Virginia Commonwealth University Economic Justice Paper There are to file attachment the first one is a draft use the draft as an information and sources to do the poster. The second file is an example of poster paper use it as a guidance to know how the poster should look like. Running head: ECONOMIC JUSTICE
Economic Justice through the Lens of Integral Human Development
Economic Justice through the Lens of Integral Human Development
Even with a new constitutional dispensation in Kenya, the current ethnic divisions and
policy politicization derails economic development and elimination of worsening poverty levels.
The relationship between ethnic divisions and lack of economic development and worsening
poverty levels is one that every citizen in Kenya and people beyond understand well. Keya has
42 tribes, and each of these must be represented in terms of leadership for fairness and for
developments in every part of the country to be experienced. However, there has been more
division in Kenya today more than ever. People recognize each other not as Kenyans but as
belonging to different tribes, which has increased cases of tribalism and favors for those people
of the same ethnicity. This is a weak point that the politicians or leaders of Kenya use to instill
hate among people and gain power that they use against the same people. This promotes the
culture of impunity that leads to weak or stunted development in the country, increased
corruption and also more division among the people.
The leaders of Kenya have been on the forefront in dividing the people through their
various acts in public and careless statements which often invoke increased hatred for some
tribes. Instead of the leaders being a uniting factor, they have been the source of conflicts and
separation for Kenyans as they confuse them to hate each other whereas they steal and grab
property and money that belongs to the Kenyans. Such direction of poor leadership and ethnicity
has led to significant economic problems which even the new constitution could not fix. This
paper will focus on the economic implications of poor governance on the economy. The country
faces immense poverty levels, lack of employment, inequitable distribution of resources, and
most significant, the increase in international debt. The paper also sorts to address various
strategies which would help the country overcome the problem of poverty, unemployment and
high levels of inequality.
Kenya experienced approximately 4% GDP growth from 2004 to 2007, and GDP
declined to 1.7% in 2008 and 2.6% in 2009. Since the eruption of terrorism, trade at the Nairobi
Stock Exchange has been seriously disrupted. Physical assets were destroyed during the 2008
post-election unrest, about 300,000 citizens were affected, and 1,000 died, consumer and tourist
interest were lost, and social capital destroyed. At the same time, waterfront transportation
operations were adversely impacted because, due to the violence, employees have stopped
reporting to work. In 2018, Kenya’s Gross Domestic Product rose by 6% relative to the previous
year. This rate exceeds the estimate of 4.9 million reported in 2017 by 14-tenths of one per cent.
In 2018, Kenya’s GDP per capita was $1,710, $104 higher than those in 2017, $1,560. To look at
the speciation of per capita GDP, it’s fascinating to look back several years and equate this
information with those of 2008 when Kenya’s GDP per capita was $1,978 (Mitullah, 2012.
However, the country’s per capita income in 2014 If we rank the nations by their GDP per capita,
Kenya is in 152nd place, and its populace has a low prosperity relative to the top 196 nations.
World Bank estimated that the country is still suffering at 29.2% (14.2 million people)
with elevated rates of deprivation as compared to approximately 5% less before the new
constitution. The study suggests that many individuals are unable to meet basic needs because of
abject deprivation exacerbated by unemployment (Durevall, & Sjö, 2012). Throughout the
planet, more than 3.4 billion citizens are still unable to fulfill basic needs surviving on $3.10
daily compared to $3.00 a decade ago. World Poverty Clock study in June found that
14.6 million citizens were living in severe poverty, with Nakuru, Lamu, Nairobi and Kirinyaga
split by less than 3 per cent. Operating on less than $3.20 a day represents deprivation levels in
low-middle-income nations, while $5.50 a day represents high-middle-income levels (Durevall,
& Sjö, 2012). The unemployment rates in the country have worsened even after the
implementation of the new constitution. The country’s rate of unemployment was recorded as
8.9% in 2008, but by 2013, the country’s unemployment rate had his 9.7%. The populace of
Kenya is 47 million and each child born currently owes $1,200 to the lenders (Statista, 2019).
The internal and international borrowing of the nation is now at a terrible $50 billion, 15% above
the International Monetary Fund (IMF) guidelines for emerging economies (Statista, 2019).
The main issue for the country’s economic downturn in poor implementation of
economic reform which leads to poor cost-benefit analysis of the investment in infrastructure and
lack of political will to address the main issues facing the country. The Kenyan economy
continues to report poor performance over the past four quarters with decreasing levels of
economic development. Low fiscal output, increasing inflation, and a devaluing local currency
represent the worsening financial performance. The country’s international status is also
worsening as a growing trade deficit, arising from weak export results, is reflected in an
expanding trade deficit. While Kenya has a fairly lengthy record of market reforms to liberalize
the market and has made some strides, it has called into question the nation’s dedication to
Poor economic management, marked by corruption at all stages of public discourse, is
also a significant factor to low economic output and a subject of conflict among Kenya and
foreign lenders. However, the country’s democratic decree is now under pressure with bitter
battles for President Uhuru Kenyatta’s successor. The country is highly dependent on the
political agenda and politicization of economic issues. Notably, infrastructural development is
implemented to improve the political image rather than following the results from a proper costbenefit analysis. Together with poor economic management, Kenya’s deteriorating economic
performance is expressed in the nation’s severe poverty condition. A continuously high rate of
local consumption (public and private) has highlighted Kenya’s development success. The
increase in staple food prices justified the spike in inflation.
