University of Manchester How Can We Deal with Global Warming Paper please correct all grammar and spelling mistakes.If I used some words inappropriate way,

University of Manchester How Can We Deal with Global Warming Paper please correct all grammar and spelling mistakes.If I used some words inappropriate way, please change it to better word but DO NOT use very academic words.You can rephrase some sentences if I type them incorrectly, but while you are rephrasing please be careful for changing the meaning.You can add some sentences or connected words to make the essay nicer.While you are editing or adding some sentences, please do not make the paper less than 8 pages.If you do not understand what I mean by some sentences, please let me know.Take all your time, please do your best for correcting my paper. Running Head: GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
How Can We Deal with Global Warming?
November 22, 2019
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GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
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How Can We Deal with Global Warming?
Introduction:
Perhaps you are one of those people who have heard about global warming and its
significant effects to Earth’s climate. According to the United Nations, climate change, which
encompasses global warming, is considered as one of the urgent global issues that we must deal
with and take some serious actions (UN, 2019). Global warming refers to the long-term rise in
Earth’s average temperatures because of increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere (USGS, 2019). Our planet’s average surface temperature has increased approximately
by 1°C (1.8°F) since 1880 (NASA GISS, 2019). It has been estimated by Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change (IPCC) that increasing in temperature would reach 1.5°C (2.7°F) between 2030
and 2052 if it is increasing at the current rate (IPCC, 2018).
The process of global warming begins when people are engaged in industrial and
agricultural activities (USGCRP, 2018). Some of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CH4, and N2O,
are released by these activities which leads to increasing their concentration in the atmosphere
(ibid). Therefore, the greenhouse effect gets stronger to absorb outgoing thermal-infrared energy
and reemit it back to the Earth’s surface (ibid). This results in an increase in average temperature
of our planet (ibid).
We can reduce global warming by taking some real steps. This would not happen if we do
not realize the effects of global warming and its causes. For people who do not believe the idea of
global warming, we should show them some pieces of evidence to make them believe that global
warming is real, and actions must be made. Hence, they will help to save and protect the Earth
from climate change.
GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
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Evidence of Global Warming:
Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gases (NASA Vital Signs, 2019).
The pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, by the ice core measurements, was
approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) (Kump et al., 2010). Today, however, the atmospheric
CO2 level has increased to 412 ppm at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (NASA Vital Signs,
2019). This means that human activities play an important role of increasing the atmospheric CO2
concentration by almost 47 percent over the past 200 years (Kump et al., 2010). According to the
atmospheric CO2 observations from Mauna Loa, the average rate of change is 1.6 ppm/yr since
1958 (Scripps CO2 Program, 2019). Over the past decade, the average rate of change is 2.4 ppm/yr,
so this rate is rising at an increasing rate with time (ibid).
The current ice sheets are found on Antarctica and Greenland (Kump et al., 2010). A recent
data from NASA’s GRACE satellites, which released in June 2017, show that Antarctica and
Greenland’s ice sheets are losing mass since 2002 (NASA Vital Signs, 2019). The average rate of
change in Antarctica is 127 gigatonnes per year whereas in Greenland the rate is 286 Gt/yr (ibid).
The difference in average rate is because of the different surface temperatures in both ice sheets
(Kump et al., 2010). Greenland’s surface temperature is higher than that in Antarctica because
Greenland extends to lower latitudes than does Antarctica (ibid). Thus, the amount of melted ice
sheet in Greenland is greater than that in Antarctica (ibid).
Sea level rise is a significant evidence of global warming (NASA Vital Signs, 2019). This
is because more ice sheets and glaciers will melt as the global average temperature increases, which
results in rising sea level (NOAA, 2019). Also, seawater expands as it warms (ibid). According to
satellite sea level record, which is the most accurate data, global mean sea level is between 91 and
GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
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99 mm above the 1993 average sea level (NASA Vital Signs, 2019). This means that sea level
continuous to rise at a rate of 2.9 to 3.7 mm per year (ibid).
