Camden County College Collapse of Medieval Europe Paper The late thirteenth into early fourteenth century was just the opposite than the previous 100 years

Camden County College Collapse of Medieval Europe Paper The late thirteenth into early fourteenth century was just the opposite than the previous 100 years. Europe experienced great turmoil and decline during this time period. Look for the ways in which Europe began to head towards a Dark Age. What were the reasons for this decline? Assignment: Read the textbook chapter 14 pp. 410-418 as well as the document on the Hundred Years’ War and answer the following question in 2-3 developed paragraphs. Please submit the document as a MS Word .doc or PDF through the canvas portal. As we have seen in this unit, the later Middle Ages witnessed great decline across the West. In a thoughtful essay discuss the various avenues that led to the collapse of Medieval Europe. What do you see as the biggest factors that contributed to this decline? 400 m
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> Why have
the later
Middle Ages
been seen
as a time
of calamity
and crisis?
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Procession of Flagellants
In this manuscript illumination from 1349, shirtless flagellants, men and women
who whipped and scourged themselves as penance for their and society’s sins,
walk through the Flemish city of Tournai, which had just been struck by the
plague. Many people believed that the Black Death was God’s punishment for
humanity’s wickedness. (The Flagellants at Doornik in 1349, copy of a miniature from the
Chronicle of Aegidius Li Muisis/Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library)
Strait of
Gibroliar
Salé
Appearance of the
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BETWEEN 1300 AND 1450 Europeans experienced a series of shocks: climate
change, economic decline, plague, war, social upheaval, and increased crime and
violence. Death and preoccupation with death made the fourteenth century one
of the most wrenching periods of history in Europe.
The Great Famine and the Black Death
In the first half of the fourteenth century Europe experienced a series of climate
changes, especially the beginning of a period of colder and wetter weather that
historical geographers label the “little ice age.” Its effects were dramatic and
disastrous. Population had steadily increased in the twelfth and thirteenth centu-
ries, but with colder weather, poor harvests led to scarcity and starvation. The
costs of grain, livestock, and dairy products rose sharply. Almost all of northern
WISAIDIU
Europe suffered a terrible famine between 1315 and 1322, with dire social conse-
Bone
19 ani
Black Death
The plague that first struck
Europe in 1347, killing perhaps
one-third of the population.
quences: peasants were forced to sell or mortgage their lands for money to buy
food, and the number of homeless people greatly increased, as did petty crime.
An undernourished population was dealt a further blow in 1347 in the form of a
virulent new disease, later called the Black Death (Map 14.3). The symptoms
of
CHAPTER LOCATOR How did medieval
rulers restore order
and centralize political
power?
CHAPTER 14
EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGES
How did the Christian
Church enhance its
power and create new
institutions?
410
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Bergen
40 Womens
BO’N
North
Sea
Durham
Lancaster
Riga
Dublin
York
Leicester
Baltic
Bristol Norwich
50°E
London
50°N
Calais
olgar
DOOR
Liège
WNIC
LEAN
Königsberg
Hamburg
Lübeck Danzig
Bruges
Cologne
Warsaw
Erfurt
Wroclaw
Würzburg
Strasbourg
Nuremberg
Prague Kraków
Vienna
Paris
Sarai
Dnieper
Caspian
Seal
Bordeaux
Zurich
Lyons
Milan
Avignon
Genoa-Venice
Pisa Bologna
Marseilles
Montpellier
Kaffa
Ebro R.
Florence
Danube R.
Black Sea
Barcelona Corsica
Dubrovnik
40°N
Toledo
Rome
Naples
Trebisond
Valencia
Sardinia
Constantinople
Balearic Is.
Seville
Messina
Sicily
Athens
Tigris R.
Tunis
00
Aleppo
Malta
Mediterranean
Sea
Rhodes
Candid
Crete
Cyprus
Euphrates R.