Certain variables, including the spike in the VAT limit, shilling decline against the US
dollar, and the increase in oil products, led to the inflationary burdens. The level of deprivation is
highest in rural areas with an average of about 53 per cent of the nation living in extreme
poverty. The specific characteristics of poverty in Kenya entail landlessness and the lack of any
schooling; the impoverished are also classified into several socio-economic groups, including
small-scale farmers, pastoralists in arid and semi-arid land, farmworkers, unqualified staff,
and women. The backbone of the poor economic status is also attributable to the democratic
processes where the citizens focus on the ethnic groupings rather than focusing on development
agenda. As a result, the elected officials push for political and social agenda which benefits their
allies rather than the economic needs of the country.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In light of the above, the current economic crisis in Kenya is as a result of poor
governance and implementation of the 2010 constitution. The country has also taken the
ethnicity-based politics where national leaders formulate and apply dividing measures which in
turn lead to unequal distribution of resources, poverty, inflation and unemployment, especially
among the young people. The country’s current focus is political power and relationships rather
than economic-based ideology. There are however, various strategies and measures the nation
should take to reduce the negative economic impacts of the politicization of policies and ethnic
divisions. First, Kenya’s ethnicity approach can be through helping structures required to
safeguard stability and cohesion. This can be achieved by agencies or government organizations
such as the National Commission for Cohesion and Integration (NCIC), which has the mission to
eradicate tribal discernment and foster harmony among Kenyans. Though there is the NCIC, they
lack the law enforcement resources among the propagators of ethnic divisions and economic
disparities. Such laws need to be strengthened with the Kenyan senate’s assistance. Secondly,
citizens in Kenya ought to establish a sense of shared identity and then develop a philosophy that
citizens can connect with jointly rather than focusing on regional political and economic agenda.
The policy should, therefore, be such that its application will result in measurable popular
advantages, and it must be sufficiently advanced and be able to survive past a sitting president or
state. Negative race avoids this by illustrating the communities’ dominance.
Thirdly, since passing the 2010 Constitution, Kenya has become at the frontline of calling
for constitutional reform. The constitution of 2010 also forbids prejudice on the grounds of
ethnicity. It explicitly defines non-discrimination against disenfranchised groups and their
security as part of Kenya’s domestic principles and policymaking ideals. Egalitarianism and
protection from prejudice are also provided for in the Constitution. It is unequivocal that, among
a wide range of other factors, neither the government nor any individual should discriminate
against another individual on the grounds of tribal grounds, especially during the political
elections and government appointments. This will help the country to focus on implementing the
new constitution to improve the economic and social development in the country rather than
focusing on power brackets and sharing of positions.
Durevall, D. and Sjö, B. (2012). The Dynamics of Inflation in Ethiopia and Kenya, African
Development Bank Group, Working Paper No. 151.
Mitullah, V. W. (2012). Development Ideals and Reality: Bridging the Kenya Gap through
Devolution. Maseno University Journal Volume 1(12), (105-127).
Statista. (2019, February 18). Kenya – unemployment rate 1998-2018. Retrieved from
Ecotourism, Microenterprises, and International Business in South Africa:
Explorations Into an Ethical and Sustainable Partnership
Examples of Eco-tourism Microenterprises
Complementing attempts to promote exports and attract large scale
Foreign Direct Investment to South Africa, the post-apartheid
government sees the Small, Medium, and Micro-enterprise (SMME)
sector as a means for significant job creation and income growth.
International businesses that commit themselves to, or are responding to
investor demand for, profit seeking tied to socially responsible
investment will find such opportunities by linking with SMMEs,
particularly in activities related to eco-tourism and microlending.
❖Tour operations in townships and rural areas
❖Transportation services (especially between major population centers and
wildlife parks and reserves)
❖Cultural sensitivity training
❖Wildlife and habitat preservation, based on traditional knowledge and
❖Souvenir production and retail distribution
❖Guest houses (especially in townships and rural villages)
❖Meals—whether home cooked or available for take away
❖Child care and cleaning—especially for extended stay tourists
❖Language classes and interpreting—could be offered to researchers, too
Source: On the Road Less Traveled, http://tracybarnettonline.com/blog/page/2/
➢Tourism Enterprise Programme created 4,200 new jobs and
helped SMMEs raise R125 million in new business in its first two
years. (Proudly South African, 2002)
➢The poverty rate in rural areas is nearly 70%, with 53% of all
South Africans living below the poverty line (Marsh and Saran,
➢South Africa ranked 94th out of 162 countries evaluated using the
Human Development Index.
➢HDI value of .702 placed South Africa in the “Medium HDI”
➢ Scores relatively high in areas of education (adult literacy of
84.9%, and an Enrolment Ratio of 93%), but less well in areas of
health (life expectancy at 53.9 years, with an index value of .48)
➢A microenterprise employs no more than five people (full time
equivalent), has revenues of less than R 150,000 (about US
$21,000) and total gross assets (excluding fixed property) of less
than R100,000 (National Small Business Act, 1996).
Image source: Megan Peck’s Travel Blog, http://www.ekoventure.com/users/adventure-travelersunited_states-california-san_francisco-178/blog/articles/792-eco-what-
What Can Be Done to Achieve Economic Justice
Foreign firms that invest in the ecotourism sector in South Africa
should ensure that they establish ties with micro-enterprises in the
communities where they establish operations. Additionally, they should
ensure that their business practices are environmentally sustainable. Thus,
consumers should patronize those firms that follow such practices.
Similarly, shareholders should demand that transnational corporations
follow through on commitments to do so.
Source: Flemish International Cooperation Agency, http://www.fica.be
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