SDSU Determining the Presence of Xylem in Plants Report correct the first draft according to the feed back and proposal below.
Working alone or with a partner you will do a simple biology experiment outside of class and write a scientific paper on your topic. The experiment is worth a total of 100 points as described in the deadline section, below.
Pay special attention to the deadlines – missing deadlines will hurt your grade even if the final report is excellent.
Assignments are due at the start of your class, although individual instructors may move a date by a week or two.
Each student must write his or her own draft and final report, even if you worked with a partner.
Copying even parts of the text (not the results) will yield a 0 score for all persons involved and probably a loss of participation points and campus discipline.
Write your own report and do not share it! Do not turn in 1 report with 2 names; you will both get 0 points.
If your words match those of any web site we find you will receive 0 points and campus discipline.
9/9 – 9/12
One-page proposal that includes: Hypothesis,
Identification of dependent and independent variables,
Materials list (indicate those that must be provided by your instructor)
Outline of the steps in the proposed method including controls, if applicable, and when, where, and how you plan to do the experiment
10/28 – 10/31
Two to three page first draft of your report (including results obtained from initial experiments), Intro, Materials and Methods, bibliography, etc.
Most instructors chose to require a complete draft of the final text.
Four to five pages following the format utilized in scientific journals, as further described below. Include in the report the headings as listed.
1.The research must be conducted independently and not from previous courses, including your own prior work.
2.Assignments must be double-spaced with 1-inch margins.
3.Font size must be 11-12 points in Times, New Century Schoolbook, Arial, or Palatino.
4.Points will be deducted for late work.
5.Report will be turned in to Turnitin. Any copying will result in a 0 score for that part, plus campus discipline, minimum.
For help with scientific writing check out this web site: http://writing2.richmond.edu/training/project/biology/biology.html http://www.columbia.edu/cu/biology/ug/research/paper.html The help from the Columbia University page includes some particularly helpful examples of correct and incorrect examples.
Approach your overall experiment ideas with these points in mind:
1.Based on your observations of the world around you, pose a question about something biological.
2.Develop a hypothesis about a part of your question that can be tested using the scientific method.
3.Design an experiment to test your hypothesis.
a)What equipment (plants, pots, watering can, etc.) and supplies (fertilizer, etc) will you need?
b)What specific information, (“data”, numbers, height in mm, or temp., in °C,) will you need to gather, and how will you gather it? (Will you stick the thermometer in the soil or hold it on the leaves?)
c)What will your controls be? (Plants NOT treated with your experimental process…etc.)
d)What one factor will be varied in your experimental group?
4.Some supplies may be available from the laboratory. If you can’t supply all the materials that you will need to conduct your study- ask for them. Ask early so there’s time to find alternatives!
5.Make sure your experiment can be conducted in the time frame allowed. (Especially critical for people who want to grow plants!!)
6.Use scientific format for writing your report.
7.With the exception of “Title”, Include the headings as part of your report.
Format for Final Report:
Title (don’t include the word “title”)
Introduction (include the word “Introduction” as well as all the remaining heading words, below)
Include your hypothesis and your reasoning behind it. Discuss the thought processes that led to your hypothesis. Why is this experiment of interest? What would you hope to learn by doing this? Are there widespread misconceptions that you will address? You will review the existing literature in this section.
You must use a minimum of three resources relating to your topic. At least one of these must be a printed source such as you would expect to find in a library and at least one must be an electronic reference from the Internet. In this section, summarize and discuss what you have read, and how this ties in to your topic. Back up any statements you make with correctly-cited references, listed later in your bibliography. You can use Wikipedia to get information to educate yourself but you may not rely on this and you should not quote it or copy from it. Any information you get from internet sources should be confirmed from a second, high-quality source.
Materials and Methods
Write this section in paragraph form and tell what you did for your experiment and what materials you used. Tell what your controls were and state what were your dependent and independent variables.
Results and Discussion
Here you present your results and say what they mean in terms of your hypothesis. Present your data in tables or graphs and discuss in paragraph form what the results indicated and if your hypothesis was supported. If your results turned out differently than you expected, what possible factors/causes might account for that, and what possible alternate hypotheses might be posed to explain these data?
List your references in one of the standard bibliographic formats, such as CBE style manual.