Damascus
cance of the plague
1349
1350
After 1350 –
City or area partially
or totally spared
Major trade route
30°N
W
MAP 14.3
The Course of the Black Death in Fourteenth-Century Europe
The plague followed trade routes as it spread into and across Europe. A few cities that took strict
quarantine measures were spared.
this disease were first described in 1331 in southwestern China, then part of the
Mongol Empire (see page 256). From there it spread across Central Asia by way
of Mongol armies and merchant caravans, arriving in the ports of the Black Sea by
the 1340s. In October 1347 Genoese ships traveling from the Crimea in southern
Russia brought the plague to Messina, from which it spread across Sicily and into
Italy. From Italy it traveled in all directions.
Most historians and almost all microbiologists identify the disease that spread
in the fourteenth century as the bubonic plague, caused by the bacillus Yersinia
pestis. The disease normally afflicts rats. Fleas living on the infected rats drink
their blood and pass the bacteria that cause the plague on to the next rat they
bite. Usually the disease is limited to rats and other rodents, but at certain points
in history the fleas have jumped from their rodent hosts to humans and other
animals.
Most people believed that the Black Death was caused by poisons or by
“corrupted air” that carried the disease from place to place. They sought to keep
poisons from entering the body by smelling or ingesting strong-smelling herbs,
Learning Curve
Check what you know.
Why have the later
Middle Ages been seen
as a time of calamity
and crisis?
How did the lives of
common people, nobles,
and townspeople differ?
What were the primary
educational and cultural
developments in medieval
Europe?
What were the
causes, course, and
consequences of the
Crusades?
411
> Black Death Stages and Symptoms:
the armpit, the groin, or on the neck)
Initial Stage
Appearance of boil, or bubo (growth the size of a nut or an apple in
Appearance of black spots or blotches caused by bleeding under
Victim begins to cough violently and spit blood; death follows in two
Secondary Stage
the skin
Final Stage
or three days
charge led to the murder of thousands of Jews across Europe.
and they tried to remove the poisons through bloodletting. They also prayed and
goats, and they found them in the Jews, who they believed had poisoned the
did penance. Anxiety and fears about the plague caused people to look for scape-
wells of Christian communities and thereby infected the drinking water. This
Of a total English population of perhaps 4.2 million, probably 1.4 million died
of the Black Death in its several visits. In Italy densely populated cities endured
incredible losses. Florence lost between one-half and two-thirds of its population
when the plague visited in 1348. The disease recurred intermittently in the 1360s
and 1370s and reappeared many times, as late as the early 1700s in Europe.
In the short term the economic effects of the plague were severe because the
death of many peasants disrupted food production. But in the long term the dra-
matic decline in population eased pressure on the land, and wages and per capita
wealth rose for those who survived. The psychological consequences of the plague
were profound. Some people sought release in wild living, while others turned to
the severest forms of asceticism and frenzied religious fervor.
TH
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The Hundred Years’ War
While the plague ravaged populations in Asia, North Africa, and Europe, a long
international war in western Europe added further death and destruction. England
and France had engaged in sporadic military hostilities from the time of the Nor-
man Conquest in 1066 (see page 393), and in the middle of the fourteenth century
these became more intense. From 1337 to 1453 the two countries intermittently
fought the Hundred Years’ War.
The Hundred Years’ War had a number of causes. Both England and France
claimed the duchy of Aquitaine in southwestern France, and the English king
Edward III argued that, as the grandson of an earlier French king, he should have
rightfully inherited the French throne. Nobles in provinces on the borders of
France who were worried about the growing power of the French king supported
Edward, as did wealthy wool merchants and clothmakers in Flanders who
depended on English wool.
The war, fought almost entirely in France, consisted mainly of a series of
random sieges and raids. During the war’s early stages, England was success-
ful, primarily through the use of longbows fired by well-trained foot soldiers
against mounted knights and, after 1375, by early cannons. By 1419 the English
had advanced to the walls of Paris
. But the French cause was not lost. Though
England scored the initial victories, France won the war.
412
CHAPTER 14
EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGES
CHAPTER LOCATOR | How did medieval
rulers restore order
and centralize political
power?
How did the Christian
Church enhance its
power and create new
institutions?
Siege of the Castle of Mortagne near Bordeaux
This miniature of a battle in the Hundred Years’ War shows
the French besieging an English-held castle. Medieval
warfare usually consisted of small skirmishes and attacks
on castles. (from The Coronation of Richard II to 1387 by Jean
de Batard Wavrin/© British Library Board. All Rights Reserved./
The Bridgeman Art Library)
> PICTURING THE PAST
ANALYZING THE IMAGE: What types of weapons are the
attackers and defenders using? How have the attackers
on the left enhanced their position?
