagstaff. GH Wind Farmer
and Wasp are the pieces of software used to find the best location in the area . By doing
multiple simulations helps to identify the best efficiency location and positions of the area. The
site has to easily access to everyone with quality infrastructures because it is important to
maintain the site productively. Colorado State is 600 miles away from the flagstaff and it has a
high domestic wind turbine manufacturing capability also the only state in which the turbine,
tower, and blade facilities are co-located . These features help to future work of the site.
The first step of the methodology is micro sitting. It observes the conditions of the
site environment, weather and how to organize the turbines. Wind speed uses to measure in
different seasons because wind conditions help to choose the type of turbine . Turbines
organize at different distances. Close pack turbines put materials on risk and reduce the
operating life of the turbines . Wind turbines make different noises by harming
communities and wildlife because of a lack of lubricants in mechanical parts . To overcome
these issues we have to go through the turbine section. Different turbines use for different
purposes and produce different impacts. In this project, we have to choose a wind turbine from
the available market. In order to select the turbine, we have to focus on the curvature and
deflection of a rotating blade because the correct measurement of curvature and deflection helps
to generate the maximum amount of energy with the provide wind .
Building a wind farm goes under three categories: Site selection, micro sitting and
turbine selection. All the selections have to satisfy client’s and stakeholder’s needs. Site selection
can productively done by software with multiple simulations. Micro sitting gives high priority
for site layout and weather conditions. Turbines select under quality factors. holistically, the
major goal of the project is to give economic benefits to the government and proof wind farming
S. Rajper and I. Amin, “Optimization of wind turbine micro siting: A comparative study”,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 5485-5492, 2012. Available:
”Kansas | Waverly Wind Farm”, Waverlywindfarm.com, 2019. [Online]. Available:
https://waverlywindfarm.com/. [Accessed: 06- Oct- 2019].
R. Clark, Small wind. Academic Press, 2013.
B. Mohamed, B. Fadela and K. Mounir, “Optimization of the wind turbines location in
Kaberten wind farm in Algeria”, in International Conference on Technologies and Materials for
Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability, Algeria, 2015, pp. 122 – 129.
S. Jeremy C, K. Anna, t. suzanne, R. Joseph O and K. David J, “Economic Impacts from
N. Watch, “Micrositing”, National Wind Watch, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.windwatch.org/documents/micrositing/. [Accessed: 06- Oct- 2019].
A. Laratro, M. Arjomandi, R. Kelso and B. Cazzolato, “A discussion of wind turbine
interaction and stall contributions to wind farm noise”, Journal of Wind Engineering and
Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 127, pp. 1-10, 2014. Available: 10.1016/j.jweia.2014.01.007.
J. White, D. Adams and J. Paquette, “Monitoring of wind turbines”, 9714085, 2009.
To: Dr. Hesam Moghaddam
CC: Prabin Poudel, GTA
From: Salar Golshan
Re: SOTA Literature Review
For centuries humanity has persisted on attempting to rejuvenate energy from natural sources.
Over the past few decades, there has been a global watch on limiting the use of fossil fuels and
moving towards more natural sources for energy. The most prominent ones being solar, wind,
and water; in 2018 the planet had transitioned to using sustainable energy to fund up to 15% of
it’s energy use. There is a need for even a higher percentage, thus, there should be changes
made on a local basis as well. This project creating a windmill plant within the premises of
Northern Arizona has brought about multiple unexpected challenges.