About your topics
While you can find ideas on line we’ve seen most “science fair” projects on the internet and don’t want to see them again. The point is for you to have an idea of your own. Yes. We know that’s hard. We sometimes let people do modified versions of projects they find on-line but using on-line ideas leads to-on line copying all too often. Find something that interests you and sit with a pencil, paper, and your imagination for 20 minutes. You’ll be surprised how much is in your own head. Cool stuff. Honestly.
For your initial idea, don’t bog down: “It’s interesting but I have no idea how to do an experiment on it.” Your instructor, or the course coordinator, can help you with this. Most of the time we have to tell folks to do less, not more, in their methods. We know you’re not going to cure cancer. The goal is for you to experience the process of questioning, constructing an hypothesis, designing an experiment (hopefully simple!) collecting data, analyzing it and then writing about the whole process, and hopefully practice writing well.
Limits! Your experiment must be safe. For research on “animals” use mealworms, crickets, or earthworms available from pet stores and bait shops. In general, you may not experiment on humans in any way. Some exceptions are allowed but you must have specific approval of your instructor and you will never be able to experiment with smoking, drinking, or drugs. You may not use alcoholic beverages in your study (for example, on plants, worms, or snails) unless you are 21 or over. You will not be given bacteria to take home. And…. No experimenting with chemicals on pet vertebrates! No giving your dog a medicine, for example. You should expect that you will have to provide all your own chemicals, and supplies. However, we have a few supplies we can lend- with sufficient advance notice. Make your supply requests to your instructor.If you don’t turn in a proposal and then do your report on an unacceptable topic, you will get a 0! If you copy for your idea and we don’t find this until you turn in a draft or a final report, you will also get a 0 on the proposal, and possibly also on the draft. Student Name:
Written in the correct format: (3 points)
GREAT job in terms of format! I love that you included a title
page. You have a beautifully set up draft!
Spelling, grammar, wording (4 points)
Introduction: (5 points)
– Adequate background
information on topic (2)
– Cited Research (1)
– Hypothesis (2)
Incredibly well written. GREAT job. I love that you included a
null hypothesis! Amazing. Above and beyond. The null
hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis should be different
from each other though. Usually the null hypothesis is what
you are hoping to disprove.
Materials and Methods: (5 points)
– Distinguish between
experimental treatment and
Control Treatment. (1)
– Allow for reader to replicate
experiment based on written
Great! You don’t have a control treatment here, which is
Results Section: (5 points)
– Report of initial results (5)
– Diagrams (if applicable)
It would be nice to have a photo included!
Discussion Section: (5 points)
– Interpretation of initial
– Cited research to back up
interpretation of results (1)
– why important? (2)
Great job! Hits all of the points required: ie. addresses the
importance of your results, interprets what your results mean,
and uses research to back your findings up.
Bibliography with properly cited (and
appropriate) sources (2 points)
Biology Experiment Report for Determining the Presence of Xylem in Plants using the
Brassica napus Plant
San Diego Sate University
The importance of Xylem in plants cannot be understated. Xylem is one of the two
types of transport tissues in vascular plants. The other one is the phloem. The main function
of Xylem is transporting water from the roots to stems, as well as the leaves of plants (Yadeta
& Thomma, 2013). Besides, it transports nutrients. Furthermore, Xylem provides physical
support to plants. It is important to note that the Xylem tissue comprises of several
specialized, water-conducting cells, normally referred to as tracheary elements (Yadeta &
Thomma, 2013). Both phloem and Xylem are found in all vascular plants, including ferns,
and angiosperms. Also, they are found in horsetails and gymnosperms.
between Xylem and phloem is that, while the movement in phloem is bidirectional, the
movement in Xylem is in one direction (Holbrook & Zwieniecki, 2011). The other difference
is that Xylem transports both minerals as well as water from roots to the upper parts of a
plant. On the contrary, Phloem is meant for transporting nutrients as well as food-like sugars
and amino acids from plant leaves to the growing parts of a plant. Even though it is almost
obvious that every part contains Xylem, as an aspiring scientist, it is always good to do the
necessary tests in order to ascertain the presence of Xylem in plants. This can only be
determined by investing the water transport in plants via the xylem network in vascular
plants. This paper is a report of research done to determine the Presence of Xylem in Plants
using the Brassica napus Plant
Problem Statement and Justification
Every aspiring scientist is motivated by the desire to prove even what most people in
the world may think is obvious. Proving a certain phenomenon, regardless of how trivial it
seems, normally leads to a greater level of satisfaction to scientists. Arguably, this is the same
motivation that has inspired me to do this research. Scientists have proven that there exists a
mechanism that transports water from one part of a plant to the other. After a series of
researches, scientists believe that there exists a transport system that transmits water from one
part of the plant to the other. They have come to terms this transport system as Xylem.