CONNECTIONS: This painting shows a battle that occurred
in 1377, but it was painted about a hundred years later
and shows the military technology available at the time it
was painted, not at the time of the actual siege. Which of
the weapons represent newer forms of military technol-
ogy? What impact would you expect them to have on
warfare?
The ultimate French success rests heavily on the actions of Joan, an obscure
French peasant girl whose vision and military leadership revived French fortunes
and led to victory. Born in 1412 to well-to-do peasants, Joan grew up in a pious
household. During adolescence she began to hear voices, which she later said
belonged to Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret. In 1428 these
voices told her that the dauphin of France – Charles VII, who was uncrowned
as king because of the English occupation– had to be crowned and the English
expelled from France. Joan went to the French court and secured the support of
the dauphin to travel, dressed as a knight, with the French army to the besieged
city of Orléans.
At Orléans, Joan inspired and led French attacks, and the English retreated.
As a result of her successes, Charles made Joan co-commander of the entire army,
Learning Curve
Check what you know.
Why have the later
Middle Ages been seen
as a time of calamity
and crisis?
What were the
What were the primary
educational and cultural
developments in medieval
Europe?
How did the lives of
common people, nobles,
and townspeople differ?
causes, course, and
consequences of the
413
Crusades?
Suit of Armor
This fifteenth-century suit of Italian armor protected its wearer, but its weight
armor at the beginning of the Hundred Years’ War, but by the end they wore
made movement difficult. Both English and French mounted knights wore full
only breastplates and helmets, which protected their vital organs but allowed
greater moblllty. This sult has been so well preserved that it was most likely
Italy, ca. 1400 and later. Steel, brass, textile. Bashford Dean Memorial Collection. Gift of Helen
never used in battle; it may have been made for ceremonial purposes. (Armor,
Fahnestock, in memory of her father, Harris C. Fahnestock, 1929 (29.154.3]/The Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York, NY, USA/Image copyright © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Image
in Rome
cardina
it had a
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and she led it to a string of military victories in the summer of
1429. Two months after the victory at Orléans, Charles VII was
crowned king at Reims.
Joan and the French army continued their fight against the
English. In 1430 England’s allies, the Burgundians, captured Joan
and sold her to the English, and the French did not intervene.
In 1431 she was condemned as a heretic and burned at the stake
in the marketplace at Rouen. The French army continued its vic-
tories without her, and demands for an end to the war increased
among the English, who were growing tired of the mounting loss of life
and the flow of money into a seemingly bottomless pit. Slowly the French
reconquered Normandy and finally ejected the English from Aquitaine. At
the war’s end in 1453, only the town of Calais remained in English hands.
The long war had a profound impact on the two countries. In England
and France the war promoted nationalism. It led to technological experi-
mentation, especially with gunpowder weaponry, whose firepower made
the protective walls of stone castles obsolete. The war also stimulated the
development of the English Parliament. Edward III’s constant need for
money to pay for the war compelled him to summon it many times,
and its representatives slowly built up their powers.
The
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Challenges to the Church
In times of crisis or disaster people of all faiths have sought the con-
solation of religion, but in the fourteenth century the official Chris-
tian Church offered little solace. While local clergy eased the suffer-
ing of many, a dispute over who was the legitimate pope weakened the church
as an institution. In 1309 pressure by the French monarchy led the pope to move
his permanent residence to Avignon in southern France. This marked the start
of seven successive papacies in Avignon. Not surprising, all these popes were
French-a matter of controversy among church followers outside France. Also,
the popes largely concentrated on bureaucratic and financial matters to the
exclusion of spiritual objectives.
In 1376 one of the French popes returned to Rome, and when he died there
several years later Roman citizens demanded an Italian pope who would remain
CHAPTER LOCATOR | How did medieval
rulers restore order
and centralize political
power?
CHAPTER 14
EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGES
414
How did the Christian
Church enhance its
power and create new
institutions?

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