CJ 540 SDSU BYU Cougars vs San Diego State Aztecs Direct Observation Deliverable 3: Direct Observation For this assignment you are tasked with using the q

CJ 540 SDSU BYU Cougars vs San Diego State Aztecs Direct Observation Deliverable 3: Direct Observation

For this assignment you are tasked with using the qualitative research method direct observation. Direct observation is a research method in which the researcher observes the subject(s) in his or her usual environment without altering that environment. The researcher then takes detailed field notes, which become the data for the study. Typically, you are trying to learn something about your subjects’ behaviors or actions in the context of the specific environment you are observing.

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For this assignment, watch the direct observation:

• Watch this game and observe like you were sitting at the game. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ylU5dBU5dX4)

• It is okay to make up your on things about the game and the behavior of the fans.

• Review the Chapters attached

You will be writing about this football game as if you were there at the game and observing it. I am a sdsu student and that was a home game.

Important: Remember that the sole purpose of your visit is to observe, not participate! You should be taking notes the entire time you are there. (For example you shouldn’t conduct your observation at a soccer game you are playing in, or a karaoke bar where you are going out with your friends on a Friday night). You must be intentional that you are there only to observe.

Guidelines for conducting Direct Observation

1. Decide on a location from the list above. Make sure the location is a public place. Invasion of privacy is unacceptable. Please choose from the list of locations you have been given.

2. Set a timeline. You should plan on spending a minimum of one hour, but not longer than two hours observing. Make sure you plan your schedule so that you can do the observation at the most appropriate time given your location. You wouldn’t want to go to the beach on a cold, rainy night when no one is there. You want to be able to observe people!

3. Take notes! The more detailed and factual, the better. You can handwrite your notes while in the field (if this is easier and makes you less conspicuous) but you should type up your notes as soon as you have the opportunity (usually right after leaving the field so the memories are fresh). Your notes can be written in the first person (e.g. I arrived at the restaurant and sat in the far corner of the store at a table that was facing the center of the room. I saw a man with a red hat come in and sit down without ordering anything). Your notes should detail everything you observed related to your research goals, from the seemingly mundane to the more interesting/exciting. It is ok to note what you think is happening (e.g. “the man sat down at the table and seemed angry at the woman who was with him”) but you shouldn’t add any of your own judgement into your field notes (e.g. “he had no right to be angry at her, she was just waiting for him”).

4. Be aware of your surroundings and be courteous to your subjects. In some situations, people may not notice your presence, but if they ask questions, answer briefly, politely, and honestly. If they seem offended or annoyed, stop asking questions or leave the location. If you interview anyone, you must get their informed consent (you won’t be doing this, just FYI). If anyone makes you feel threatened or uneasy, leave immediately.

What to submit as Deliverable 3

1. You will submit your detailed field notes from your observation. Be sure to include the location you observed, date of the observation, your arrival time, departure time and all other details of what you observed while you were there.

2. Drawing on your field notes as your “data,” answer the following questions: a. What are the norms for behavior in this location? b. What happens when someone deviates from these norms? c. Who typically adhered to the norms? d. Who were the norm-breakers?