Effects of Global Warming:
Some people think that the only effect of global warming is just increasing in mean global
temperature. Well, this is not the case because a change in temperature leads to other changes as
well (Kump et al., 2010). As just mentioned, sea level rising is one of the global warming impacts.
This change is highly dangerous for people in coastal areas and small island states (ibid). It is
expected by IPCC 2013 report that the total sea level in 2100 would be almost enough to submerge
some small island nations such as the Maldives (IPCC, 2013). Also, sea level rising is dangerous
for some of aquatic animals (NOAA Climate.gov, 2014). This is because as the mean global
temperature increases, seawater absorb more heat which would have negative effects on coldwater
fish, including salmon and trout (ibid). Meanwhile, it helps bass, one of the warmwater fish, to
expand their ranges (ibid).
Global warming is very likely to affect food production and agriculture in different ways
(EPA Impacts, 2017). Changes in global temperature and atmospheric CO2 could influence crop
yields (ibid). High CO2 levels with moderate warming can help to increase plant growth (ibid).
However, more severe warming may reduce yields (ibid). Other factors, such as floods and
droughts, can also distort yields (ibid). Although increasing CO2 levels can affect some plants to
grow faster, it also can reduce nutritive value of some food crops (NCA, 2014). This is because
rising CO2 levels leads to reducing the concentrations of protein and essential minerals in most
plant species, e.g., rice and wheat (ibid). Therefore, this would have a negative impact on human
health (ibid).
GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
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Climate change could also affect livestock, farm animals, both directly and indirectly (EPA
Impacts, 2017). They are affected by heat stress which leads them having some diseases and
producing less milk (NCA, 2014). Also, change in climate, as I just mentioned, reduce the quality
of plants (ibid). This means that livestock would eat less healthy food, so they will get fewer
nutritional benefits (EPA Impacts, 2017). As a result, farm animals would need to eat more in
order to get the usual benefits (ibid).
Some extreme weather events, such as storms and flooding, might be results of global
warming (EPA Impacts, 2017). These events could be harmful to human health in many ways
(NCA, 2016). First, they reduce the availability of potable water and healthy food (ibid). Also,
they damage bridges and roads which disrupt people from accessing to pharmacies and hospitals
(ibid). In addition to these consequences, incorrect use of portable generators during storms cause
carbon monoxide poisoning (ibid).
Vector-borne diseases are considered as one of the effects of global warming (EPA
Impacts, 2017). These diseases are transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods, which include ticks,
mosquitoes, and fleas (ibid). Extreme weather events and changes in temperature are two factors
of having Vector-borne diseases (NCA, 2016). As the temperature rises, ticks become more active,
so some of them could convey Lyme disease by biting us (ibid). Mosquitoes, which carry malaria
and West Nile virus diseases, could expand their range in warm regions (Kump et al., 2010).
Causes of Global Warming:
The main cause of global warming is human activities (NASA Causes, 2019). The IPCC
fifth assessment report suggested that human activities, with a probability greater than 95 percent,
are responsible for warming our planet over the past 50 years (IPCC, 2014). Human activities,
GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
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such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and land use changes, help to increase the amount of
greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution (USGS, 2019). Some of these gases are carbon
dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide (NASA Causes, 2019). CO2 is of most concern greenhouse
gas because its rate of increase is exerting a greater total warming effect than other greenhouse
gases combined (NOAA Climate.gov, 2014).
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted from burning coal and other fossil fuels as well as
deforestation (NOAA Climate.gov, 2014). Also, it is released through natural processes, including
volcano eruptions and respiration (NASA Causes, 2019). Nowadays, human activities produce
more than 30 billion tons of atmospheric CO2 every year (EPA Causes, 2017).
Methane (CH4) is released by both human activities and natural sources (NASA Causes,
2019). Some of them are decomposition of wastes in landfills, agricultural activities, and fossil
fuel extraction (ibid). Within the past 800,000 years, the current concentration of atmospheric CH4
is considered the highest (IPCC, 2013). However, the increasing rate of CH4 has slowed extremely
in the past few decades (ibid).