The main article of finding a premise to develop this farm on has been a challenge. The team
must first identify the land that is within our reach to work on. Although, with new insights
proving that we are in times of desperate needs, multiple new sources and studies have proved
that the local government is on the side of sustainable energy. Thus, if we were to breach a
piece of land that is outside of the team’s jurisdiction; there are legal aspects of the project that
will still allow the team to work with the most promising area that we find . With a
prospected area in mind, the team must analyze and test multiple different aspects of the land
first. Since we are working in Northern Arizona, one of the largest Ponderosa Tree populations
in the world, the team must work around the natural habitats, not harming the nature. Thus,
tests in accordance to the land are crucial, such as the areas average tree height in accordance
to the wind speed at the average height of a windmill and the average amount of wind per day,
the weather conditions throughout the months, the soil and ground conditions throughout the
months, etc. These tests may range up to several months as not enough time evaluating may
be detrimental to the project’s success . Once these tests are conducted on the proximity of
the area the team will know for certain if the project may be initiated. The designated land
surface geometry is a crucial aspect to the project’s success rate. Wind speeds within a certain
range depend heavily on the surface roughness levels as it determines the vertical profiles,
temperature, turbulence, and so like atmospheric parameters . The analyzations regarding
land surface geometry must be evaluated with precision as the computer analytics are often
times incorrect due to the uneven land geometry of forests and so like green areas. Forests
maintain the largest margin of error in computer surface geometry analytics ranging from .3m
to 2.0m. With such land geometry examinations, there is a concise determination in the
amount of energy that could potentially be produced. One of the most essential goals for the
project is to maximize the generation of energy. Thus, with the energy production determined,
the team will conduct a comparison to the cost of the project in order to visualize if the land is
the most prominent for the project description. In order to do so, the team will configure the
Levelized Cost of Electricity Generation (LCOE), which is the price of electricity required for a
project where the revenues would equal costs , in order to configure the minimum amount
required. In order to maximize the efficiency of the project, the team will calculate the Capacity
Factor (CF), the ration of annual energy output of a windmill farm to all of its outputs if the
windmills were to be functioning at full capacity. With the data classifications identified, the
next objective for the team is to determine the structure of the windmill power plant. Although
wind speed is a crucial classification that the team must take into consideration, the team must
also keep aspects such as wind direction, density, icing/snowing frequency, and all other
conditions . All of these factors contribute a great deal to the project design. If any of these
analytics are compromised, the whole project has the potential of being ruined. With all of
these analytics discussed, and the use of renewable energy is surged as the most prominent use
of energy; the price renewable energy will eventually be far more promising than the cost of
fossil fuels .
With such analytics and precise data graphs, the team will have an aid when determining the
prime land for the project. These tests and data must be evaluated with sufficient time allowed
for each aspect, if the team is rushed the data sets may very well be incorrect and jeopardize
the projects CF ratings. The Collegiate windmill Power Plant has the potential to be a defining
movement for the rest of the world to notice and take action on local basis as well. If all the
analytics are determined to the correct precision this project will be a prominent example for
all to follow.
 B. Parsons, M Milligan, B. Zavadil, D. Broks, B Kirby, K. Dragoon, and J Caldwell, “Grid
Impacts of Wind Power: A summary of Recent Studies in the United States”, Wind Energy, Vol.
7, no.2, pp. 87-108, 2004.
- Michael Brower, J. W. Zack, B. Bailey, M. N. Schwartz, and D. L. Elliott, “MESOSCALE
MODELING AS A TOOL FOR WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MAPPING,” TrueWind
Solutions, Albany, NY, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO
 T.L. Acker, S. K. Williams, E. P. Duque, G. Brummels, and J. Buechler, “Wind Resource
Assessment in the State of Arizona: Inventory, Capacity Factor, and Cost”, Renewable Energy,
Vol. 32, no. 9, 1453-1466, 2007.
 M. Shahzad, N. Ghaffour, and K. C. Ng, “Fuel-cost apportionment and desalination
technology selection based on exergy analysis,” Renewable Energy Technologies for Water
Desalination, pp. 199–210, 2017.
 “The Wind Resource”, Wind Energy Handbook, pp. 9-38, Mar. 2011.
 S. S. Kutty, M. Khan, and M. R. Ahmed, “Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Suva Fiji,
With accurate Weibull Parameters”, Energy Exploration & Exploitation, Vol. 37, no 3, pp 10091038, 2019.
 “How Much of World Energy Consumption and Production is From Renewable Energy?” EIA,
 Reed-Huff, LaVonda N.Scitech Lawyer, “Should the Federal Government Enact Regulations
to Protect the Right to Install Windmills and Other Clean Energy Devices?” Vol. 6, Iss. 3, 2010.
SOTA Final Literature Review
With the increasing concerns about global warming it is imperative that new forms of renewable
energy are developed to reduce the admissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Wind
energy started to come to prominence because of its ability to prod…
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