However, despite the existence of a plethora of literature regarding the working of Xylem,
many people are not convinced that Xylem exists in every plant, and it has the ability of
transporting water from one part of the plant to another. Most people are not convinced
because there is currently no existing comprehensive study to prove this phenomenon. After
considering these factors, it was found reasonable to conduct research seeking to prove the
existence of Xylem in plants, and consequently the presence of an effective transport system
in plants for the transport of water from one part of plant to another.
The null hypothesis, H0: When flooring Brassica napus (Rapeseed) plant is dipped inside
diluted black ink water for one hour, the veins of the Brassica napus floor will turn black.
H1: When flooring Brassica napus (Rapeseed) plant is dipped inside diluted black ink water
for one hour, the veins of the Brassica napus floor will turn black.
Materials and Methods
A number of materials were used for this study. The materials for this study included:
Brassica napus aged between 30 and 50 ( The plant is at the flowering stage during
A glass jar
It is worth noting that the choice of the plant was informed by the fact that Brassica
napus has white flowers, and it is a vascular plant. With white flowers, it would be easier to
observe changes in the coloring of the flower. Also, Brassica napus is a vascular plant. This is
a plant with lignified tissues for purposes of conducting minerals as well as minerals
throughout the plant. Considering this feature of the plant, it was easy for the plant to
transport water from one part of the plant to another. Consequently, the time required to
observe the changes was minimal than if a non-vascular plant.
Water was poured into the transparent glass up to its half-way
Add 15 milliliters of the black ink into the transparent glass jar
Add the Brassica napus plant into the jar and ensure that half of the plant’s step is
dipped inside the ink and the flower part is outside the jar
Observe and record the color of the flowers
Wait for 1 hour
Observe the colour
Before dipping the Brassica napus plant into the inked water, it was observed that the
color of its flowers was white. After 10 minutes, there were no changes to the Brassica
napus’s flowers. However, after one hour, it was observed that the petals of the Rapeseed
seed had started having petal ribs and veins of black color. After 30 minutes, the density of
the black color on the veins and ribs of the Brassica napus’s flowers had increased.
The main reason why plants are irrigated or are provided with water is so that they
can be kept alive. Even though the water is normally put on the roots of the plant, it finds its
way into the other parts of the plant. This implies that plants have a well-designed transport
mechanism to move water from one part to the other (Brodersen & McElrone, 2013). This
was evident when black coloration was observed on the flowers of the plant that was dipped
inside water. The present of the black coloration on the flowers signified that water had
moved from stem to the flower parts of the plant. Scientists have always argued that it is only
through xylem that water can move from the part of the plant to another. Therefore, the fact
that a black coloration was observed on the flowers of the Brassica napus plant implies that
water moved from the step to the flower of the plant and therefore it can be concluded that
the plant has xylem. This is so because, in the absence of xylem, the water could not have
been observed to move from one part of the plant to another.
As evident from this research, it is now clear that plants have a well-developed
transport system that transmits water from one part of the plant to the rest. Considering that
scholars have in the past argued that xylem is the only tissue used in the transportation of
water in a plant, the presence of black coloration on the flowers of the plant was a proof that
the Brassica napus plant has a perfectly functioning xylem. Thus, the research agrees with the
Brodersen, C., & McElrone, A. (2013). Maintenance of xylem network transport capacity: a
review of embolism repair in vascular plants. Frontiers in plant science, 4, 108.
Holbrook, N. M., & Zwieniecki, M. A. (Eds.). (2011). Vascular transport in plants. Elsevier,
Yadeta, K., & Thomma, B. (2013). The xylem as battleground for plant hosts and vascular
wilt pathogens. Frontiers in plant science, 4, 97.
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