Nitrous oxide (N2O), as CO2 and CH4, is produced through human and natural activities
(EPA Causes, 2017). It could be released by fossil fuel combustion or soil cultivation process
(NASA Causes, 2019). Since the beginning of Industrial Revolution, the concentration of N2O has
increased about 20 percent, and it rose rapidly toward the end of the previous century (IPCC,
2013).
Water vapor (H2O) is the most abundant greenhouse gas (NASA Causes, 2019). However,
it is released entirely through natural process (Kump et al., 2010). The concentration of H2O is
GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
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controlled by the temperature, which means that it increases as the atmosphere of our planet warms
(NASA Causes, 2019).
Most people think that volcanoes and the Sun are one of the major causes of global
warming. In fact, volcanoes produce less than 2 percent of atmospheric CO2 that released from
human activities (NASA Causes, 2019). Moreover, there has been no significant change to the
sun’s energy since 1970 (NOAA Climate.gov, 2014). If the amount of solar radiation has increased
significantly, all layers of our planet’s atmosphere would warm (ibid). Instead, only the lower
atmosphere “troposphere” warms due to the large amount of greenhouse gases (ibid). To sum up,
we could say that the roles of the Sun and volcanoes in global warming are negligible (NASA
Causes, 2019).
Possible Solutions for Global Warming:
We could reduce global warming by making some changes in our daily activities that
release greenhouse gases. The possible two complementary responses to these gases are mitigation
and adaptation.
Mitigation means reducing and stabilizing the emissions of greenhouse gas in the
atmosphere (NASA Solutions, 2019). Either by reducing the sources of greenhouse gases, e.g.,
burning fossil fuels, transportation, and heat, or enhancing the sinks that help to store and remove
greenhouse gases from the atmosphere (ibid). Some examples are forests, oceans, and soil (ibid).
Basically, the aim is to stabilize the amount of greenhouse gases in sufficient time to allow
ecosystems to adjust naturally to climate change (IPCC, 2014).
On the other hand, adaptation is the adjustment with climate change, involves adapting to
actual or expected climatic stimuli (IPCC, 2007). Adaptation examples could be coastline
GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
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protection improvement, better management of disasters, and develop more resistant crops (NASA
Solutions, 2019). Therefore, the goal of adaptation is just to reduce the harmful impacts of climate
change (ibid).
One of the most considerable solutions for global warming is tree planting. This is because
trees absorb CO2 gases and maintain its balance in the atmosphere (USDA, 2019). A recent study,
by international research team, shows that planting more than 500 billion trees could absorb
approximately 205 gigatons of CO2 (NASA Climate Change, 2019). This would reduce the
concentration of atmospheric CO2 by nearly 25 percent (ibid).
Another significant solution is carbon tax. The purpose of carbon tax is to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions (CBO, 2013). This would happen by charging a fee on fossil fuels based
on the total emissions of CO2 when the fossil fuels are burned (ibid). Therefore, individuals attempt
to use less energy obtained from fossil fuels to save money. They will consider some alternative
sources of energy.
Alternative energies, such as wind and solar energy, are possible solutions for climate
change. This is because these energies do not produce CO2, so they could be eco-friendly energy
sources (Kump et al., 2010). The problem with wind energy is that wind does not blow all the time,
so it is not enough to depend only on wind power to generate electricity (ibid). The solar energy,
on the other hand, is already competitive and produce a significant amount of electricity in some
regions, including southern California (ibid). Nuclear energy is considered as one of the alternative
energies (ibid). However, it is not a good choice because of the problem of long-lived radioactive
wastes (ibid). It is hard to dispose these wastes, and they are dangerous to human health and the
environment (EPA Radioactive Waste, 2019).
GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
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Conclusion:
I think the best and easiest solution for global warming is tree planting, especially in arid
regions. This is because this solution could be done from everyone. No matter how old is that
person or how expert is she. The advantage of this solution is that does not require that much of
money, so developing countries could be involved in the process to reduce the effect of global
warming.