3. Finally, consider how YOU played a role in the research process. How did your personal experience, perspective, opinions, or behaviors influence the things you paid attention to, and the way you interpreted your data? How did this “structured” observation differ from “everyday” observation? If you observed in the field, what did it feel like? Were you comfortable or uncomfortable – why? Would you do anything differently next time? What did you learn from the experience? CHAPTER 11
Evaluation and Policy
Analysis
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Topics to Cover
 A Brief History of Evaluation Research
 Evaluation Basics
 Questions for Evaluation Research
 Design Decisions
 Quasi-Experimental Designs in Evaluation Research
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Topics to Cover
• Nonexperimental Designs
• Qualitative and Quantitative Methods
• Policy Research: Increasing Demand for Evidence-Based Policy
• Basic Science or Applied Research
• Ethics in Evaluation
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
History of Evaluation Research
• Purpose of research is to investigate social programs
• Often referred to as applied research because the
findings can immediately be utilized and applied
• During the 1960s, the practice of evaluation research
increased dramatically not only in the United States but
also around the world
• All evaluation research is empirical and data-driven
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
History of Evaluation Research
• Patton (1997) coined the term utilizationfocused evaluation
– Evaluations should be judged by their utility
and actual use
– In addition, there has been increased
concern in the field regarding fiscal
accountability, documenting the worth of
social program expenditures in relation to
their costs.
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Evaluation Basics
• Inputs
– Resources, raw materials, clients, and staff that go into a program
• Program process
– The complete treatment or service delivered by the program
• Outputs
– The services delivered or new products produced by the program
process
• Outcomes
– The impact of the program process on the cases processed
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Evaluation Basics
• Feedback
– Information about service delivery system
outputs, outcomes, or operations that is
available to any program inputs
• Stakeholders
– Individuals and groups who have some
basis of concern with the program
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Questions for Evaluation Research
• Is the program needed? (evaluation of need)
• Can the program be evaluated? (evaluability assessment)
• How does the program operate? (process evaluation)
• What is the program’s impact? (impact evaluation)
• How efficient is the program? (efficiency analysis)
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Needs Assessment
• Determines the needs of some population that might be met
with a social program
• Is a new program needed? Is an existing program still
needed?
• If the program is needed, is it this program that is needed?
• To assess need:
– Ascertain nature and scope of problem the program is
designed to address
– Examine target population (population believed to have
the need for the program or that the program is intended
to serve)
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Needs Assessment
• Concerns
– Whose definitions or perceptions should be used
to shape our description of the level of need?
– How will we deal with ignorance of need?
– How can we understand the level of need without
understanding the social context from which that
level of need emerges? (Short answer to that one:
We can’t!)
– What, after all, does need mean in the abstract?
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Evaluability Assessment
• Determine whether the program can be evaluated within available time
and resources
– Barriers
• Stakeholders want only good news, rather than rigorous
evaluation
• Program staff are alienated or distrustful of evaluators
• Program staff lack a clear understanding of the program’s aim(s)
and are just “helping people” or “putting in time”
• Goals of program are too vague to measure or not agreed upon by
stakeholders
• Evaluability assessment may help to:
– Clarify program goals or refine program operations
– Determine that an evaluation will not provide useful information until
the program implements some changes
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Process Evaluation
• Also called program monitoring
• Determine if the program is working according as it
was intended to
• Is program operating according to its design?
– Is it doing what it says it is doing?
• Typically both quantitative and qualitative data are
used
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Evaluation of Impact or Outcomes
• Also called impact analysis or impact evaluation
• Determine whether a treatment or service has an effect
• Did program have intended consequences?
– Outcome refers to the effect on clients
– Impact refers to the effect on larger system/community
• Often uses experimental or quasi-experimental designs to
assess outcome and impact
– Did treatment/intervention (independent variable) have
desired effect (dependent variable)
– Selection bias makes it difficult to utilize an experimental
design
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Efficiency Evaluation
• Compares program effects to costs
• Do benefits of a program offset the costs of providing the program?
• Two general types of evaluations:
– Cost-benefit compares program expenditures to monetary value of
outcomes/impacts
– Cost-effectiveness compares program expenditures to actual
outcomes/impacts; how much it costs to achieve a specific
outcome
• Requires that evaluators:
– Identify and measure costs and benefits
– Express them in dollars (monetize costs and benefits)
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Design Decisions
• Once we have decided on the focus of an evaluation, there are
still important decisions to be made about how to design the
specific evaluation project:
– Black box or program theory: Do we care how the program
gets results?
– Researcher or stakeholder orientation: Whose goals matter
most?
– Quantitative or qualitative methods: Which methods provide
the best answers?
– Simple or complex outcomes: How complicated should the
findings be?
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Black Box Evaluation
• Addresses whether the program produced the
desired outcome occur or not
• Does not address the process by which the
program produced the effect
• Common orientation in outcome/impact
evaluations
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Theory-Driven Evaluation
• Starts with program theory
– Model of how the program is supposed to produce
desired results
• In prescriptive models, designers state how they
believe the program will achieve the desired
effects
• In descriptive models, the evaluator derives
program theory by observing what actually
happens in the program
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Theory-Driven Evaluation
• Evaluator devises evaluation to measure how
well each piece of the “theory” is
implemented
– Enables evaluator to identify which aspect
of the program needs work and which are
operating well, based on processes
observed and outcomes produced
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stakeholder Approaches
• In program evaluation, the research question
is often set by the program sponsors or the
government agency that is responsible for
reviewing the program
• Encourage researchers to be responsive to
program stakeholders
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stakeholder Approaches
 Two approaches:
o Utilization-focused evaluation