I believe that global warming is a real and urgent problem. If we do not take steps to reduce
the problem, it will lead to the loss of our entire planet. Although it is a long-term problem, we
need to take actions as soon as possible. We would not be alive if the pervious generations did not
care about the Earth’s climate. Therefore, we must think about our grandchildren when we are
dealing with global warming.
This problem is very sensitive, and people are not aware of that because most of them have
not read about the problem and its serious effects. Spread awareness through public places is the
first step to deal with global warming.
Finally, it is evident that global warming effects have been observed, and therefore,
governments and individuals must ensure steps are taken to prevent this phenomenon from
deteriorating future.
GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
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References
Report
IPCC, 2018: Summary for Policymakers. In: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the
impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. Retrieved November 21,2019, from
https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/chapter/spm/
IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the
Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved November
21,2019, from https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/syr/
IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the
Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved November
21,2019, from https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/
IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the
Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved November
21,2019, from https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar4/syr/
NCA, 2016: Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment.
U.S. Global Change Research Program. Retrieved November 21,2019, from
https://health2016.globalchange.gov/
NCA, 2014: Ch. 6: Agri-culture. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National
Climate Assessment, U.S. Global Change Research Program. Retrieved November 21,2019, from
https://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report
CBO, 2013: Effects of a Carbon Tax on the Economy and the Environment. Retrieved November
21,2019, from https://www.cbo.gov/publication/44223
Book
The Earth System, ed. 3, L. R. Kump, R. G. Crane, and J. F. Kasting (Pearson Publishing, 2010). P: 1-20,
295-339.
Website
United Nations Global Issues: Climate Change. (2019). Retrieved November 21,2019, from
https://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/climate-change/index.html
United States Geological Survey: Climate and Land Use Change. What is the difference between global
warming and climate change? (2019). Retrieved November 21,2019, from
https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/what-difference-between-global-warming-and-climate-change-1?qtnews_science_products=0#qt-news_science_products
GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM
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United States Geological Survey: Climate and Land Use Change. Why is climate change happening and
what are the causes? (2019). Retrieved November 21,2019, from https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/why-climatechange-happening-and-what-are-causes-1?qt-news_science_products=0#qt-news_science_products
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies: GISS Surface Temperature Analysis. (2019). Retrieved
November 21,2019, from https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs_v4/
NASA Global Climate Change Vital Signs of the Planet: Vital Signs. (2019). Retrieved November
21,2019, from https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/carbon-dioxide/
NASA Global Climate Change Vital Signs of the Planet: Causes. (2019). Retrieved November 21,2019,
from https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/
NASA Global Climate Change Vital Signs of the Planet: Solutions. (2019). Retrieved November 21,2019,
from https://climate.nasa.gov/solutions/adaptation-mitigation/
NASA Global Climate Change Vital Signs of the Planet: Examining the Viability of Planting Trees to
Help Mitigate Climate Change. (2019). Retrieved November 21,2019, from
https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2927/examining-the-viability-of-planting-trees-to-help-mitigate-climatechange/
NOAA National Ocean Service: Is sea level rising? (2019). Retrieved November 21,2019, from
https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/sealevel.html
NOAA Climate.gov: Global Warming Frequently Asked Questions (2014). Retrieved November 21,2019,
from https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/global-warming-frequently-askedquestions
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Climate Impacts on Agriculture and Food
Supply. (2017). Retrieved November 21,2019, from https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climateimpacts/climate-impacts-agriculture-and-food-supply_.html
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Causes of Climate Change. (2017). Retrieved
November 21,2019, from https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climate-change-science/causes-climatechange_.html
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Radioactive Waste. (2019). Retrieved November
21,2019, from https://www.epa.gov/radtown/radioactive-waste
Scripps CO2 Program: The Keeling Curve. (2019). Retrieved November 21,2019, from
https://scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/
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