➢ The evaluator forms a task force of program stakeholders
who help shape the evaluation project so that they are
most likely to use its results (Patton 2002)
o Action research or Participatory research
➢Program participants are engaged with the researchers as
co-researchers and help design, conduct, and report the
research
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Social Science Approaches
• Emphasize the importance of researcher expertise and
maintenance of some autonomy in order to develop the most
trustworthy, unbiased evaluation
• Evaluators derive a program theory from information they
obtain on how the program operates and extant social science
theory and knowledge, not from the views of stakeholders
• In goal-free evaluation, researchers do not even permit
themselves to learn what goals the program stakeholders have
for the program
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Disadvantages of Stakeholder
and Social Science Approaches
• If stakeholders are ignored, researchers may find that
participants are uncooperative, that their reports are unused,
and that the next project remains unfunded
• If social science procedures are neglected, standards of
evidence will be compromised, conclusions about program
effects will likely be invalid, and results are unlikely to be
generalizable to other settings
• These undesirable possibilities have led to several attempts to
develop more integrated approaches
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Integrative Approaches
• Seek to balance the goal of carrying out a project that is
responsive to stakeholder concerns with the goal of objective,
scientifically trustworthy, and generalizable results
• Many evaluation researchers now recognize that they must
take account of multiple values in their research and be
sensitive to the perspectives of different stakeholders, in
addition to maintaining a commitment to the goals of
measurement validity, internal validity, and generalizability
(Chen 1990)
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Simple or Complex Outcomes
• The selection of a single outcome measure or complex
outcomes measures is an important step
• Examination of a single outcome may miss process of
how program works
• Examination of multiple outcomes greatly complicates
analysis and interpretation, however the result usually is
a much more realistic, and richer, understanding of
program impact
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Experimental Designs
• Evaluations can use an:
– Experimental design
• The three criteria necessary for establishing a causal
relationship are: association between the independent
and dependent variables, correct time order (the
independent variable precedes the dependent), and
nonspuriousness (rule out influence of other variables)
• But is random assignment to conditions always possible
in the evaluation of a social program?
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Quasi-Experimental Designs
 Evaluations can also use a:
o Quasi-experimental design
➢Randomization is usually not possible in evaluation
research
➢Two types of quasi-experimental designs that are used
are nonequivalent control group design (non-random
assignment of control and experimental groups) and
time series design (many pretest and posttest
observations of the same group)
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Non-Experimental Designs
• A single group is studied only once, after the
treatment or program has been delivered (a oneshot design)
• No comparison is made to a control or comparison
– As a result, evaluations with a non-experimental
design are “of almost no scientific value”
(Campbell and Stanley 1966:6)
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Qualitative and Quantitative
Methods
• Evaluation research that attempts to identify the effects of a
treatment, law, or program typically is quantitative (e.g.,
impact evaluation)
• Qualitative methods:
– Add depth, detail, nuance, and exemplary case studies to
quantitative evaluations (Patton 1997), for example in
process evaluation
– Highlight the importance of learning how different
individuals react to the treatment
– Increase understanding as to how social programs actually
operate
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Evidence–Based Policy
• Based on a systematic review of all available
evidence that assesses what works and what does
not
• Reviews attempt to quantify the successfulness of
particular programs and interventions
– Meta-analysis can be used
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Basic Science or Applied Research
• Evaluation research seeks to determine whether one
program or policy has a more desirable impact than
another
• This knowledge can then be applied to policy
formation and, as such, is termed applied research
• In contrast, basic science is generally used for the
discipline itself, for advancing general knowledge
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Ethical Issues in Evaluation
Research
• Most issues concern outcome and impact studies
• Issues related to clients:
– Distribution of benefits
– Preserving confidentiality
– Participant burden may be considerable
• Issues related to evaluation design:
– Research designs may be shaped by politics
– Intent of evaluation may be political
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Ethical Issues in Evaluation
Research
• Issues related to use of evaluation results
– Sharing of results
• Only with sponsors?
• With clients?
• With general public?
– Scientific credibility
• If design is poor, the results should not be used,
but if client controls use, the researcher may not
be able to avoid their use
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Discussion
• Why do you believe some programs are still around
even if research has shown the programs to be
ineffective?
• Why do researchers care about the rigor of their
evaluation research’s design?
• Consider a social program or policy, such as DARE.
How might we be able to evaluate the effectiveness
of this program or policy?
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
CHAPTER 12
Mixing and Comparing
Methods
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Topics to Cover
• What Are Mixed Methods?
• Types of Mixed Methods Designs
• Strengths and Limitations of Mixed Methods
• Comparing Results Across Studies
• Ethics and Mixed Methods
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Mixed Methods
• The use of qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate a
phenomenon
• Commonly used by members of the early Chicago School to study
crime and juvenile delinquency in the early 1920s
• However, the majority of published work in the last fifty years can
be divided into the broad categories of either qualitative methods
or quantitative methods
• Mixed methods research is experiencing a rebirth in the social
sciences, particularly in the criminological sciences
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Mixed Methods
• Reasons to use mixed methods:
– Take advantage of the strengths of each
methodological approach
– Add insights about the intervention process
that cannot easily be obtained by the primary
method
• Mixed methods is also referred to as triangulation
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Mixed Methods
 Paradigm wars
o The intense debate from the 1970s to the 1990s between social
scientists over the value of positivist and interpretivist/constructivist
research philosophies
 Methodological pragmatists
– Different philosophy than positivist and interpretivist/constructivist
research philosophies
– Believe that different methods should be used to answer the
questions to which they are most suited (Onwuegbuzie and Combs
2010)
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Mixed Methods
• Mixed methods should be used if:





The researcher believes in the value of the approach
It is consistent with the researcher’s goals and prior experiences
The researcher is well trained to mix methods or can collaborate
The research question allows for unanticipated results
Different research questions are congruent and convey a need for
integration
– It is feasible given time and resource constraints
– Participants are accessible
(Plano Clark and Badiee 2010)
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Mixed Methods Designs
• Convergent parallel design
– Quantitative and qualitative methods are implemented at the same time
– Findings are integrated and interpreted together
• Exploratory sequential design
– The qualitative method is implemented first followed by the quantitative
method
• Embedded design
– The primary method is qualitative or quantitative but the researcher
adds the other component to gain additional insight
– Can be either concurrent or sequential
(Creswell and Plano Clark 2011)
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Mixed Methods Designs
• Transformative design
– Uses a theoretical perspective with a social justice focus such
as feminist research or participatory action research
– Research is done to improve the well-being of vulnerable
populations
• Multiphase design
– Involves a series of quantitative and qualitative designs
– Each design and the findings inform the next phase
(Creswell and Plano Clark 2011)
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Mixed Methods: Notational System
• A notational system exists for distinguishing different ways of mixing
quantitative and qualitative methods
– Distinguishes the priority given to one method over the other and the
sequence in which they are used
• Examples:
– QUAL + QUAN: equal importance of the two approaches and their
concurrent use
– QUAL(quan): sequenced use, with qualitative methods given priority
– QUAN(qual): qualitative methods embedded within a primarily
quantitative project
(Creswell 2010)
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Strengths and Limitations of Mixed
Methods
• The choice of a data collection method should
be guided in large part by the aspect of validity
that is of most concern and the best method for
answering the research question
• No method is superior to another in all respects
• Each method varies in its suitability to different
research questions and goals
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Comparing Research Designs
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Meta-Analysis
• A quantitative method for identifying patterns in findings across
multiple studies (Cooper and Hedges 1994)
• Previous studies are treated as cases whose features are
measured as variables and then analyzed statistically
• Shows how evidence about interventions varies across research
studies
• Enhances the generalizability of the findings
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Meta-Analysis
• Used when a number of studies have attempted to
answer the same research question with similar
quantitative methods
• Not typically used when:
– Multiple studies used different methods or measured
different dependent variables
– Original case data from these studies are available and
can actually be combined and analyzed together
(Lipsey and Wilson 2001)
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Process of Meta-Analysis
• A research problem is formulated about prior research
• The literature is searched systematically to identify the entire
population of relevant studies
– Multiple bibliographic databases are typically used
– Some researchers also search for related dissertations and
conference papers
• Eligibility criteria must be specified to determine which studies
to include
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Process of Meta-Analysis
• Lipsey and Wilson (2001) suggest that eligibility criteria include the
following:
– Distinguishing features
• Specific intervention tested and the groups compared
– Research respondents
• Population to which generalization is sought
– Key variables
• Must be sufficient to allow tests of the hypotheses of concern and
controls for likely additional influences
– Research methods
• Trade-off must be made between including the range of studies
about a research question and excluding those that are so
different in their methods as not to yield comparable data
Bachma 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Process of Meta-Analysis
• Cultural and linguistic range
– If the study population is going to be limited to English language
publications, or …
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